CART

(0) items

Contemporary Society : An Introduction to Social Science,9780321044624
This item qualifies for
FREE SHIPPING!
FREE SHIPPING OVER $59!

Your order must be $59 or more, you must select US Postal Service Shipping as your shipping preference, and the "Group my items into as few shipments as possible" option when you place your order.

Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace Items, eBooks, Apparel, and DVDs not included.

Contemporary Society : An Introduction to Social Science

by ; ;
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780321044624

ISBN10:
0321044622
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
11/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div

Related Products


  • Contemporary Society : An Introduction to Social Science
    Contemporary Society : An Introduction to Social Science
  • Contemporary Society : An Introduction to Social Science
    Contemporary Society : An Introduction to Social Science
  • Contemporary Society : An Introduction to Social Science
    Contemporary Society : An Introduction to Social Science
  • Contemporary Society An Introduction to Social Science
    Contemporary Society An Introduction to Social Science
  • Contemporary Society An Introduction to Social Science Plus MySearchLab with eText -- Access Card Package
    Contemporary Society An Introduction to Social Science Plus MySearchLab with eText -- Access Card Package





Summary

This best-selling text combines up-to-date information, historical background, social science concepts, research, and down-to-earth explanations in an accessible, journalistic style. Contemporary Society offers an overview of the social sciences by presenting a perspective on how the social science disciplines perceive the world around us. The text has been completely updated to reflect the shifts in contemporary society while retaining the centralized theme of change. The authors reinforce the idea that the transition from an industrial to a postindustrial order is fraught with difficulties, as was the transition from an agricultural to an industrial order. The increasing fragmentation of the social order, which leads people away from community and a common purpose to conflict and disunity, is also shown in this framework.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Through the Lens of Science
1(20)
The Social Sciences
2(1)
The Social World Seen through the Lens of Science
3(3)
Concepts
4(1)
Theories
4(1)
Research
5(1)
The Scientific Method
6(3)
Steps of the Scientific Method
6(2)
The Scientific Spirit: Skepticism, Objectivity, Relativity
8(1)
The Social Science Disciplines
9(4)
Anthropology
9(1)
Economics
10(1)
Geography
11(1)
History
12(1)
Political Science
12(1)
Psychology
12(1)
Sociology
12(1)
Research Methods in the Social Sciences
13(6)
Consilience
15(1)
Sample Survey
16(1)
The Sample Survey
16(1)
Case Study
17(1)
Participant Observation
17(1)
The Experiment
17(1)
Statistical Analysis
18(1)
The Chapter in Brief
19(1)
Terms to Remember
19(1)
Suggested Readings
20(1)
In the Beginning ...
21(22)
The Cosmos as Seen by an Astrophysicist
23(1)
The Beginnings of Life
24(1)
Creating Life
24(1)
The Emergence of the Theory of Evolution
25(3)
A Revolution in Thought: Darwin and His Theory
27(1)
Natural Selection
27(1)
The Role of Heredity
28(1)
Genetics
28(4)
Population Genetics: Factors for Change
28(3)
Human Evolution Designed by Humans
31(1)
The Long Trek: Human Evolution
32(4)
Split between Chimpanzee and Human Lines
33(2)
The Road to Homo Sapiens
35(1)
Homo Sapiens: Modern Humans
36(1)
Agriculture: Cultivation and Domestication
37(2)
The Evolution of Human Nature
39(1)
Biological Foundations
39(1)
The Chapter in Brief
40(1)
Terms to Remember
41(1)
Suggested Readings
42(1)
Culture: Product and Guide to Life in Society
43(25)
Culture: Concept and Importance
45(4)
Biological Predispositions to Culture
46(1)
The Birth of Culture
47(1)
Cultural Evolution and Sociobiology
48(1)
What, Then, Is Culture?
49(1)
The Symbolic Nature of Culture
49(1)
The Necessity of Sharing Symbols
50(1)
Language: The Most Important System of Symbols
50(3)
Does Language Create Reality?
52(1)
The Content of Culture
53(1)
Material Culture
53(1)
Nonmaterial Culture
54(1)
The Components of Nonmaterial Culture: Cognitive and Normative
54(7)
The Normative System
54(2)
The Meaning of the Fourth of July
56(1)
Categories of Norms: Folkways, Mores, Taboos, and Laws
57(1)
When in Rome...
58(1)
The Need for Social Control
59(1)
Overt and Covert, Real and Ideal Norms
60(1)
Traits, Complexes, and Institutions
60(1)
Pivotal Institutions
61(1)
Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativity
61(1)
Cultural Differences and Universals
62(3)
African Genital Rite
62(2)
Subcultures and Countercultures
64(1)
The Chapter in Brief
65(1)
Terms to Remember
66(1)
Suggested Readings
67(1)
Group Interaction: From Two to Millions
68(23)
How Is the Social System Organized and Structured?
69(4)
Elements of Social Structure: Statuses and Roles
70(1)
Statuses: Ascribed and Achieved
71(2)
The Multiplicity of Statuses and Roles
73(3)
Real and Ideal Roles
74(1)
Conflict, Strain, and Confusion in Roles
74(2)
Groups
76(1)
Group Size
77(1)
Primary and Secondary Groups
77(2)
Additional Classification of Groups
79(1)
Society
79(4)
Classification of Societies
80(1)
Classification According to Chief Mode of Subsistence
80(1)
A Glimpse into the Human Past
80(1)
Industrial Societies
81(1)
Classification According to Social Organization
82(1)
Interaction and Social Processes
83(1)
Formal Organizations
84(2)
Formal Organizations and Institutions Distinguished
84(1)
Characteristics of Formal Organizations
85(1)
Types of Formal Organizations
85(1)
Bureaucracy
86(2)
Informal Side of Bureaucracy
87(1)
The Chapter in Brief
88(1)
Terms to Remember
89(1)
Suggested Readings
90(1)
Becoming a Person: The Birth of Personality
91(23)
The Isolated and/or Feral Child
92(1)
Personality
93(3)
Personality: A Social Product on a Biological Basis
93(1)
Heredity and Environment
94(2)
Becoming Human: Socialization
96(1)
Goals and Functions of Socialization
96(1)
Theories of Socialization
97(2)
The Looking-Glass Self: Cooley
98(1)
Self in Society: Mead
98(1)
You Are Who They Say You Are
99(1)
The Self and the Unconscious: Freud
99(1)
The Transitional Self: Erikson
100(1)
Developmental Theories: Piaget
101(1)
Moral Development: Kohlberg
102(1)
Agents of Socialization
102(6)
The Family
103(1)
The Maternal Bond: Its Impact on Personality
104(1)
The School
104(1)
The Peer Group
105(1)
The Media
106(1)
Occupational Groups
107(1)
Reverse Socialization
107(1)
Resocialization
107(1)
Socialization through the Life Cycle
108(3)
Childhood
108(1)
Adolescence
108(1)
Adulthood
109(1)
Old Age
110(1)
Some Conclusions
111(1)
The Chapter in Brief
111(1)
Terms to Remember
112(1)
Suggested Readings
113(1)
Deviance and Criminality: The Need for Social Control
114(26)
Deviance
116(1)
The Relative Nature of Deviance
117(1)
Functions of Deviance
118(1)
Explaining Deviance
118(3)
Biological Explanations
118(2)
Why Humans Kill
120(1)
Psychological Explanations
121(1)
Mental Disorders
121(2)
Treatment of Mental Disorders
123(1)
Deviance as Seen from a Sociological Perspective
123(5)
Social Integration and Anomie
124(1)
Natural Born Killers?
125(1)
Cultural Transmission (Differential Association)
126(1)
Labeling Theory
127(1)
Crime: Deviance That Hurts
128(3)
Classification of Crimes
129(1)
Social-Order Crimes or Crimes against Morality
130(1)
White-Collar Crime
131(1)
Organized Crime
131(1)
Crime Statistics: How Much Crime, and Who Commits It?
131(3)
The Criminal Justice System
134(3)
Imprisonment
135(1)
Recidivism
136(1)
What Price Punishment?
136(1)
The Chapter in Brief
137(1)
Terms to Remember
138(1)
Suggested Readings
138(2)
The Great Divide: Ranking and Stratification
140(27)
Social Differentiation, Ranking, and Stratification
141(1)
Stratification
142(1)
Theoretical Views on Stratification
143(2)
Structural-Functionalist Perspective
144(1)
Conflict Perspective
144(1)
Dimensions of Stratification: Class, Status, and Power
145(3)
Class
145(1)
Status
146(1)
Power
147(1)
Class, Status, and Power in America
148(1)
Systems of Stratification
148(3)
The Closed Society: Caste
149(1)
The Estate System
150(1)
The Open Society: Class System
150(1)
Determining Social Class
151(1)
Socioeconomic Status
151(1)
Social Classes in the United States
151(8)
The Upper Classes
152(1)
The Middle Class
152(1)
The ``New Class''
153(1)
The Working Class
153(1)
The Poor
154(2)
The Homeless
156(2)
The Ghetto Poor
158(1)
Welfare: Are We Our Brothers' Keepers?
159(1)
Social Class and Its Consequences
159(3)
Family Life
160(1)
Child Rearing
160(1)
Education
160(1)
Religion
160(1)
Politics
160(1)
Health
161(1)
Arrest and Conviction
161(1)
Values
161(1)
Social Mobility
162(3)
The Upwardly Mobile: Who Are They?
162(1)
Social Mobility in the United States
162(2)
Global Inequality
164(1)
The Chapter in Brief
165(1)
Terms to Remember
165(1)
Suggested Readings
166(1)
Minority Status: Race and Ethnicity
167(24)
Majority--Minorities Relations: Defining the Terms
168(1)
Common Characteristics of Minorities
169(1)
The Making of Pluralist Society
170(1)
Ideologies Regarding the Treatment of Minorities
170(1)
Majority and Minorities: Processes of Coexistence
171(1)
In the Way: Obstacles to Pluralism
172(6)
Prejudice
173(1)
Hate: Prejudice and Discrimination among Castes in India
174(1)
Why Are We Prejudiced?
174(1)
Discrimination
175(1)
Racism
176(1)
An Ongoing Controversy: Affirmative Action
177(1)
Racial Minorities
178(7)
Native Americans
178(2)
Asian Americans
180(1)
African Americans
181(3)
Hispanic Americans
184(1)
Ethnic and Religious Minorities
185(2)
White Ethnics: Catholics
186(1)
Jewish Americans
187(1)
The New Face of America
187(1)
The Chapter in Brief
188(1)
Terms to Remember
189(1)
Suggested Readings
190(1)
Minority Status: Age, Gender, and Sexuality
191(25)
The Aging Society
192(5)
Theoretical Framework
193(1)
Ageism
194(1)
The Elderly around the World
195(2)
Women: Differentiation According to Gender
197(4)
Biological Facts
197(2)
Cultural Differences
199(2)
Sex and Gender Differentiated
201(1)
The Cultural Construction of Gender
201(9)
``The Opposite Sex Is Neither''
202(1)
Traditional Gender Roles
202(1)
Gender Scripts
203(1)
Male Dominance
204(1)
Theories of Gender Role Development
205(1)
Theories of Socialization
206(2)
Agents of Gender Socialization
208(2)
Sexuality
210(3)
Homosexual Behavior
210(1)
Explanatory Theories of Homosexuality
211(1)
Acquiring a Homosexual Identity
212(1)
Bisexuality
213(1)
The Chapter in Brief
213(1)
Terms to Remember
214(1)
Suggested Readings
215(1)
From the Plow to the Computer: Change, Collective Behavior, and Social Movements
216(28)
Society and Change
218(2)
America: Yesterday and Today
219(1)
Levels of Change
219(1)
Processes of Social and Cultural Change
220(4)
Social Change: Planning, Reform, Revolution
220(1)
Cultural Change: Innovation and Diffusion
220(2)
The Sources of Change
222(1)
The Physical Environment
222(2)
Technology
224(1)
Results of the First Technological Revolution
224(1)
The Industrial Revolution
224(2)
Inventions and Discoveries of the Industrial Revolution
224(1)
Industrialism
225(1)
Technology and Social Change
226(1)
Modernization
226(3)
Learning to Be Modern
227(1)
The Theory of Mass Society
228(1)
Collective Behavior
229(7)
Crowds
230(1)
Masses
231(1)
Mobs and Riots
231(1)
Rumors
232(1)
Fashions, Fads, and Crazes
232(1)
Panics and Mass Hysteria
233(1)
Publics and Public Opinion
233(1)
Public Opinion
234(1)
Public Opinion and the Mass Media
234(1)
Propaganda and Censorship
235(1)
Social Movements
236(1)
Types of Social Movements
236(1)
Reformist Movements
237(1)
Revolutionary Movements
237(3)
Factors Encouraging Revolutionary Movements
238(2)
The Chapter in Brief
240(2)
Terms to Remember
242(1)
Suggested Readings
243(1)
Population, Urbanization, and Environment
244(32)
Demographic Processes: Dynamics of Population Change
246(6)
Birthrates
246(1)
Death Rates
247(1)
Migration
248(2)
Immigration
250(1)
Internal Migration
250(2)
Characteristics and Composition of a Population
252(3)
Sex Ratio
252(1)
Age Structure
253(1)
Tomorrow's America
254(1)
Population around the World
255(1)
Malthus and Marx
255(1)
Demographic Transition
255(2)
Population Policies
257(3)
The Urban Society
260(1)
Urbanization
260(1)
The Industrial Revolution and the Growth of Cities
260(3)
Urbanism
261(1)
Urban Theories
262(1)
American Cities
263(2)
Suburbia
263(1)
The Impact of the Consumer Culture on the Growth of Suburbia
264(1)
Suburbia and Social Class
264(1)
Metropolitanization and Megalopolis
265(1)
Megalopolis
266(1)
The Urban Crisis
266(1)
Slums and Ghettos
267(1)
Population Drain
267(1)
Attempts to Reclaim the City
267(2)
Urban Renewal
268(1)
The Future of Cities
268(1)
The Natural Environment
269(4)
The World We Live In
269(1)
The Ecosystem
269(1)
Ecology
270(1)
Disruption of Ecosystems
271(1)
Environmental Pollution
271(2)
The Chapter in Brief
273(1)
Terms to Remember
274(1)
Suggested Readings
275(1)
Pivotal Institutions: Marriage and the Family
276(25)
The Basic Institution: The Family
277(2)
Family Forms
277(1)
Kinship Systems
278(1)
Family Functions
278(1)
Marriage
279(7)
Limitations on Marriage
280(1)
Love and Marriage in America
280(2)
The Stages of Marriage
282(1)
Arranged Marriages
282(2)
The Scientific Study of Marriage?
284(1)
The Role of Power in Marriage
285(1)
Changing Marital Patterns
285(1)
Divorce
286(5)
Remarriage
286(2)
Divorce as the New Norm
288(1)
Consequences of Divorce: Wounds That Do Not Heal
289(2)
The New American Family
291(4)
Forms of the New American Family
291(4)
Some Unintended Effects of the Changing American Family
295(4)
Child Care
295(1)
Family Violence
296(2)
Teenage Pregnancy
298(1)
The Chapter in Brief
299(1)
Terms to Remember
300(1)
Suggested Readings
300(1)
Pivotal Institutions: Religion and Education
301(33)
The Great Religions of the World
302(1)
Religion in the Social Sciences
303(3)
Religion as Social Integration
304(1)
A Functionalist View of Religion
304(1)
A Conflict View of Religion
305(1)
Religion and Social Control
306(4)
The Institutional Context
307(1)
Common Features of Religions
307(3)
Religion in America
310(4)
Religiosity in America
310(1)
Religious Affiliation and Social Class
311(1)
Religion, Race, and Ethnicity
312(1)
The Sanctification of the American Way of Life
313(1)
Contemporary Trends
314(3)
Fundamentalism
314(1)
Science and Religion
315(1)
The Electronic Church
316(1)
The Role of Women in Religion
316(1)
Education
317(14)
Education in America
317(2)
The Functionalist View of Education
319(2)
The Conflict View of Education
321(1)
Characteristics of American Education
322(1)
Education, Class, and Race
322(2)
Closing the Performance Gap
324(1)
Attempts at Making Education Work
325(1)
The Role of the Family
326(2)
The Crisis in American Education
328(1)
Higher Education
329(1)
Some Contemporary Issues in Higher Education
330(1)
The Chapter in Brief
331(1)
Terms to Remember
332(1)
Suggested Readings
333(1)
Government: The Institution and the Theories and Ideologies That Underlie it
334(23)
The Institution of Government
335(1)
Government and Politics
335(2)
The Purpose of Government
336(1)
The Functions of Government
336(1)
Political Power: Legitimacy and Authority
337(3)
Legitimacy
338(1)
Authority
338(1)
Types of Legitimate Authority
338(2)
The State
340(2)
Theoretical Views of the State
342(1)
The Nation-State
342(2)
Nationalism
343(1)
The Ideologies behind the Nation-State
344(2)
The Role of Ideology
345(1)
Political Ideology
346(1)
Autocratic Ideologies
346(4)
Authoritarianism and Totalitarianism
347(1)
Totalitarianism
347(1)
Totalitarianism of the Right: Fascism and Nazism
347(1)
Totalitarianism of the Left: Communism
348(1)
Historical Prediction: The Dialectic
349(1)
Communism and the USSR
350(1)
Democratic Ideologies: Democracy
350(3)
Communism in China
351(1)
Democratic Capitalism
352(1)
Socialism
353(1)
Democratic Socialism
353(1)
The Chapter in Brief
354(1)
Terms to Remember
355(1)
Suggested Readings
356(1)
The Government of the United States of America
357(23)
The Constitutional Convention
359(1)
The Constitutional Convention
359(1)
What Is a Constitution?
360(1)
The Constitution of the United States
361(4)
Federalism
361(1)
Constitutional Limits and Obligations
362(1)
How Federalism Has Worked
363(1)
Trend toward Centralization
364(1)
The Impact of the Federal Government
364(1)
Separation of Powers
365(2)
How Checks and Balances Work
366(1)
Criticism of the Separation of Powers
367(1)
The Presidency: The Executive Branch
367(3)
The Nature of the Presidency
368(1)
The Roles of the President
368(2)
Congress: The Legislative Branch
370(4)
The Issue of Representation
371(1)
Congressional Committees
371(1)
The Subordinate Role of Congress
372(2)
The Supreme Court: The Judicial Branch
374(3)
The Court System
375(1)
Functions of the Judicial System
375(2)
The Importance of Limited Government
377(1)
The Chapter in Brief
378(1)
Terms to Remember
379(1)
Suggested Readings
379(1)
We, the People: Democracy in Action
380(25)
American Democracy
381(1)
How Is America Governed?
382(3)
Elitism
383(1)
Pluralism
384(1)
Conflict and Consensus
384(1)
A Realistic Democracy
385(1)
Interest Groups
385(5)
Functions of Interest Groups
386(1)
Formation and Growth of Interest Groups
387(1)
Lobbyists
388(1)
Political Action Committees
388(1)
Shortcomings of Interest Groups
388(1)
The Business of Persuasion
389(1)
Political Parties
390(5)
Purpose of Political Parties
391(1)
Functions of Political Parties
391(1)
Features of the American Party System
392(1)
The Party System in Decline
393(1)
Dealignment or Realignment?
394(1)
The High Cost of Campaigning
395(2)
Voting
397(2)
Political Opinion Making
399(3)
Public and Political Opinion
400(1)
The Mass Media
400(1)
A Question of Values
401(1)
Sound Bites
402(1)
The Chapter in Brief
402(1)
Terms to Remember
403(1)
Suggested Readings
403(2)
The Economy: Concepts and History
405(27)
The Economic Institution
406(5)
Economic Decision Making
407(1)
Basic Elements of the Economy
408(1)
Factors of Production
408(1)
Economic Choices and Opportunity Costs
409(1)
Limits to Output: The Production Possibilities Frontier
409(1)
Specialization of Labor
409(1)
Trade, Barter, and Money
410(1)
Contemporary Economic Systems: How Choices Are Made
411(1)
Western Economies in Historical Perspective
411(2)
The Birth of Capitalism
412(1)
Aspects of Industrial Capitalism
413(5)
The Corporate Form of Industrial Organization
414(2)
From Competition to Advertising
416(1)
Diversification and Multinationalism
416(2)
The Nature of Work in the Industrial Society
418(1)
Shifting Sectors
418(1)
Professionalization
418(1)
The Corporate Bureaucracy
419(3)
The Executive
419(2)
Middle Management: White-Collar Workers
421(1)
Industrial Workers
421(1)
The Factory System
422(1)
The American Labor Movement
422(5)
Methods of Production: Craft, Mass, and Lean
423(1)
Collective Bargaining
424(1)
The Labor Movement Today
424(2)
Decline of Unionism
426(1)
American Labor versus the Global Economy
427(1)
The Importance of Productivity
428(1)
A Changing Workforce in a Changing Economy
428(1)
The Chapter in Brief
429(1)
Terms to Remember
430(1)
Suggested Readings
430(2)
Principles of Economic Behavior: Microeconomics and Macroeconomics
432(28)
The Small Picture and the Large Picture
433(1)
Market Mechanisms
433(4)
Who Makes Decisions?
433(1)
Who Participates in the Economy?
434(1)
Markets
434(1)
The Circular Flow
435(2)
Market Forces
437(3)
Demand, Supply, and Price
437(1)
Equilibrium
438(1)
The Principle of Laissez-Faire and Public Needs
439(1)
A Macroview
440(7)
The Public Interest: Socioeconomic Goals
440(1)
Full Employment
441(1)
Desirable Mix of Output
442(1)
High and Equitably Distributed Incomes
443(1)
Reasonable Price Stability
444(1)
Adequate Growth
445(2)
Instruments of Public Policy
447(1)
Fiscal Policy
447(2)
The Function of Price and Employment Stabilizers
447(1)
The Federal Budget
448(1)
Fiscal Decision Making
448(1)
Monetary Policy
449(2)
Banks
449(1)
Interest Rates
449(1)
Regulating Banks
449(1)
The Federal Reserve, or the Fed
450(1)
Incomes Policy
451(4)
Economic Problems and Government Response
452(1)
Business Cycles
452(1)
Demand-Side Theories
453(1)
Theory and Reality
454(1)
Evaluating the Economy: Instruments and Criteria
455(1)
Fitting into the Global Economy
455(1)
The Chapter in Brief
456(2)
Terms to Remember
458(1)
Suggested Readings
459(1)
Nation among Nations: Perspectives on International Relations
460(32)
Regions of the World
462(10)
Europe
462(1)
The Former Soviet Union
463(1)
The Middle East
464(1)
Asia
465(3)
Pacific Rim
468(1)
Sub-Saharan Africa
468(2)
Latin America
470(1)
Anglo America
471(1)
Other Ways of Classifying States
471(1)
Rich Nations, Poor Nations
471(1)
Interaction among Nations
472(1)
Theoretical Perspectives
472(1)
Realism
472(1)
Contemporary Perspectives
473(1)
Pluralism
473(1)
Globalism
473(1)
Neorealism
474(1)
Participants in the International System
474(2)
Actors in International Relations
474(1)
The State and the Nation
474(1)
Nonstate Actors
475(1)
The Goals of States
476(2)
The Competition of Objectives
477(1)
Means of Achieving Goals: Foreign Policy
478(2)
Types of Foreign-Policy Decisions
479(1)
Goals of American Foreign Policy
480(1)
The Role of Ideology
480(1)
Instruments of Foreign Policy
481(4)
The United Nations
481(1)
Foreign Aid
482(1)
Collective Security
483(1)
The Military
483(1)
Propaganda
484(1)
Diplomacy and Diplomats
485(1)
Treaties and Alliances
485(1)
Morality in Foreign Policy
486(1)
Power
486(1)
The Balance-of-Power System
487(2)
The Multipolar System
488(1)
The World Wars
488(1)
The Bipolar System
488(1)
A New Multipolar World
489(1)
The Chapter in Brief
489(1)
Terms to Remember
490(1)
Suggested Readings
491(1)
The Constitution of the United States 492(12)
References 504(12)
Photo Credits 516(1)
Index 517


Please wait while the item is added to your cart...