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Content Area Reading and Writing : Fostering Literacies in Middle and High School Cultures,9780132298544
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Content Area Reading and Writing : Fostering Literacies in Middle and High School Cultures

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780132298544

ISBN10:
0132298546
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/27/2007
Publisher(s):
Pearson

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This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 6/27/2007.
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  • Content Area Reading and Writing : Fostering Literacies in Middle and High School Cultures
    Content Area Reading and Writing : Fostering Literacies in Middle and High School Cultures





Summary

Through this strategy-driven, theory-based book, content-area teachers gain a thorough understanding of the fundamental role that reading and writing play in content-area learning. Unique to this book is the attention paid to helping teachers understand how the high school cultures students belong to affect their view of literacy and learning. This book presents a diagnostic perspective on teaching-encourages future teachers to examine students'performance/work on an individual basis-helps teachers see how each student's culture, background, personality, and prior knowledge inform his or her learning and suggests "best practice" for that particular learner.The author offers step-by-step approaches to gauge student literacy, build vocabulary, and implement instruction that improves comprehension, encourages critical reading, supports writing for learning, and facilitates collaboration for literacy development. Content includes research-based review of writing and numerous writing strategies; research-based overview of motivation for literacy in the content areas; and features a full range of plans to get beginning teachers off to a "good start" by showing how to create a cohesive methodology that aligns state standards with integrated strategy instruction and authentic assessment.For future middle and high school educators.

Author Biography

Norman Unrau is a Professor Emeritus at California State University, Los Angeles, in the Division of Curriculum and Instruction.

Table of Contents

Knowing Your Students and Their Literaciesp. 1
Engaging Cultures and Literacies for Learningp. 2
Double-Entry Journal: Before Readingp. 3
Beginning Teachers Remember Their High School Cultures and Literaciesp. 3
How Do Cultures Shape Minds?p. 6
What Is Culture?p. 6
How Cultures Shape Mindsp. 7
School Cultures Shaping Students' Mindsp. 8
School Culturesp. 8
Beginning Teachers Discovering School Culturesp. 8
Links Between Cultures and Literaciesp. 10
What Is Literacy?p. 10
Is There an Adolescent Literacy Crisis?p. 13
Groups Struggling with School Literacyp. 15
Is There a Crisis of Engagement With Learning at the Core of Middle and High School Cultures?p. 17
Disconnects Between Students, Their Teachers, and the Curriculump. 17
Can We Generalize?p. 19
Cultures and Literacies as Resources for Engagementp. 21
Addressing Teachers' Nightmaresp. 22
Content Literacy: A Rationale and a Storyp. 22
New Literaciesp. 24
Lessons from "Beating the Odds" Classroomsp. 25
Meeting the Challenges of Literacy and Learningp. 27
Double-Entry Journal: After Readingp. 30
Motivation to Read Content-Area Textsp. 32
Double-Entry Journal: Before Readingp. 33
Motivation to Readp. 33
Ms. Hawthorne's Challengep. 33
Changes in Motivation to Read Through the School Yearsp. 34
Toward a Unifying Vision of Motivation to Read: Self-Determination Theoryp. 35
The Focus of Motivationp. 36
Student Factors Contributing to a Student's Motivation to Readp. 37
Student Identityp. 37
Self-Expectations and Self-Efficacyp. 41
Goals and Task Valuesp. 43
Reading Skills and Knowledgep. 47
Textual Connectionsp. 47
Teacher Factors Contributing to Students' Motivation to Readp. 49
Teacher Engagementp. 49
Achievement-Related Instructionp. 51
Classroom Communityp. 54
Autonomy Supportp. 56
Assessment and Reward Systemsp. 57
Summaryp. 59
Double-Entry Journal: After Readingp. 59
Inside the Meaning Construction Zone: Readers Readingp. 62
Double-Entry Journal: Before Readingp. 63
How Students Construct and Negotiate Meaningsp. 63
Myths of the Good Readerp. 65
First Good Reader Myth: They Can Read at 1,000 Words a Minute or More with Improved Comprehensionp. 66
Second Good Reader Myth: They Don't Subvocalizep. 66
Third Good Reader Myth: They Read Only the Key Wordsp. 67
Fourth Good Reader Myth: They Recognize Words as Wholesp. 67
Fifth Good Reader Myth: They Read Groups of Words as a Unit of Thoughtp. 67
Sixth Good Reader Myth: They Never Look Backp. 67
Characteristics of Good Readersp. 68
The Benefits of a Reading Process Modelp. 69
How Personal Theories of Reading Affect Reading Processes and Outcomesp. 70
A Peek into the Reader's Construction Zonep. 70
An Overview of the Reading Modelp. 70
The Sensory Systemp. 71
Cognitive Processes and Outcomesp. 72
Metacognitive Processesp. 86
Text and Classroom Contentp. 88
Implications of the Model for Teachingp. 96
Double-Entry Journal: After Readingp. 97
Assessing Readers and Their Textsp. 98
Double-Entry Journal: Before Readingp. 99
Diagnostic Teachingp. 99
Content Teachers' Diagnostic Decision Making About Readingp. 100
Student's Identity, History, Goals, Values, and Interestsp. 101
Expected Level of Readingp. 103
Assessment of Students' Reading Abilityp. 103
Class Literacy Profilep. 106
Teaching Strategies and Resourcesp. 106
Diagnostic Teachingp. 107
Instructional Monitoring, Modification, and Recommendationsp. 108
Assessment Instruments for Diagnostic Teachingp. 109
Formal Assessmentp. 109
Norm-Referenced Testsp. 111
Criterion-Referenced Testsp. 111
Assessing the Assessment Instrumentsp. 112
Reading Processes That Cannot Be Adequately Assessedp. 112
Informal Assessmentp. 113
Group Reading Inventory (GRI)p. 114
Step-By-Step: Group Reading Inventoryp. 114
Miscue Analysisp. 116
Running Recordsp. 117
Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM)p. 119
Step-By-Step: Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM)p. 119
Informal Assessments for a Closer Look at Comprehension Processesp. 122
Retellingsp. 122
Step-By-Step: Retellingp. 122
Comprehension Think-Aloudsp. 123
Step-By-Step: Doing a Comprehension Think-Aloudp. 125
Interviews and Interactionsp. 126
Portfolio Assessment in Content Area Classroomsp. 126
Inventories of Reading Strategiesp. 131
Categories of Adolescent Readersp. 134
Who Can Be Helped and How?p. 137
Assessing Texts: Readability and Accessibilityp. 138
Readability Formulasp. 138
Step-By-Step: Calculating Readability with Fry's Formulap. 139
Cloze Testsp. 141
Step-By-Step: How to Administer a Cloze Readability Testp. 141
Friendly Text Evaluation Scalep. 143
Summaryp. 146
Double-Entry Journal: After Readingp. 146
Enhancing Your Students' Literacies Through Strategic Instructionp. 147
Developing Vocabulary, Concepts, and Fluency for Content Area Literacyp. 148
Double-Entry Journal: Before Readingp. 149
Transforming Words into Meaningsp. 149
Decodingp. 149
The Lexicon in Long-Term Memoryp. 150
From Word Recognition to Fluencyp. 150
Metacognition and Making Meaning from Wordsp. 151
The Complexities of Simply Knowing a Wordp. 152
Word Countsp. 152
High- and Low-Frequency Wordsp. 154
Student-Led Vocabulary Growth: A Strategy-Integrated Modelp. 156
Step-By-Step: Student-Led Vocabulary Developmentp. 157
Flashbacks: The Return of the Vocabulary Cardp. 157
What We Know About Teaching Vocabularyp. 158
Principles to Guide Vocabulary Learningp. 159
Creating Word-Rich Environmentsp. 159
Fostering Word Consciousnessp. 160
Gaining Word Knowledge Through Strategy Instructionp. 161
Addressing Vocabularyp. 162
Word Knowledge Checkp. 163
Keyword Methodp. 163
Word Mapsp. 164
Word Partsp. 165
Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS)p. 168
Step-By-Step: Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS)p. 168
Activities for Mastering VSS and Other Important Wordsp. 168
Step-By-Step: Semantic Mapsp. 169
Step-By-Step: Synonym Websp. 170
Step-By-Step: Semantic Feature Analysisp. 171
Growing Word Knowledge: Just Readingp. 172
Word Play: Language Games in Contextp. 174
Looking Closely at Students Constructing Word Meaningsp. 174
Using Context to Learn Words with Passionp. 175
Using Technology to Foster Vocabulary Growthp. 176
A Summary of Research Guiding Instruction in Vocabulary Developmentp. 177
Double-Entry Journal: After Readingp. 177
Strategies to Enhance Comprehensionp. 178
Double-Entry Journal: Before Readingp. 179
Comprehension-Enhancing Strategies to Activate and Integrate Knowledgep. 180
Double-Entry Journal (DEJ)p. 180
Step-By-Step: How to Design and Implement DEJsp. 181
Anticipation Guidep. 182
Step-By-Step: How to Prepare and Present Anticipation Guidesp. 182
Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA)p. 183
Step-By-Step: How to Do a DR-TAp. 183
Know-Want to Know-Learned (K-W-L) Strategyp. 186
Step-By-Step: How to Do a K-W-Lp. 186
The Prereading Plan (PreP)p. 188
Step-By-Step: How to Do a PrePp. 188
Directed Inquiry Activity (DIA)p. 189
Step-By-Step: How to Do a DIAp. 189
SQ3Rp. 190
Planp. 190
Making Reading Meaningfulp. 191
Step-By-Step: How to Help Students Make Reading Meaningfulp. 193
Text Structurep. 193
Types of Text Structuresp. 194
Effects of Text-Structure Knowledgep. 194
Five Basic Text Structuresp. 195
Levels of Text Structurep. 198
What's the Structure?p. 198
Step-By-Step: What's the Structurep. 198
Text Structures and Genres in Different Disciplinesp. 200
Strategies for Organizing Knowledge (Knowledge Organizers)p. 200
Outlinesp. 201
Note Taking (from Lectures and Readings)p. 202
Graphic Organizersp. 202
Concept Mappingp. 207
Step-By-Step: How to Design a Concept Mapp. 208
Summaryp. 209
Double-Journal Entry: After Readingp. 209
Writing to Assess, Promote, and Observe Learningp. 210
Double-Entry Journal: Before Readingp. 211
Changes and Challenges in Writing to Learnp. 211
A Peek into the Writer's Construction Zonep. 212
How Process Upstaged Productp. 214
How Writing Furthers Constructivismp. 214
Effects of Social Contexts on the Writing Processp. 216
The Promise of Writing to Learnp. 217
Types of Writingp. 218
Effects of Writing on Learningp. 219
The National Writing Project (NWP)p. 220
Categories of Writingp. 221
Writing to Assess Learningp. 221
Writing to Promote Learningp. 222
Implementing Strategiesp. 232
Writing to Observe Student Workp. 233
Step-By-Step: A Protocol for Looking at Student Workp. 233
The Teacher's Dilemma: What Kind of Writing Should I Assign?p. 237
Responding to Writingp. 239
Summaryp. 241
Double-Entry Journal: After Readingp. 241
Critical Reading of Print and Nonprint Textsp. 242
Double-Entry Journal: Before Readingp. 243
The Need for More Critical Readingp. 243
What Is Critical Reading?p. 246
Activities to Foster Critical Thinkingp. 248
Inquiry Questions (IQs)p. 248
Step-By-Step: Inquiry Questions (IQs)p. 249
Questioning the Author (QtA)p. 251
Step-By-Step: Questioning the Author (QtA)p. 255
Editor Interviewsp. 256
Step-By-Step: Editor Interviewsp. 257
ReQuestp. 258
Step-By-Step: ReQuestp. 258
Socratic Seminarsp. 259
Step-By-Step: Socratic Seminarsp. 259
Challenging Texts: Close Readingsp. 260
Step-By-Step: The Believing and Doubting Gamep. 263
TASKing in Pairsp. 264
Step-By-Step: Tasking in Pairsp. 265
Understanding Critical Literacyp. 266
Step-By-Step: Critical Literacy in the Classroomp. 269
Media Literacyp. 270
Principles of Media Literacyp. 271
Media Literacy Practices Across The Content Areasp. 273
Summaryp. 274
Double-Entry Journal: After Readingp. 275
Designing Literacy into Academically Diverse Content Area Classesp. 277
Collaborating for Literacy and Learning: Group Strategiesp. 278
Double-Entry Journal: Before Readingp. 279
Whole Groupsp. 281
Whole-Class Reading Methodsp. 281
Alternatives to Round Robin Readingp. 282
Step-By-Step: Think-Alouds in Classp. 283
Step-By-Step: How to Induce Imageryp. 284
Step-By-Step: How to Conduct a "Read to Discover" Sessionp. 285
Whole-Class Discussionsp. 286
Minilessonsp. 290
Cooperative Learningp. 291
Principles of Cooperative Learningp. 291
Informal Group Methods to Support Learning and Literacyp. 292
Cooperative Learning Activities with Integrated Literacy Goalsp. 293
Step-By-Step: How to Do a Group Investigationp. 295
Step-By-Step: How to Do a Group Reading Activity (GRA)p. 298
Step-By-Step: How to Do a Jigsaw II Activityp. 299
Reciprocal Teachingp. 300
A Brief History of Reciprocal Teachingp. 300
Original Reciprocal Teaching Modelp. 301
Step-By-Step: How to Do Basic One-On-One Reciprocal Teachingp. 302
Variations of Reciprocal Teachingp. 303
Features Contributing to Reciprocal Teaching's Successp. 305
Tutoring: Working in Pairsp. 308
Peer Tutoringp. 309
Step-By-Step: How to Do Paired Readingp. 310
Cross-Age Tutoringp. 313
Adult-Student Tutoringp. 314
Summaryp. 318
Double-Entry Journal: After Readingp. 319
Struggling Readers and English Learners: Addressing Their Cognitive and Cultural Needsp. 320
Double-Entry Journal: Before Readingp. 321
Addressing the Frustrations of Struggling Readersp. 321
How Serious Are Reading Problems in Our Middle and High Schools?p. 321
Research-Based Model for Reading Intervention: A Constellation of Features Providing Guidance in Program Design and Implementationp. 323
Fourteen Features of a Research-Based Literacy Intervention Modelp. 324
Program Matrix for Literacy Intervention/Evaluationp. 335
Resources to Support Intervention Programsp. 338
Corrective Readingp. 338
Language!p. 339
Read 180p. 340
Reading Apprenticeship (RA)p. 341
The "Just Read More" Programp. 342
English Learnersp. 343
Federal Law and English Learnersp. 344
A Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviationsp. 344
Toward a Theory of How a Second Language Is Learnedp. 345
How Long Does It Take for an English Learner to Become Proficient?p. 347
Programs for English Language Learnersp. 348
California's English Learner's' Programs: An Example of the Teacher's Challengep. 349
Principles Guiding English Learners' Instructionp. 350
Sheltered English Instruction and Structured English Immersionp. 352
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)p. 353
How Can We Know Which Programs Serve English Learners Best?p. 354
Summaryp. 356
Double-Entry Journal: After Readingp. 357
Designing Literacy into Academically Diverse Content Area Classes to Promote Understandingp. 358
Double-Entry Journal: Before Readingp. 359
Standards-Based Instructional Planningp. 359
What Is Standards-Based Instruction?p. 359
Accountability Provisions of No Child Left Behind (NCLB)p. 361
How Can Teachers Teach to the Standards?p. 363
Addressing Adolescent Literacy in All Content Areasp. 364
Science Literacyp. 365
Math Literacyp. 369
Step-By-Step Think-Alouds in Math Classp. 374
History/English Collaborativep. 375
Literacy and Physical Educationp. 378
Planning Pyramid for Inquiry and Understandingp. 380
What Your Students Will Know or Be Able to Do: Standards/Goals/Wanted Outcomes/Resultsp. 380
Evidence That Would Be Needed to Confirm Acquisition of Knowledge or Skillsp. 380
Instruction That Would Generate "That Evidence: Mode of Instruction/Strategies/Unit and Lesson Designp. 381
Assessment Tools Showing to What Degree Students Have Gained the Knowledge or Skills You Wanted Them to Acquirep. 382
How Sally Peterson Built a Pyramid for Inquiry and Understandingp. 382
Step-By-Step: Creating Criteria with Studentsp. 395
Summaryp. 399
Double-Entry Journal: After Readingp. 399
Glossaryp. 401
Referencesp. 409
Name Indexp. 451
Subject Indexp. 441
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.


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