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Contemporary Urban Planning,9780130985989
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Contemporary Urban Planning

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780130985989

ISBN10:
0130985988
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $80.00
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Summary

Based on the author's extensive experience as a working planner, this book gives readers an insider's view of sub-state urban planning--the "nitty-gritty" details on the interplay of politics, law, money, and interest groups. The author takes a balanced, non-judgmental approach to introduce a range of ideological and political perspectives on the operation of political, economic, and demographic forces in city planning. Unlike other books on the subject, this one is strong in its coverage of economics, law, finance, and urban governance. It examines the underlying forces of growth and change and discusses frankly who benefits and loses by particular decisions. A four-part organization covers the background and development of contemporary planning; the structure and practice of contemporary planning; fields of planning; and national planning in the United States and other nations, and planning theory. For individuals headed for a career in planning.

Table of Contents

Preface ix
Illustration Credits
xi
Acknowledgments xi
PART I THE BACKGROUND AND DEVELOPMENT OF CONTEMPORARY PLANNING
An Overview
1(6)
The Need for Planning
1(2)
The Specific Concerns of Planning
3(1)
Who Are the Planners?
4(1)
Satisfactions and Discontents
5(1)
The Plan of This Book
5(2)
The Urbanization of America
7(17)
Urbanization in the Nineteenth Century
7(7)
Urban Trends in the Twentieth Century
14(8)
Summary
22(1)
Notes
23(1)
Selected Bibliography
23(1)
The History of Planning: Part I
24(25)
Colonial America
24(2)
Limited Means and Growing Problems
26(1)
The Pressure for Reform
27(8)
The Birth of Modern City Planning
35(2)
The Public Control of Private Property
37(4)
The Emergence of Regional and State Planning
41(3)
Grander Visions
44(3)
Summary
47(1)
Notes
48(1)
Selected Bibliography
48(1)
The History of Planning: Part II
49(13)
Planning and the Great Depression
49(3)
The Postwar Period
52(7)
Summary
59(1)
Notes
60(1)
Selected Bibliography
61(1)
PART II THE STRUCTURE AND PRACTICE OF CONTEMPORARY PLANNING
The Legal Basis of Planning
62(16)
The Constitutional Framework
62(2)
Public Control over Private Property
64(8)
State-Enabling Legislation
72(2)
The Federal Role
74(2)
Summary
76(1)
Notes
76(1)
Selected Bibliography
77(1)
Planning and Politics
78(12)
Why Is Planning Political?
78(1)
Planners and Power
79(2)
The Fragmentation of Power
81(1)
Styles of Planning
82(3)
How Planning Agencies Are Organized
85(3)
Summary
88(1)
Notes
88(1)
Selected Bibliography
89(1)
The Social Issues
90(13)
The Social Issues in Planning for Housing
91(9)
Who Does Social Planning?
100(1)
Summary
101(1)
Notes
101(1)
Selected Bibliography
102(1)
The Comprehensive Plan
103(11)
The Goals of Comprehensive Planning
103(2)
The Comprehensive Planning Process
105(7)
Summary
112(1)
Notes
112(1)
Selected Bibliography
113(1)
The Tools of Land-Use Planning
114(29)
Public Capital Investment
114(3)
Land-Use Controls
117(20)
Combining Capital Investment and Land-Use Controls
137(1)
Forces Beyond Local Control
138(2)
Summary
140(1)
Notes
141(1)
Selected Bibliography
142(1)
PART III FIELDS OF PLANNING
Urban Design
143(29)
What Is Urban Design?
145(5)
The Urban Design Process
150(3)
What Is Good Urban Design?
153(6)
Replanning Suburbia: The Neotraditionalists
159(3)
Edge City
162(4)
Visions of the City of the Future
166(3)
Summary
169(1)
Notes
170(1)
Selected Bibliography
170(2)
Urban Renewal and Community Development
172(20)
Urban Renewal
173(8)
Community Development
181(3)
The Housing Question
184(1)
Planning for Housing
185(4)
Summary
189(1)
Notes
190(1)
Selected Bibliography
191(1)
Transportation Planning
192(20)
Recent Trends in Urban Transportation
192(2)
Paying for Transportation
194(2)
Transportation Planning and Use
196(1)
The Transportation Planning Process
197(8)
Changes in the Federal Role
205(2)
Fine-Tuning the System
207(1)
Smart Highways, Intelligent Vehicles, and New Machines
208(1)
Summary
209(1)
Notes
210(1)
Selected Bibliography
211(1)
Economic Development Planning
212(14)
Historic Roots
213(1)
Perspectives on Local Economic Development
214(3)
State Economic Development Efforts
217(2)
Local Economic Development Efforts
219(4)
A Look Ahead
223(1)
Summary
224(1)
Notes
225(1)
Selected Bibliography
225(1)
Growth Management Planning
226(19)
The Origins of Growth Management
227(1)
The Mechanics of Growth Management
228(4)
Winners and Losers in Growth Management
232(2)
A Sampling of Growth Management Programs
234(3)
State-Level Growth Management
237(4)
Growth Management-Pro or Con?
241(1)
Summary
242(1)
Notes
242(1)
Selected Bibliography
243(2)
Environmental and Energy Planning
245(25)
The Environmental Planning Problem
246(1)
Environmental Progress at the National Level
246(3)
The Question of Global Climate Change
249(3)
The Intergovernment Context of Environmental Planning
252(4)
Economic and Political Issues in Environmental Planning
256(4)
Local Environmental Planning
260(2)
An Example of Environmental Planning
262(3)
Energy Planning
265(2)
Summary
267(1)
Notes
268(1)
Selected Bibliography
269(1)
Planning for Metropolitan Regions
270(18)
The Political Problem
270(2)
A Brief History of Metropolitan Area Planning
272(3)
Minneapolis-St. Paul: A Tale of Two Cities
275(3)
The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
278(5)
The Atlanta Regional Commission
283(2)
Summary
285(1)
Notes
286(1)
Selected Bibliography
287(1)
PART IV LARGER QUESTIONS
National Planning in the United States
288(21)
Is There National Planning in the United States?
288(1)
The Pattern of Land Settlement
289(1)
Establishing the Rail Network
290(2)
Water and the West
292(5)
Systematic Regional Planning
297(2)
The Interstate Highway System
299(3)
Financing the Suburbs
302(3)
Land Management
305(1)
Summary
306(1)
Notes
306(2)
Selected Bibliography
308(1)
Planning in Other Nations
309(35)
Planning in Western Europe
309(24)
Planning in Eastern Europe
333(3)
Planning in the Third World
336(5)
Summary
341(1)
Notes
342(1)
Selected Bibliography
343(1)
Planning Theory
344(19)
Is Theory Necessary?
344(1)
A Distinction Between Public and Private Planning
345(1)
The Process of Planning
346(7)
Advocacy Planning
353(1)
Planning from Right and Left
354(6)
Summary
360(1)
Notes
361(1)
Selected Bibliography
362(1)
Index 363

Excerpts

The termplanningis a very general one. There are city and town planners and also corporate planners. The Pentagon employs numerous military planners. The launching of a space shuttle is the culmination of a tremendously complex and sophisticated planning process. Wealthy individuals who prefer to leave as much as possible of their wealth to their heirs and as little as possible to the Internal Revenue Service employ the services of estate .planners. And so on. Planning in its generic meaning, then, is a ubiquitous activity. Cutting across all types of planning is a certain common denominator. All have in common a conscious effort to define systematically and think through a problem to improve the quality of decision making. The planning discussed in this book represents a very small part of the total planning activity in the United States. Specifically, this book focuses on public planning at the substate level, that which is done by and for cities, counties, towns, and other units of local governments. We will also examine, much more briefly, planning for metropolitan regions, the states, and the question of national planning. This edition also contains a chapter which surveys planning in a number of other nations. The reader who has at least sampled other books on planning will notice that this book has some particular emphases, specifically on politics, economics, ideology, law, and the question of who benefits and who loses by particular decisions. These emphases stem from my experience as a working planner. I entered planning in 1969 with a background in economics and journalism but with no specific training in planning. In my ignorance of the field, I assumed that if engineers planned bridges and architects planned buildings, then city and town planners planned cities and towns in an essentially similar way. In effect, I thought of planning as engineering or architecture writ large. It did not take me long to learn that planning is a highly political activity. Not only is it immersed in politics, but also it is inseparable from the law. The ultimate arbiter of many a planning dispute is the court. Anal for every case that comes to court, some dozens of planning decisions have been conditioned by what the participants in the process think would be the decision if the matter were to come to court. Planning decisions often involve large sums of money. In some cases large sums of public money are involved in the form of capital investments. But even when little in the way of public expenditure is involved, planning decisions can deliver large benefits to some and large losses to others. Thus to understand planning, one must understand something of the economic and financial issues at stake. The study of planning quickly takes one into ideology. Planning issues and controversy inevitably raise questions about the proper role of government and the line between public needs and private rights. What properly is to be a matter of political decision, and what properly should be left to the market? Planning can raise issues that are not easily resolved. Planners are a fairly idealistic lot and often enter the field to serve the public interest. After immersion in a few public controversies, the beginning planner may wonder if there is such a thing as the public interest. For if there is, there ought to be some general agreement among the public on what it is. But one can spend a long time in some areas of planning without seeing a single instance of this agreement. In this book I have tried to convey something of the reality of planning practice and something of what goes on under the surface of events. I hope that the reader will not find this reality disillusioning, for planning in an open and democratic society cannot be smooth and simple. Planning as it is-involved in political controversy, hedged about by the trends of judicial decisions, inextricably tied to economic ques


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