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Content Area Reading and Writing : Fostering Literacies in Middle and High School Cultures,9780130184559
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Content Area Reading and Writing : Fostering Literacies in Middle and High School Cultures

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780130184559

ISBN10:
0130184551
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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  • Content Area Reading and Writing : Fostering Literacies in Middle and High School Cultures
    Content Area Reading and Writing : Fostering Literacies in Middle and High School Cultures





Summary

This theory-based, strategy-driven approach to teaching content area and secondary reading keeps an eye on the cultural issues affecting secondary students while emphasizing reflective practice to promote the most effective teaching. Chapters on assessment, motivation, struggling readers, aligning standards with strategies and assessment, and a constant focus on diversity set this text apart. Frequent opportunities for readers to apply the concepts they are learning help to make this a truly informative text. SPECIAL FEATURES INCLUDE: bull; bull;Step-by-Step features, which precisely explain a strategy's implementation. bull;Plenty of simple and effective strategies for assessing and addressing students' reading capabilities. bull;A strong focus on standards that shows beginning teachers how to integrate literacy goals with content standards. bull;An abundance of student work samples to fully illustrate chapter concepts, strategies, and effective teaching. bull;A Companion Wesite, available at www.prenhall.com/unrau, containing self-assessments, web links, and classroom video footage to round out content comprehension.

Table of Contents

Preface iii
Engaging Cultures and Literacies for Learning
2(34)
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
3(1)
Beginning Teachers Remember Their High School Cultures and Literacies
3(3)
How Do Cultures Shape Minds?
6(2)
What Is Culture?
6(1)
How Cultures Shape Minds
6(2)
School Cultures Shaping Students' Minds
8(2)
School Cultures
8(1)
Beginning Teachers Discover School Cultures
9(1)
Links Between Cultures and Literacies
10(5)
What Is Literacy?
11(4)
Is There an Adolescent Literacy Crisis?
15(3)
Some Groups Struggle with School Literacy
16(2)
Is There a Crisis of Engagement with Learning at the Core of Middle and High School Cultures?
18(3)
Disconnections Between Students, Their Teachers, and the Curriculum
18(1)
Can We Generalize?
19(2)
What Is to Be Done?
21(11)
Cultures and Literacies as Resources for Engagement
21(1)
Addressing Teachers' Nightmares
22(2)
Lessons from ``Beating the Odds'' Classrooms
24(3)
Meeting the Challenges of Literacy and Learning
27(3)
Cycles of Inquiry
30(2)
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
32(4)
Readers Reading: Inside the Meaning Construction Zone
36(44)
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
37(1)
Students Construct and Negotiate Meanings
37(2)
Characteristics of Good Readers
39(1)
Myths of the Good Reader
40(3)
First Good Reader Myth: They can read at 1,000 words a minute and more with improved comprehension
40(1)
Second Good Reader Myth: They don't subvocalize
41(1)
Third Good Reader Myth: They read only the key words
42(1)
Fourth Good Reader Myth: They recognize words as wholes
42(1)
Fifth Good Reader Myth: They read groups of words as a unit of thought
42(1)
Sixth Good Reader Myth: They never look back
42(1)
What Are the Benefits of a Reading Process Model?
43(1)
A Peek Into the Construction Zone
44(29)
An Overview of the Reading Model
44(1)
The Sensory System
45(1)
Cognitive Processes
45(15)
Metacognitive Processes
60(3)
Text and Classroom Context
63(10)
Implications of the Model for Teaching
73(1)
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
74(6)
Assessing Readers and Their Texts
80(52)
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
81(1)
Diagnostic Teaching
81(1)
Content Teacher's Diagnostic Decision Making About Reading
82(9)
Step 1. Student's Identity, History, Goals, Values, and Interests
83(2)
Step 2. Expected Level of Reading
85(1)
Step 3. Assess Student's Reading Capacity
85(3)
Step 4. Class Literacy Profile
88(1)
Step 5. Teaching Strategies and Resources
88(1)
Step 6. Diagnostic Teaching
89(1)
Step 7. Instructional Monitoring, Modification, and Recommendations
90(1)
Assessment Instruments for Diagnostic Teaching
91(1)
Formal Assessment
92(4)
Norm-Referenced Tests
93(1)
Criterion-Referenced Tests
94(1)
Assessing the Assessment Instruments
95(1)
What Reading Processes Can't Be Adequately Assessed
96(1)
Informal Assessment
96(22)
Group Reading Inventory (GRI)
97(1)
Step-by-Step: Group Reading Inventory
97(2)
Miscue Analysis
99(1)
Running Records
100(1)
Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM)
101(1)
Step-by-Step: Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM)
102(1)
Informal Assessments for a Closer Look at Comprehension Processes
103(1)
Retellings
103(1)
Step-by-Step: Retelling
103(2)
Comprehension Think-Alouds
105(2)
Step-by-Step: Doing a Comprehension Think-Aloud
107(1)
Interviews and Interactions
108(1)
Portfolio Assessment in Content Area Classrooms
109(6)
Reading Strategies Inventories
115(3)
Categories of Adolescent Readers
118(2)
Who Can Be Helped and How?
118(2)
Assessing Texts: Readability and Accessibility
120(5)
Readability Formulas
120(1)
Step-by-Step: Calculating Readability with Fry's Formula
121(2)
Step-by-Step: How to Administer a Cloze Readability Test
123(1)
Friendly Text Evaluation Scale
124(1)
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
125(7)
Vocabulary and Concept Development in the Content Areas
132(38)
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
133(1)
Words in a Model Context
133(1)
Decoding
133(1)
The Lexicon in Long-Term Memory
134(1)
The Complexities of Simply Knowing a Word
134(5)
Word Counts
135(1)
High- and Low-Frequency Words
136(2)
Flashbacks: The Return of the Vocabulary Card
138(1)
What Do We Know About Teaching Vocabulary?
139(3)
Traditional Methods
139(1)
Principles to Guide Vocabulary Learning
140(1)
Creating Word-Rich Environments for Harvesting Word Knowledge
141(1)
Fostering Word Consciousness
141(1)
Gaining Word Knowledge Through Strategy Instruction: Planning for Secondary School Word Learning
142(12)
Addressing Vocabulary
143(1)
Word-Knowledge Check
144(1)
Keyword Method
144(1)
Word Maps
145(2)
Word Parts
147(3)
Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS)
150(1)
Step-by-Step: Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS)
150(1)
Activities to Master VSS and Other Important Words
151(1)
Step-by-Step: Semantic Maps
151(1)
Step-by-Step: Synonym Webs
152(1)
Step-by-Step: Semantic Feature Analysis
153(1)
Growing Word Knowledge: Just Reading
154(9)
Word Play: Language Games in Contexts
157(1)
Looking Closely at Students Constructing Word Meanings
157(1)
Using Context Efficiently
158(2)
Applying Theory to Practice to Teach Learning from Context
160(1)
Handing Context Tools to Students
161(1)
Practicing Cloze Passages from Content Area Texts
161(2)
A Summary of Research Informing Instruction in Vocabulary Development
163(1)
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
164(6)
Strategies to Enhance Comprehension
170(31)
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
171(1)
Comprehension-Enhancing Strategies to Activate and Integrate Knowledge
171(15)
Double-Entry Journal (DEJ)
172(1)
Step-by-Step: How to Design and Implement DEJs
173(1)
Anticipation Guide
173(1)
Step-by-Step: How to Prepare and Present Anticipation Guides
174(1)
Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA)
175(1)
Step-by-Step: How to Do a DR-TA
175(1)
Know-Want to Know-Learned (K-W-L) Strategy
176(2)
Step-by-Step: How to Do a K-W-L
178(1)
The Prereading Plan (PreP)
179(1)
Step-by-Step: How to Do a Prep
180(1)
Directed Inquiry Activity (DIA)
181(1)
Step-by-Step: How to Do a Dia
181(1)
SQ3R
182(1)
Plan
183(1)
Making Reading Meaningful
184(1)
Step-by-Step: How to Help Students Make Reading Meaningful
185(1)
Text Structure
186(6)
Types of Text Structures
186(1)
Effects of Text Structure Knowledge
187(1)
Five Basic Text Structures
187(3)
Levels of Text Structure
190(1)
What's the Structure?
190(1)
Step-by-Step: What's the Structure?
190(2)
Strategies to Organize Knowledge (Knowledge Organizers)
192(8)
Outlines
192(1)
Note Taking (From Lectures and Readings)
192(2)
Graphic Organizers
194(4)
Concept Mapping
198(2)
Step-by-Step: How to Design a Concept Map
200(1)
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
200(1)
Collaborating for Literacy and Learning: Group Strategies
201(47)
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
205(2)
Whole Groups
207(9)
Whole-Class Reading Methods
207(1)
Alternatives to Round Robin Reading
208(1)
Step-by-Step: Think-Alouds in Class
209(1)
Step-by-Step: How to Induce Imagery
210(1)
Step-by-Step: How to Conduct a ``Read to Discover'' Session
211(1)
Whole-Class Discussions
212(3)
Mini-lessons
215(1)
Cooperative Learning
216(9)
Principles of Cooperative Learning
217(1)
Informal Group Methods to Support Learning and Literacy
218(1)
Cooperative Learning Activities with Integrated Literacy Goals
219(1)
Step-by-Step: How to Do a Group Investigation
220(3)
Step-by-Step: How to Do a Group Reading Activity (GRA)
223(1)
Step-by-Step: How to Do a Jigsaw II Activity
224(1)
Reciprocal Teaching
225(8)
A Brief History of Reciprocal Teaching
225(1)
Original Reciprocal Teaching Model
226(1)
Step-by-Step: How to do Basic: One-on-One Reciprocal Teaching
227(1)
Variations of Reciprocal Teaching
228(2)
Features Contributing to Reciprocal Teaching's Success
230(3)
Tutoring: Working in Pairs
233(10)
Peer Tutoring
233(2)
Step-by-Step: How to Do Paired Reading
235(2)
Cross-Age Tutoring
237(1)
Adult-Student Tutoring
238(5)
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
243(5)
Critical Reading
248(26)
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
249(1)
The Need for More Critical Reading
249(3)
What Is Critical Reading?
250(2)
Activities to Foster Critical Reading
252(14)
Inquiry Questions (IQs)
252(1)
Step-by-Step: Inquiry Questions (IQs)
253(2)
Questioning the Author (QtA)
255(4)
Step-by-Step: Questioning the Author (QtA)
259(1)
Editor Interviews
259(1)
Step-by-Step: Editor Interviews
260(1)
ReQuest
261(1)
Step-by-Step: ReQuest
262(1)
Socratic Seminars
262(1)
Step-by-Step: Socratic Seminars
263(1)
TASKing in Pairs
264(1)
Step-by-Step: TASKing in Pairs
265(1)
Understanding Critical Literacy
266(5)
Step-by-Step: Critical Literacy in the Classroom
268(1)
Ophelia Re-Visioned through Critical Literacy
269(2)
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
271(3)
Writing to Assess, Promote, and Observe Learning
274(36)
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
275(1)
Writing in the Content Areas
275(8)
How Process Upstaged Product
275(3)
The Promise of Writing to Learn
278(2)
Writing Furthers Constructivism
280(2)
The National Writing Project (NWP)
282(1)
Categories of Writing
283(16)
Writing to Assess Learning
284(1)
Writing to Promote Learning
285(8)
Writing to Observe Student Work
293(1)
Step-by-Step: A Protocol for Looking at Student Work
294(2)
Step-by-Step: Learning from a Student Work Assignment
296(3)
The Teachers' Dilemma: What Kind of Writing Should I Assign?
299(3)
Responding to Writing
302(3)
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
305(5)
Struggling Readers and English Learners: Addressing Their Cognitive and Cultural Needs
310(36)
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
311(1)
Addressing the Frustrations of Struggling Readers
311(3)
How Serious Are Reading Problems in Our Middle and High Schools?
311(2)
Choices of Strategies and Programs to Help Struggling Readers
313(1)
The Problem of Research Supporting Reading Intervention Programs
313(1)
Intervention Programs for Struggling Readers
314(13)
Features and Functions of Reading Intervention Programs
314(1)
Corrective Reading
315(2)
Language!
317(2)
Read 180
319(3)
Reading Apprenticeship (RA)
322(2)
Success For All (SFA)
324(2)
The ``Just Read More'' Program
326(1)
English Learners
327(13)
Federal Law and English Learners
328(1)
A Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations
328(1)
Toward a Theory of How a Second Language Is Learned
329(2)
How Long Does It Take for an English Learner to Become Proficient?
331(1)
Programs for English Language Learners
332(2)
California's English Learners' Programs: An Example of the Teacher's Challenge
334(1)
Principles Guiding English Learners' Instruction
334(2)
Sheltered English Instruction and Structured English Immersion
336(1)
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)
337(1)
How Can We Know Which Programs Serve English Learners Best?
338(2)
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
340(6)
Focusing on Motivation to Read Content Area Texts
346(34)
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
347(1)
Ms. Hawthorne's Frustration
347(1)
Factors Affecting Motivation to Read
348(22)
The Focus of Motivation
350(1)
Student Factors Contributing to Student's Motivation to Read
350(10)
Teacher Factors Contributing to Student's Motivation to Read
360(10)
Guidelines for Promoting Reading Engagement
370(2)
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
372(1)
Activity Box: Ms. Hawthorne's Dilemma
372(8)
Designing Literacy into Academically Diverse Content Area Classes: Aligning Standards with Strategies and Assessments
380(36)
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
381(1)
Standards-Based Instructional Planning
381(9)
What Is Standards-Based Instruction?
381(2)
The Roots of Standards-Based Curriculum
383(5)
How Do Individual Teachers Respond to Standards?
388(1)
How Can Teachers Teach to the Standards?
389(1)
How Sally Peterson Managed Standards, Diversity, Strategic Instruction in Literacy, and Assessment
390(22)
Creating a Responsive Standards-Based Instructional Program
391(1)
Step-by-Step: Designing Standards-Based Units
391(12)
Step-by-Step: Creating Criteria with Students
403(4)
Sally Peterson's Lesson Sequence and Procedure
407(5)
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
412(4)
Teacher to Teacher: Fostering Literacy and Reflective Practice
416(31)
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
417(1)
Teacher Roles in School Literacy Development
417(3)
A New Teacher Copes with Classroom Literacy Challenges
417(2)
A Seasoned Teacher Confronts Reading and Changes School Culture
419(1)
Reflection on Practice
420(11)
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards
420(2)
Mentors
422(1)
Teachers' Logs: A Technique for Self-Tuning
423(1)
Collaborating in Critical Friends Groups to Build Learning Communities
424(2)
Step-by-Step: Learning from Student Work
426(2)
Step-by-Step: Best Content Literacy Practices
428(1)
Teacher Research
429(2)
Toward Collaborative Cultures Serving Literacy and Learning
431(3)
Teacher Development and Engagement in ``Beating the Odds'' Schools
432(2)
Teaming for Literacy and Learning Across the Content Areas
434(7)
The Team Model
434(2)
Turning to Teams in the Middle School
436(2)
Teams in the High School
438(1)
Disciplinary and/or Integrated Instruction
438(2)
Teamwork to Address and Improve Literacy
440(1)
Resources for Collaboration and Professional Growth
441(2)
Technology and (New) Literacies
441(1)
Professional Associations to Extend Collaborative Growth
442(1)
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
443(4)
Name Index 447(5)
Subject Index 452

Excerpts

HOW CAN TODAY'S CONTENT AREA TEACHERS FACILITATE THEIR STUDENTS' LEARNING, LITERACY DEVELOPMENT, AND ENGAGEMENT IN LEARNINGAt the beginning of the school year, Ms. Wakefield asked her tenth-grade world history class to read a section of their textbook about classical Greek art and draw a diagram representing its content. Carlos, always drawing something, read the section with fascination, understood it in detail, and did a splendid job of representing it graphically. He knew a lot about art and could use what he knew to construct further knowledge. In contrast, Jaime struggled from sentence to sentence, making little sense of the three pages he read, paid little attention to his confusion, and wrote a few unconnected wards in a circle. Knowing little about art, Jaime found the section "full of hard words."Discovering Jaime's struggles, Ms. Wakefield knew she would have to learn more about her struggling student and find ways to support his literacy and learning.Teachers, like those you know and others you will meet in this book, work in middle and high schools every day to help their students acquire literacy strategies that make test materials accessible and promote learning in their content area classrooms. Some teachers approach this task with a strong understanding of reading and writing processes. Others know how to discover their students' literacy strengths and needs. Many have a multitude of strategies to teach their students at all levels to become more effective readers, writers, and learners. Some have discovered ways to heighten their students' engagement in learning. Yet others collaborate with colleagues and reflect on their practice so that content area instruction and literacy both improve.When more teachers in our middle and high schools engage their students in learning with literacy's tools, more students will gain content knowledge and skills while acquiring strategies for lifelong learning. WHAT ARE THIS BOOK'S PURPOSES? Understanding Culture's EffectsHelping beginning teachers understand how cultures shape language, literacy, and learning is one main purpose for this book. Every community, whether family, ethnicity, school, or peer group-related, has a culture. This culture shares traditions, rules, ethics, values, and a social order, through which it shapes minds. When teachers understand how cultures merge and emerge in school settings, they can better understand how cultures contribute to students' literacy development. Teachers can also grasp how they contribute to culture creation and literacy growth in their own classrooms. Understanding the Reading ProcessReading is fundamental to every student's learning in the content areas, and helping teachers understand the reading process forms a fundamental purpose for this book. The model of reading presented shows teachers how their students read, what contributes to good reading, and how reading for learning may falter. Knowing where reading may break down and how to detect those breakdowns enables teachers to see what steps they can take to improve reading and learning for all students. Developing Literacy StrategiesTo develop student reading, writing, and learning skills, content area teachers can apply research-based strategies. Another purpose for this book is to present literacy-enhancing strategies to integrate with daily instruction and to use with small groups and whole classrooms. These strategies will promote literacy and learning when teachers work with an entire class, provide opportunities for cooperative learning in small groups, or arrange for pairs of students to collaborate. While critical reading strategies explained in this book develop students' reasoning and thinking skills, writing strategies help teachers observe, evaluate, and promote their students' learning. Exploring Student Engagement and MotivationDisengaged, unmotivated studen


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