9780073513539

Contexts: Reading in the Disciplines

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780073513539

  • ISBN10:

    0073513539

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Loose-leaf
  • Copyright: 1/7/2015
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

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Summary

Contexts: Reading in the Disciplines engages students personally, actively, and critically through an integrated print and digital program designed to prepare them for college—and lifelong—reading.

Here’s how: Eight scaffolded modules help students move from guided to independent reading with selections that are personal and relevant to their lives. Each module is arranged from least to most challenging in terms of reading level and includes pre- and post-reading activities that encourage students to think critically, to summarize, and to synthesize what they have learned. By helping students move from practicing to applying, the modules meet a program’s goals of making students independent readers. Modules also promote vocabulary enhancement through the integration of vocabulary exercises. In addition to the scaffolded modules, integration of metacognitive strategies, and Connect Reading, Contexts: Reading in the Disciplines provides instruction to strengthen comprehension and critical reading skills. Contexts: Reading in the Disciplines uses authentic material allowing students to unlock textbook content across academic disciplines.

Based on developmental education and literacy research and with a tested pedagogical system to scaffold student learning, McGraw-Hill’s Contexts: Reading in the Disciplines helps students in upperlevel reading courses become critical readers and active participants in their own learning as they move from guided to independent reading and gain confidence in their skills. Contextualization of reading skills and strategies within freshman experience content is the cornerstone of this textbook. Its unique two-part organization helps to support this approach by containing instructional chapters focusing on a single academic discipline, and theme-based reading selection modules in the second part center around a high-interest topic or theme often addressed in freshman experience topics.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1

It’s Up to You: Taking Ownership of COLLEGE LEARNING . . . 1

Key Terms           2

Choosing Success             2

SELECTION: Success Is a Choice  2

Set Goals             4

Manage Your Time Effectively    5

Control Your Concentration         9

Monitor Your Progress  11

Discover Your Learning Style       14

You’re on Your Way        20

SELECTION: This Is Not Your High School English Class      20

Sum It Up! It’s Up to You: Taking Ownership of College Learning                23

Chapter 2

Active Reading Strategies for Managing College Texts: BuildSkills Reading about SOCIOLOGY     24

Key Terms           25

Become an Active Reader            25

Metacognition  26

Survey Your Textbook   26

Access Prior Knowledge                28

Preview the Chapter or Selection             29

SELECTION: Groups and Organizations   33

Read for a Purpose: Asking and Answering Your Own Questions                39

Before You Read: Preview Questions     39

While You Read: Guide Questions            40

While You Read: Monitoring Questions  40

After You Read: Study Questions              40

SELECTION: Privacy and Censorship in a Global Village     44

Manage Your Textbook: Highlight, Annotate, and Take Marginal Notes  45

Highlighting        46

Annotating and Marginal Notes 46

Adjust Your Reading Rate to Meet Your Needs  49

Tips for Determining Reading Times        49

Sum It Up! Are You Ready to Read? Active Reading

Strategies for Managing College Texts    51

Chapter 3

Developing a College-Level Vocabulary: Build Skills Reading about PSYCHOLOGY 52

Key Terms           53

The Importance of Having a Good Vocabulary    53

Discipline-Specific Vocabulary    54

SELECTION: Escape and Avoidance Conditioning                54

Academic Vocabulary     55

SELECTION: Language    56

Using Context Clues to Learn the Meaning of Words       57

Definition Clues                57

Synonym Clues 60

Contrast and Antonym Clues      61

Example Clues   63

Inference Clues                65

A Word about Word Parts            70

Prefixes               70

Roots    73

Suffixes                76

Compound Words           81

SELECTION: The Bilingual Brain   83

Figurative Language        85

Metaphors         86

Similes  86

Personification  87

Hyperbole           87

Idioms  89

Sum It Up! Developing a College-Level Vocabulary           92

Chapter 4

Identifying the Main Idea in College Reading: Build Skills Reading about PERSONAL AND FAMILY HEALTH               93

Key Terms           94

The Main Idea   94

Two Steps for Identifying the Main Idea                95

Step 1: Identify the Topic             95

Step 2: Determine the Author’s Most Important Point about the Topic   100

SELECTION:  The Dimensions of Health   106

SELECTION: Time Management 107

SELECTION: The Environmental Aspects of Stress Management 108

Implied Main Ideas         109

Finding the Implied (Unstated) Main Idea in Paragraphs                109

SELECTION: Procrastination         116

SELECTION: Physical Activity and Weight Management   118

Sum It Up! Identifying the Main Idea in College Reading                120

Chapter 5

Finding and Using Important Details in College Reading: Build Skills Reading about PERSONAL

AND COMMUNITY HEALTH          121

Key Terms           122

Finding and Using the Important Details                122

Identifying Supporting Details    123

SELECTION: Today’s College Students     123

Using Transitions to Locate Supporting Details    127

SELECTION: Assuming Responsibility       128

Types of Transitions        129

Additional Items               129

Examples             130

Explanations and Reasons            131

Sequence            132

Comparison and Contrast             133

Studying Supporting Details        135

SELECTION: International Nutritional Concerns   138

SELECTION: The Patient’s Bill of Rights and the Nurse’s Responsibilities  139

Sum It Up! Finding and Using Important Details in College Reading           141

Chapter 6

Rehearsing the Information: Build Skills Reading about BUSINESS AND MARKETING         142

Key Terms           143

Rehearsing Information                143

Paraphrasing      143

Sample Paraphrase         144

Outlining              146

Example of an Outline   146

Summarizing      148

SELECTION: International Trade Barriers: Social and Cultural Differences                149

Sample Summary             150

SELECTION: Giraffas: A Brazilian Restaurant Chain Changes

Its Spots When It Lands in the United States       151

Using Visuals to Organize Information    152

Concept Maps   153

Tables   155

Timelines             156

SELECTION: Legal and Social Issues in Internet Marketing              156

Process Diagram or Flowchart    157

SELECTION: The Scientific Method and Marketing Research         158

Venn Diagrams 159

SELECTION: Ben & Jerry’s, Vermont’s Finest        161

SELECTION: The Netflix Launch and Its Continually Changing

Business Model                161

SELECTION: Social and Traditional Media in Marketing     162

SELECTION: The Role of Culture and Subculture in Marketing      163

Sum It Up! Rehearsing the Information 165

Chapter 7

Identifying and Integrating Patterns of Organization: Build Skills Reading about CRIMINAL JUSTICE      166

Key Terms           167

Organizational Writing Patterns 167

Definition Pattern            169

Listing or Enumeration Pattern  171

Sequence Pattern           173

Chronological Order        173

Chronological Order with Graphics           174

Process Order   177

Spatial Order      178

Spatial Order with Graphics         179

Order of Importance      181

Classification Pattern      182

SELECTION: Inmate Rehabilitation Programs        184

Classification and Graphics           185

Comparison and Contrast Pattern            186

Comparison and Contrast with Graphics                188

Cause-and-Effect Pattern            189

Generalization and Example Pattern       191

SELECTION: Elder Adult Inmates                192

Problem and Solution Pattern    193

Mixed Patterns 194

SELECTION: Custody Level vs. Security Level        195

SELECTION: Women in Prison     196

Sum It Up! Identifying and Integrating Writing Patterns 200

Chapter 8

Making Inferences and Reading Critically: Build Skills Reading about COMMUNICATIONS   203

Key Terms           204

Critical Reading 204

Making Inferences          205

SELECTION: What Is Mass Communication?         206

SELECTION: What Is Culture?      207

SELECTION: Limiting and Liberating Effects of Culture      207

SELECTION: The Coming of Paperback Books       208

SELECTION: Making Friends with E-Books             208

Determining an Author’s Purpose for Writing     209

Writing to Inform             209

Writing to Instruct           210

Writing to Entertain        211

Writing to Persuade        211

Considering the Audience            212

Distinguishing Between Facts and Opinions         214

Facts      214

Opinions              215

Facts and Opinions          215

Detecting the Tone         218

SELECTION: A Short History of Television               219

SELECTION: Can’t Find Them or They Aren’t There?         220

Denotation and Connotation      221

SELECTION: TV Violence: Bashing, Crashing, Overwhelms Children            224

Recognizing Bias               225

SELECTION: The Effects of Media              226

SELECTION: Will E-Books Destroy the Democratizing

Effects of Reading?         227

SELECTION: TV Can Be a Good Parent     229

Sum It Up! Making Inferences and Incorporating

Critical Reading Skills       233

Chapter 9

Critical Reading in the Digital Age: Build Skills Reading about POLITICAL SCIENCE           235

Key Terms           236

Digging Deeper into Critical Reading        236

Evaluating an Author’s Argument             236

SELECTION: The Death Penalty Deters Crime       238

Detecting Deception in Writing: Fallacies in Reasoning    240

The Internet and Evaluating Web Content            243

Authority and Purpose  243

Currency              245

Accuracy              245

Checklist for Evaluating a Website            245

Assessing Other Internet Platforms         248

Wikis     248

Social Media       248

SELECTION: Recovering Political Prostitute           252

SELECTION: Who Is This Guy?     255

Sum It Up! Critical Reading in the Digital Age        257

Chapter 10

Reading Across the Genres: Build Skills Reading about HISTORY                259

Key Terms           260

Reading Across the Genres         260

SELECTION: The Affluent Society: People of Plenty          261

Understanding Primary Sources                263

Tips for Reading Primary Sources              263

SELECTION: Federal Highway Act (1956) 264

Reading Essays  266

Tips for Understanding Essays    266

SELECTION: Unhappy Meals        267

Reading Academic Journals         269

Tips for Understanding Academic Journals           269

Features of Academic Journal Articles    269

Tips for Previewing Journal Articles          270

SELECTION: Benchmarking the Service Quality of Fast-Food

Restaurant Franchises in the USA: A Longitudinal Study 270

SELECTION: Ray Kroc (1902–1984): Flipping over Efficiency            271

Reading Newspaper Articles       273

Tips for Understanding Newspaper Articles         273

SELECTION: U.S. to Revamp Nutrition Labels, Emphasizing Calorie Counts and Added Sugars            274

Understanding Novels   276

Tips for Reading Novels 277

SELECTION: Chapter 1 from The Kite Runner       279

Sum It Up! Searching Other Sources: Reading Across the Genres               280

Chapter 11

Show What You Know: Become an Effective TEST-TAKER. . . 281

Key Terms           282

Prepare for Exams           282

SELECTION: I Got My B.A. by Sheer Luck, or How Study Skills Saved the Student          283

Additional Ways to Prepare for an Exam                286

Understand Exam Formats          289

Objective Questions       289

Essay Questions               291

Reducing Test Anxiety   293

Sum It Up! Show What You Know: Become an Effective Test-Taker          296

Module: Readings about Stress 299

Get Acquainted with the Issue  299

Guided Reading: Taming the Stress Monster by Terri D’Arrigo     300

Before You Read              300

Prepare to Read               300

Check Out the Vocabulary           300

As You Read       301

Establish Your Purpose  301

Actively Process While You Read               301

After You Read 305

Review Important Points              305

Organize the Information             305

Integrate the Vocabulary             306

Make Personal Connections through Writing and Discussion        308

Self-Monitored Reading: The Aftermath of Disaster by Dale B. Hahn, Wayne A. Payne, and Ellen B. Lucas              308

Before You Read              308

Prepare to Read               309

Check Out the Vocabulary           309

As You Read       310

Establish Your Purpose  310

Actively Process While You Read               310

After You Read 311

Review Important Points              311

Organize the Information             313

Integrate the Vocabulary             314

Independent Reading: Job Stress from Introduction to Criminal Justice by Robert M. Bohm and Keith N. Haley   315

Before You Read              315

Prepare to Read               315

Check Out the Vocabulary           316

As You Read       317

Establish Your Purpose  317

Actively Process While You Read               317

After You Read 318

Synthesizing Your Reading: Reflective Journal Writing: Stress      322

Module: Readings about Body Language               323

Get Acquainted with the Issue  323

Guided Reading: Business Communication: How to Bridge the Gender Gap by Candy Tymson     324

Before You Read              324

Prepare to Read               324

Check Out the Vocabulary           325

As You Read       326

Establish Your Purpose  326

Actively Process While You Read               326

After You Read 328

Review Important Points              328

Organize the Information             329

Integrate the Vocabulary             329

Words with Multiple Meanings  330

Make Personal Connections through Writing and Discussion        331

Self-Monitored Reading: Body Language Speaks: Reading and Responding More Effectively to Hidden

Communication by Anne E. Beall               332

Before You Read              332

Prepare to Read               333

Check Out the Vocabulary           333

As You Read       334

Establish Your Purpose  334

Actively Process While You Read               334

After You Read 337

Review Important Points              337

Organize the Information             338

Integrate the Vocabulary             340

Make Personal Connections through Writing and Discussion        341

Independent Reading: Nonverbal Communication in Everyday Life from Bridges Not Walls: A Book about Interpersonal

Communication by John Stewart              342

Before You Read              342

Prepare to Read               342

Check Out the Vocabulary           343

As You Read       343

Establish Your Purpose  343

Actively Process While You Read               343

After You Read 346

Synthesizing Your Reading: Reflective Journal Writing:

Body Language 350

Module: Readings about the Environment           351

Get Acquainted with the Issue  351

Guided Reading: Earth Day: The History of a Movement by Earth Day Network (earthday.org)    352

Before You Read              352

Prepare to Read               352

Check Out the Vocabulary           352

As You Read       353

Establish Your Purpose  353

Actively Process While You Read               353

After You Read 356

Review Important Points              356

Organize the Information             357

Integrate the Vocabulary             357

Make Personal Connections through Writing and Discussion        359

Self-Monitored Reading: The Green Campus: How to Teach New Respect for the Environment? by Anne Underwood    359

Before You Read              359

Prepare to Read               360

Check Out the Vocabulary           360

Understanding Discipline-Specific Vocabulary: Environmental Science     360

As You Read       362

Establish Your Purpose  362

Actively Process While You Read               362

After You Read 364

Review Important Points              364

Organize the Information             366

Integrate the Vocabulary             367

Make Personal Connections through Writing and Discussion        368

Independent Reading: What Is the State of Our Environment Today? from Environmental Science: A Global Concern by

William P. Cunningham and Mary Ann Cunningham         368

Before You Read              368

Prepare to Read               369

Check Out the Vocabulary           369

As You Read       370

Establish Your Purpose  370

Actively Process While You Read               370

After You Read 372

Organize the Information             375

Integrate the Vocabulary: Using Context Clues  376

Make Personal Connections through Writing and Discussion        377

Synthesizing Your Reading: Reflective Journal Writing:

Environmental Science  378

Module: Readings about the Job Market              379

Get Acquainted with the Issue  379

Guided Reading: They’re So Vein: Tapping a Job Market by Gabe Oppenheim    380

Before You Read              380

Prepare to Read               380

Check Out the Vocabulary           380

As You Read       381

Establish Your Purpose  381

Actively Process While You Read               381

After You Read 384

Review Important Points              384

Organize the Information             384

Integrate the Vocabulary             384

Make Personal Connections through Writing and Discussion        386

Self-Monitored Reading: Women Missing Out on Lucrative

Careers in Computer Science by Mike Cassidy    386

Before You Read              386

Prepare to Read               387

Check Out the Vocabulary           387

As You Read       388

Establish Your Purpose  388

Actively Process While You Read               388

After You Read 391

Review Important Points              391

Organize the Information             393

Integrate the Vocabulary             393

Make Personal Connections through Writing and Discussion        394

Independent Reading: The Interview Process from Introduction to Business: How Companies Create Value for People by Gareth Jones     395

Before You Read              395

Prepare to Read               395

Check Out the Vocabulary           395

As You Read       396

Establish Your Purpose  396

Actively Process While You Read               396

After You Read 398

Synthesizing Your Reading: Reflective Journal Writing: The Job Market   402

Module: Readings about Public Policy     403

Get Acquainted with the Issue  403

What Is Public Policy?     403

Guided Reading: For . . . Tormented Souls, Euthanasia-

Made-Easy Beckons by Naftali Bendavid               404

Before You Read              404

Prepare to Read               405

Check Out the Vocabulary           405

As You Read       406

Establish Your Purpose  406

Actively Process While You Read               406

After You Read 409

Review Important Points              409

Organize the Information             410

Integrate the Vocabulary             411

Make Personal Connections through Writing and Discussion        412

Self-Monitored Reading: Recovering Drug Addict . . . Now

Leads Fight Against Legalizing Marijuana by Rob Hotakainen        412

Before You Read              412

Prepare to Read               413

Check Out the Vocabulary           413

As You Read       414

Establish Your Purpose  414

Actively Process While You Read               414

After You Read 416

Review Important Points              416

Organize the Information             419

Integrate the Vocabulary             419

Make Personal Connections through Writing and Discussion        420

Independent Reading: Civil Liberties: The Right to Privacy from American Democracy Now by Brigid Harrison, Jean Harris, and Michelle Deardoff   421

Before You Read              421

Prepare to Read               421

Check Out the Vocabulary           422

As You Read       422

Establish Your Purpose  422

Actively Process While You Read               422

Table of Contents            xvii

 After You Read                425

Synthesizing Your Reading: Reflective Journal Writing:

Political Science                430

Available only in McGraw-Hill Create™

Module: Readings about Food and Nutrition

Get Acquainted with the Issue

Guided Reading: A Plateful of Myths by Katherine Hobson

Before You Read

Prepare to Read

Check Out the Vocabulary

As You Read

Establish Your Purpose

Actively Process While You Read

After You Read

Review Important Points Organize the Information Integrate the Vocabulary

Make Personal Connections through Writing and Discussion

Self-Monitored Reading: Gone Gluten-Free by Cathy Gulli

Before You Read

Prepare to Read

Check Out the Vocabulary

As You Read

Establish Your Purpose

Actively Process While You Read

After You Read

Review Important Points Organize the Information Integrate the Vocabulary

Make Personal Connections through Writing and Discussion

Independent Reading: Eating Disorders from Connect Core Concepts in Health by Paul L. Insel and Walton T. Roth

Before You Read

Prepare to Read

Check Out the Vocabulary

As You Read

Establish Your Purpose

Actively Process While You Read

After You Read

Synthesizing Your Reading: Reflective Journal Writing: Food and Nutrition

Module: Readings about the Media

Get Acquainted with the Issue

Guided Reading: Beauty and Body Image in the Media by MediaSmarts

Before You Read

Prepare to Read

Check Out the Vocabulary

As You Read

Establish Your Purpose

Actively Process While You Read

After You Read

Review Important Points Organize the Information Integrate the Vocabulary

Make Personal Connections through Writing and Discussion

Self-Monitored Reading: Avid Cellphone Use by College Kids Tied to Anxiety, Lower Grades by Barbara Bronson Gray

Before You Read

Prepare to Read

Check Out the Vocabulary

As You Read

Establish Your Purpose

Actively Process While You Read

After You Read

Review Important Points Organize the Information Integrate the Vocabulary

Make Personal Connections through Writing and Discussion

Independent Reading: The Birth of Television from American History: A Survey by Alan Brinkley

Before You Read

Prepare to Read

Check Out the Vocabulary

As You Read

Establish Your Purpose

Actively Process While You Read

After You Read

Synthesizing Your Reading: Reflective Journal Writing: The Media

Module: Readings about Social Networks

Get Acquainted with the Issue

Guided Reading: Online Social Networking Issues Within Academia . . . by Jeff Cain, Ed.D

Before You Read

Prepare to Read

Check Out the Vocabulary

As You Read

Establish Your Purpose

Actively Process While You Read

After You Read

Review Important Points Organize the Information Integrate the Vocabulary

Make Personal Connections through Writing and Discussion

Self-Monitored Reading: Are Online Relationships Healthy for Young People? by Jim Taylor, Ph.D.

Before You Read

Prepare to Read

Check Out the Vocabulary

As You Read

Establish Your Purpose

Actively Process While You Read

After You Read

Review Important Points Organize the Information Integrate the Vocabulary

Make Personal Connections through Writing and Discussion

Independent Reading: Controlling Love: American Mate Selection from Social Problems for the Twenty-First Century by J. John Palen

Before You Read

Prepare to Read

Check Out the Vocabulary

As You Read

Establish Your Purpose

Actively Process While You Read

After You Read

Synthesizing Your Reading: Reflective Journal Writing: Social Networks

Appendix: Application of Skills 431

Key Terms Glossary 466

Vocabulary Words Glossary 470

Credits 474

Index  478

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