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Consumer Behavior : Buying, Having, and Being

by
ISBN13:

9780131404069

ISBN10:
0131404067
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $160.00

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Summary

Communicating a fascination for the everyday activities of people, this leading book on consumer behavior examines how our world is influenced by the action of marketers, and considers how products, services, and consumption contribute to the broader social world we experience. Its incredibly interesting and dynamic content proves hip and engaging, while reflecting the latest research.KEY TOPICSA four-part organization looks at consumers as individuals, consumers as decision makers, consumers and subcultures, and consumers and culture.For brand managers, marketing research analysts, and account executives.

Author Biography

Michael R. Solomon is Human Sciences Professor of Consumer Behavior in the Department of Consumer Affairs, College of Human Sciences, at Auburn University.

Table of Contents

About the Author xi
Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xvii
SECTION 1 CONSUMERS IN THE MARKETPLACE 3(42)
Chapter 1: Consumers Rule
4(41)
Consumer Behavior: People in the Marketplace
6(3)
What is Consumer Behavior?
7(2)
Consumers' Impact on Marketing Strategy
9(4)
Segmenting Consumers
9(4)
Relationship Marketing: Building Bonds with Consumers
13(1)
Marketing's Impact on Consumers
13(8)
Blurred Boundaries: Marketing and Reality
20(1)
Marketing Ethics and Public Policy
21(9)
Business Ethics
21(1)
Needs and Wants: Do Marketers Manipulate Consumers?
22(3)
Public Policy and Consumerism
25(5)
The Dark Side of Consumer Behavior
30(4)
Consumer Terrorism
30(1)
Addictive Consumption
30(1)
Compulsive Consumption
31(1)
Consumed Consumers
31(1)
Illegal Activities
32(2)
Consumer Behavior as a Field of Study
34(3)
Interdisciplinary Influences on the Study of Consumer Behavior
34(1)
The Issue of Strategic Focus
35(1)
The Issue of Two Perspectives on Consumer Research
36(1)
Taking It from Here: The Plan of the Book
37(2)
Chapter Summary
39(1)
Key Terms
40(1)
Consumer Behavior Challenge
40(1)
Notes
41(4)
SECTION 2 CONSUMERS AS INDIVIDUALS 45(244)
Chapter 2: Perception
46(34)
Introduction
48(11)
Sensory Systems
49(1)
Vision
50(4)
Smell
54(2)
Sound
56(1)
Touch
57(1)
Taste
58(1)
Exposure
59(4)
Sensory Thresholds
59(2)
Subliminal Perception
61(2)
Attention
63(13)
Personal Selection Factors
65(1)
Stimulus Selection Factors
66(3)
Stimulus Organization
69(2)
The Eye of the Beholder: Interpretational Biases
71(1)
Semiotics: The Symbols Around Us
72(3)
Perceptual Positioning
75(1)
Chapter Summary
76(1)
Key Terms
77(1)
Consumer Behavior Challenge
77(1)
Notes
78(2)
Chapter 3: Learning and Memory
80(32)
The Learning Process
82(1)
Behavioral Learning Theories
83(10)
Classical Conditioning
84(3)
Marketing Applications of Behavioral Learning Principles
87(3)
Instrumental Conditioning
90(2)
Applications of Instrumental Conditioning Principles
92(1)
Cognitive Learning Theory
93(2)
Is Learning Conscious or Not?
93(1)
Observational Learning
93(1)
Applications of Cognitive Learning Principles
94(1)
The Role of Memory in Learning
95(12)
Encoding Information for Later Retrieval
95(2)
Memory Systems
97(1)
Storing Information in Memory
98(2)
Retrieving Information for Purchase Decisions
100(2)
Factors Influencing Forgetting
102(1)
Products as Memory Markers
102(1)
Measuring Memory for Marketing Stimuli
103(3)
Problems with Memory Measures
106(1)
Chapter Summary
107(1)
Key Terms
108(1)
Consumer Behavior Challenge
108(1)
Notes
108(4)
Chapter 4: Motivation and values
112(36)
Introduction
114(1)
The Motivation Process
114(2)
Motivational Strength
116(1)
Biological Versus Learned Needs
116(1)
Motivational Direction
116(8)
Needs Versus Wants
117(1)
Types of Needs
117(1)
Motivational Conflicts
118(2)
Classifying Consumer Needs
120(4)
Consumer Involvement
124(7)
Levels of Involvement: From Inertia to Passion
125(2)
The Many Faces of Involvement
127(1)
Measuring Involvement
128(3)
Values
131(13)
Core values
131(2)
Applications of values to Consumer Behavior
133(5)
Materialism: "He Who Dies with the Most Toys, Wins"
138(5)
Consumer Behavior in the Aftermath of 9/11
143(1)
Chapter Summary
144(1)
Key Terms
145(1)
Consumer Behavior Challenge
145(1)
Notes
145(3)
Chapter 5: The Self
148(38)
Perspectives on the Self
150(4)
Does the Self Exist?
150(1)
Self Concept
150(2)
Multiple Selves
152(1)
Self-Consciousness
153(1)
Consumption and Self-Concept
154(5)
Products That Shape the Self You Are What You Consume
154(2)
Self/Product Congruence
156(1)
The Extended Self
156(3)
Sex Roles
159(9)
Gender Differences in Socialization
159(2)
Gender Versus Sexual Identity
161(1)
Female Sex Roles
162(1)
Male Sex Roles
163(2)
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender (GLBT) Consumers
165(3)
Body Image
168(13)
Ideals of Beauty
168(4)
Working on the Body
172(5)
Body Decoration and Mutilation
177(4)
Chapter Summary
181(1)
Key Terms
182(1)
Consumer Behavior Challenge
182(1)
Notes
183(3)
Chapter 6: Personality and Lifestyles
186(36)
Personality
188(10)
Consumer Behavior on the Couch: Freudian Theory
188(2)
Motivational Research
190(2)
Neo-Freudian Theories
192(1)
Trait Theory
192(3)
Brand Personality
195(3)
Lifestyles and Psychographics
198(15)
Lifestyle: Who We Are, What We Do
198(6)
Psychographics
204(3)
Psychographic Segmentation Typologies
207(6)
Regional Consumption Differences: You Are What You Eat!
213(5)
Food Cultures
214(1)
Geodemography
214(4)
Chapter Summary
218(1)
Key Terms
219(1)
Consumer Behavior Challenge
219(1)
Notes
219(3)
Chapter 7: Attitudes
222(30)
The Power of Attitudes
224(7)
The Functions of Attitudes
224(3)
The ABC Model of Attitudes
227(3)
Product Attitudes Don't Tell the Whole Story
230(1)
Forming Attitudes
231(8)
Not All Attitudes Are Created Equal
231(1)
The Consistency Principle
232(7)
Attitude Models
239(3)
Multiattribute Attitude Models
239(3)
Using Attitudes to Predict Behavior
242(6)
The Extended Fishbein Model
242(3)
Trying to Consume
245(1)
Tracking Attitudes over Time
246(2)
Chapter Summary
248(1)
Key Terms
248(1)
Consumer Behavior Challenge
249(1)
Notes
249(3)
Chapter 8: Attitude Change and Interactive Communications
252(37)
Changing Attitudes Through Communication
254(4)
Decisions, Decisions: Tactical Communications Options
254(1)
The Elements of Communication
255(1)
An Updated View: Interactive Communications
256(2)
The Source
258(8)
Source Credibility
258(3)
Source Attractiveness
261(5)
The Message
266(15)
Sending the Message
267(2)
Constructing the Argument
269(2)
Types of Message Appeals
271(10)
The Source Versus the Message: Sell the Steak or the Sizzle?
281(2)
The Elaboration Likelihood Model
282(1)
Chapter Summary
283(1)
Key Terms
284(1)
Consumer Behavior Challenge
284(1)
Notes
285(4)
SECTION 3 CONSUMERS AS DECISION MAKERS 289(148)
Chapter 9: Individual Decision Making
290(36)
Consumers as Problem Solvers
292(4)
Perspectives on Decision Making
292(2)
Types of Consumer Decisions
294(2)
Problem Recognition
296(1)
Information Search
297(8)
Types of Information Search
297(2)
Do Consumers Always Search Rationally?
299(6)
Evaluation of Alternatives
305(3)
Identifying Alternatives
305(1)
Product Categorization
306(2)
Product Choice: Selecting Among Alternatives
308(13)
Evaluative Criteria
308(2)
Cybermediaries
310(1)
Heuristics: Mental Shortcuts
311(8)
Decision Rules
319(2)
Chapter Summary
321(1)
Key Terms
322(1)
Consumer Behavior Challenge
322(1)
Notes
323(3)
Chapter 10: Buying and Disposing
326(38)
Situational Effects on Consumer Behavior
328(2)
Social and Physical Surroundings
330(8)
Temporal Factors
332(5)
Antecedent States: If It Feels Good, Buy It
337(1)
Shopping: A job or an Adventure?
338(10)
Reasons for Shopping
338(1)
E-Commerce: Clicks Versus Bricks
339(2)
Retailing as Theater
341(4)
In-Store Decision Making
345(2)
The Salesperson
347(1)
Postpurchase Satisfaction
348(5)
Perceptions of Product Quality
348(5)
Product Disposal
353(5)
Disposal Options
353(2)
Lateral Cycling: Junk Versus "Junque"
355(3)
Chapter Summary
358(1)
Key Terms
358(1)
Consumer Behavior Challenge
359(1)
Notes
360(4)
Chapter 11: Group Influence and Opinion Leadership
364(36)
Reference Groups
366(8)
When Reference Groups Are Important
366(3)
Types of Reference Groups
369(5)
Consumers Do It in Groups
374(5)
Conformity
376(3)
Word-of-Mouth Communication
379(9)
Negative WOM and the Power of Rumors
381(2)
Cutting-Edge WOM Strategies
383(5)
Opinion Leadership
388(6)
The Nature of Opinion Leadership
388(1)
How Influential Is an Opinion Leader?
389(1)
Types of Opinion Leaders
390(2)
Identifying Opinion Leaders
392(2)
Chapter Summary
394(1)
Key Terms
395(1)
Consumer Behavior Challenge
396(1)
Notes
396(4)
Chapter 12: Organizational and Household Decision Making
400(37)
Organizational Decision Making
402(5)
Organizational Decision Making Versus Consumer Decision Making
403(1)
How Do Organizational Buyers Operate?
404(3)
B2BE-Commerce
407(1)
The Family
407(10)
Defining the Modern Family
407(7)
The Family Life Cycle
414(3)
The Intimate Corporation: Family Decision Making
417(7)
Household Decisions
418(1)
Sex Roles and Decision Making Responsibilities
418(6)
Children as Decision Makers: Consumers-in-Training
424(7)
Consumer Socialization
426(1)
Sex-Role Socialization
427(1)
Cognitive Development
428(1)
Marketing Research and Children
429(2)
Chapter Summary
431(1)
Key Terms
431(1)
Consumer Behavior Challenge
432(1)
Notes
432(5)
SECTION 4 CONSUMERS AND SUBCULTURES 437(86)
Chapter 13: Income and Social Class
438(32)
Consumer Spending and Economic Behavior
440(4)
Income Patterns
441(1)
To Spend or Not to Spend, That Is the Question
442(1)
Consumer Confidence
442(2)
Social Class
444(11)
A Universal Pecking Order
444(1)
Social Stratification
445(4)
Components of Social Class
449(2)
Measuring Social Class
451(4)
How Social Class Affects Purchase Decisions
455(6)
Class Differences in Worldview
455(1)
Taste Cultures, Codes, and Cultural Capital
456(5)
Status Symbols
461(5)
Conspicuous Consumption
462(4)
Chapter Summary
466(1)
Key Terms
467(1)
Consumer Behavior Challenge
467(1)
Notes
468(2)
Chapter 14: Ethnic, Racial, and Religious Subcultures
470(26)
Subcultures and Consumer Identity
472(2)
Ethnic and Racial Subcultures
474(5)
Ethnicity and Marketing Strategies
474(5)
Ethnic and Racial Stereotypes
479(1)
African Americans
479(1)
Hispanic Americans
480(5)
Rock en Espaņol: Distinguishing Characteristics of the Hispanic Market
482(1)
Levels of Acculturation: Understanding Hispanic Identity
483(2)
Asian Americans
485(2)
Religious Subcultures
487(5)
The Rise of Spirituality
487(1)
Old and New Religions
488(2)
The Impact of Religion on Consumption
490(2)
Chapter Summary
492(1)
Key Terms
493(1)
Consumer Behavior Challenge
493(1)
Notes
494(2)
Chapter 15: Age Subcultures
496(27)
Age and Consumer Identity
498(2)
The Teen Market: Gen Y Like Totally Rules
500(10)
Teen Values, Conflicts, and Desires
501(2)
Appealing to the Youth Market
503(4)
Researching the Youth Market
507(3)
Baby Boomers
510(2)
The Gray Market
512(6)
Gray Power: Seniors' Economic Clout
513(1)
Understanding Seniors
513(3)
Selling to Seniors
516(2)
Chapter Summary
518(1)
Key Terms
519(1)
Consumer Behavior Challenge
519(1)
Notes
520(3)
SECTION 5 CONSUMERS AND CULTURE 523(72)
Chapter 16: Cultural Influences on Consumer
524(28)
Understanding Culture
526(2)
Myths and Rituals
528(16)
Myths
530(6)
Rituals
536(8)
Sacred and Profane Consumption
544(5)
Domains of Sacred Consumption
544(3)
From Sacred to Profane, and Back Again
547(2)
Chapter Summary
549(1)
Key Terms
549(1)
Consumer Behavior Challenge
549(1)
Notes
550(2)
Chapter 17: The Creation and Diffusion of Global Consumer Culture
552(43)
The Creation of Culture
554(9)
Cultural Selection
556(2)
Culture Production Systems
558(1)
High Culture and Popular Culture
559(4)
Reality Engineering
563(4)
Product Placement
564(2)
Advergaming
566(1)
The Diffusion of Innovations
567(3)
Adopting Innovations
567(2)
Behavioral Demands of Innovations
569(1)
Prerequisites for Successful Adoption
570(1)
The Fashion System
570(10)
Cultural Categories
571(1)
Behavioral Science Perspectives on Fashion
572(4)
Cycles of Fashion Adoption
576(4)
Transferring Product Meanings to Other Cultures
580(5)
Think Globally, Act Locally
581(3)
Cultural Differences Relevant to Marketers
584(1)
Does Global Marketing Work?
585(1)
The Diffusion of Consumer Culture
585(5)
I'd Like to Buy the World a Coke ...
586(1)
Emerging Consumer Cultures in Transitional Economies
587(3)
Chapter Summary
590(1)
Key Terms
591(1)
Consumer Behavior Challenge
591(1)
Notes
592(3)
Glossary 595(8)
Credits 603(2)
Index 605

Excerpts

I love to people-watch, don't you? People shopping, people flirting, people consuming... Consumer behavior is the study of people and the products that help to shape their identities. Because I'm a consumer myself, I have a selfish interest in learning more about how this process works--and so do you. In many courses, students are merely passive observers, learning about topics that affect them indirectly if at all. Not everyone is a plasma physicist, a medieval French scholar, or a marketing professional. But we are all consumers. Many of the topics in this book have both professional and personal relevance to the reader, whether he or she is a student, professor, or businessperson. Nearly everyone can relate to the trials and tribulations associated with last-minute shopping, primping for a big night out, agonizing over an expensive purchase decision, fantasizing about a week in the Caribbean, celebrating a holiday, or commemorating a landmark event, such as a graduation, getting a driver's license, or (dreaming about) winning the lottery. In this edition I have tried to introduce you to the latest and best thinking by some very bright scientists who develop models and studies of consumer behavior. But, that's not enough. Consumer behavior is an applied science, so we must never lose sight of the role of "horse sense" when we try to apply our findings to life in the real world. That's why you'll find a lot of practical examples to back up these fancy theories. WHAT MAKES THIS BOOK DIFFERENT: BUYING, HAVING, AND BEING As this book's subtitle suggests, my vision of consumer behavior goes well beyond studying the act of buying--having and being are just as important, if not more so. Consumer behavior is more than buying things; it also embraces the study of how having (or not having)'things affects our lives and how our possessions influence the way we feel about ourselves and about each other--our state of being. I developed the Wheel of Consumer Behavior that appears at the beginning of text sections to underscore the complex--and often inseparable--interrelationships between the individual consumer and his or her social realities. In addition to understanding why people buy things, we also try to appreciate how products, services, and consumption activities contribute to the broader social world we experience. Whether shopping, cooking, cleaning, playing basketball, hanging out at the beach, or even looking at ourselves in the mirror, our lives are touched by the marketing system. As if these experiences were not complex enough, the task of understanding the consumer multiplies geometrically when we take a multicultural perspective. All of these ideas are supported by intriguing and current examples, showing consumer behavior as it relates to current events. Throughout the sixth edition you'll discover up-to-the-minute topics including bio-terrorism, Internet piracy, consumer behavior post 9/11, identity theft, hype versus buzz, purchase momentum, new religions (Raelians), advergaming, flow states, food cultures, blogging, Web avatars, silent commerce, brandfests, tribal marketing, even Botox parties. GOING GLOBAL The American experience is important, but it's far from the whole story. This book also considers the many other consumers around the world whose diverse experiences with buying, having, and being are equally vital to understand. That's why you'll find numerous examples of marketing and consumer practices relating to consumers and companies outside the United States throughout the book. You'll find a list of those examples on the end pages of this book. If we didn't know it before the tragic events of September 11, 2001, we certainly know it now: Americans also are global citizens, and it's vital that we all appreciate the perspectives of others--and how others around the world regard us. That's why I'm excited ab


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