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A new edition of the bestseller on convection heat transfer
A revised edition of the industry classic, Convection Heat Transfer, Fourth Edition, chronicles how the field of heat transfer has grown and prospered over the last two decades. This new edition is more accessible, while not sacrificing its thorough treatment of the most up-to-date information on current research and applications in the field.
One of the foremost leaders in the field, Adrian Bejan has pioneered and taught many of the methods and practices commonly used in the industry today. He continues this book's long-standing role as an inspiring, optimal study tool by providing:
Complete with hundreds of informative and original illustrations, Convection Heat Transfer, Fourth Edition is the most comprehensive and approachable text for students in schools of mechanical engineering.
ADRIAN BEJAN, PhD, is the J. A. Jones Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Duke University. An internationally recognized authority on heat transfer and thermodynamics, Bejan has pioneered the methods of entropy generation minimization, scale analysis, heatlines and masslines, intersection of asymptotes, dendritic architectures, and the constructal law of design in nature. He is the recipient of numerous awards, including the Max Jakob Memorial Award (ASME & AICHE), the Worcester Reed Warner Medal (ASME), and the Ralph Coats Roe Award (ASEE). He is the author of twenty-five books and 550 journal articles, and is listed among the 100 most-cited engineering researchers (all disciplines, all countries). He has been awarded sixteen honorary doctorates by universities in eleven foreign countries.
Preface to the Third Edition xvii
Preface to the Second Edition xxi
Preface to the First Edition xxiii
List of Symbols xxv
1 Fundamental Principles 1
1.1 Mass Conservation / 2
1.2 Force Balances (Momentum Equations) / 4
1.3 First Law of Thermodynamics / 8
1.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics / 15
1.5 Rules of Scale Analysis / 17
1.6 Heatlines for Visualizing Convection / 21
References / 22
Problems / 25
2 Laminar Boundary Layer Flow 30
2.1 Fundamental Problem in Convective Heat Transfer / 31
2.2 Concept of Boundary Layer / 34
2.3 Scale Analysis / 37
2.4 Integral Solutions / 42
2.5 Similarity Solutions / 48
2.5.1 Method / 48
2.5.2 Flow Solution / 51
2.5.3 Heat Transfer Solution / 53
2.6 Other Wall Heating Conditions / 56
2.6.1 Unheated Starting Length / 57
2.6.2 Arbitrary Wall Temperature / 58
2.6.3 Uniform Heat Flux / 60
2.6.4 Film Temperature / 61
2.7 Longitudinal Pressure Gradient: Flow Past a Wedge and Stagnation Flow / 61
2.8 Flow Through the Wall: Blowing and Suction / 64
2.9 Conduction Across a Solid Coating Deposited on a Wall / 68
2.10 Entropy Generation Minimization in Laminar Boundary Layer Flow / 71
2.11 Heatlines in Laminar Boundary Layer Flow / 74
2.12 Distribution of Heat Sources on a Wall Cooled by Forced Convection / 77
2.13 The Flow of Stresses / 79
References / 80
Problems / 82
3 Laminar Duct Flow 96
3.1 Hydrodynamic Entrance Length / 97
3.2 Fully Developed Flow / 100
3.3 Hydraulic Diameter and Pressure Drop / 103
3.4 Heat Transfer To Fully Developed Duct Flow / 110
3.4.1 Mean Temperature / 110
3.4.2 Fully Developed Temperature Profile / 112
3.4.3 Uniform Wall Heat Flux / 114
3.4.4 Uniform Wall Temperature / 117
3.5 Heat Transfer to Developing Flow / 120
3.5.1 Scale Analysis / 121
3.5.2 Thermally Developing Hagen–Poiseuille Flow / 122
3.5.3 Thermally and Hydraulically Developing Flow / 128
3.6 Stack of Heat-Generating Plates / 129
3.7 Heatlines in Fully Developed Duct Flow / 134
3.8 Duct Shape for Minimum Flow Resistance / 137
3.9 Tree-Shaped Flow / 139
References / 147
Problems / 153
4 External Natural Convection 168
4.1 Natural Convection as a Heat Engine in Motion / 169
4.2 Laminar Boundary Layer Equations / 173
4.3 Scale Analysis / 176
4.3.1 High-Pr Fluids / 177
4.3.2 Low-Pr Fluids / 179
4.3.3 Observations / 180
4.4 Integral Solution / 182
4.4.1 High-Pr Fluids / 183
4.4.2 Low-Pr Fluids / 184
4.5 Similarity Solution / 186
4.6 Uniform Wall Heat Flux / 189
4.7 Effect of Thermal Stratification / 192
4.8 Conjugate Boundary Layers / 195
4.9 Vertical Channel Flow / 197
4.10 Combined Natural and Forced Convection (Mixed Convection) / 200
4.11 Heat Transfer Results Including the Effect of Turbulence / 203
4.11.1 Vertical Walls / 203
4.11.2 Inclined Walls / 205
4.11.3 Horizontal Walls / 207
4.11.4 Horizontal Cylinder / 209
4.11.5 Sphere / 209
4.11.6 Vertical Cylinder / 210
4.11.7 Other Immersed Bodies / 211
4.12 Stack of Vertical Heat-Generating Plates / 213
4.13 Distribution of Heat Sources on a Vertical Wall / 216
References / 218
Problems / 221
5 Internal Natural Convection 233
5.1 Transient Heating from the Side / 233
5.1.1 Scale Analysis / 233
5.1.2 Criterion for Distinct Vertical Layers / 237
5.1.3 Criterion for Distinct Horizontal Jets / 238
5.2 Boundary Layer Regime / 241
5.3 Shallow Enclosure Limit / 248
5.4 Summary of Results for Heating from the Side / 255
5.4.1 Isothermal Sidewalls / 255
5.4.2 Sidewalls with Uniform Heat Flux / 259
5.4.3 Partially Divided Enclosures / 259
5.4.4 Triangular Enclosures / 262
5.5 Enclosures Heated from Below / 262
5.5.1 Heat Transfer Results / 263
5.5.2 Scale Theory of the Turbulent Regime / 265
5.5.3 Constructal Theory of B´enard Convection / 267
5.6 Inclined Enclosures / 274
5.7 Annular Space Between Horizontal Cylinders / 276
5.8 Annular Space Between Concentric Spheres / 278
5.9 Enclosures for Thermal Insulation and Mechanical
Strength / 278
References / 284
Problems / 289
6 Transition to Turbulence 295
6.1 Empirical Transition Data / 295
6.2 Scaling Laws of Transition / 297
6.3 Buckling of Inviscid Streams / 300
6.4 Local Reynolds Number Criterion for Transition / 304
6.5 Instability of Inviscid Flow / 307
6.6 Transition in Natural Convection on a Vertical Wall / 313
References / 315
Problems / 318
7 Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow 320
7.1 Large-Scale Structure / 320
7.2 Time-Averaged Equations / 322
7.3 Boundary Layer Equations / 325
7.4 Mixing Length Model / 328
7.5 Velocity Distribution / 329
7.6 Wall Friction in Boundary Layer Flow / 336
7.7 Heat Transfer in Boundary Layer Flow / 338
7.8 Theory of Heat Transfer in Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow / 342
7.9 Other External Flows / 347
7.9.1 Single Cylinder in Cross Flow / 347
7.9.2 Sphere / 349
7.9.3 Other Body Shapes / 350
7.9.4 Arrays of Cylinders in Cross Flow / 351
7.10 Natural Convection Along Vertical Walls / 356
References / 359
Problems / 361
8 Turbulent Duct Flow 369
8.1 Velocity Distribution / 369
8.2 Friction Factor and Pressure Drop / 371
8.3 Heat Transfer Coefficient / 376
8.4 Total Heat Transfer Rate / 380
8.4.1 Isothermal Wall / 380
8.4.2 Uniform Wall Heating / 382
8.4.3 Time-Dependent Heat Transfer / 382
8.5 More Refined Turbulence Models / 383
8.6 Heatlines in Turbulent Flow Near a Wall / 387
8.7 Channel Spacings for Turbulent Flow / 389
References / 390
Problems / 392
9 Free Turbulent Flows 398
9.1 Free Shear Layers / 398
9.1.1 Free Turbulent Flow Model / 398
9.1.2 Velocity Distribution / 401
9.1.3 Structure of Free Turbulent Flows / 402
9.1.4 Temperature Distribution / 404
9.2 Jets / 405
9.2.1 Two-Dimensional Jets / 406
9.2.2 Round Jets / 409
9.2.3 Jet in Density-Stratified Reservoir / 411
9.3 Plumes / 413
9.3.1 Round Plume and the Entrainment Hypothesis / 413
9.3.2 Pulsating Frequency of Pool Fires / 418
9.3.3 Geometric Similarity of Free Turbulent Flows / 421
9.4 Thermal Wakes Behind Concentrated Sources / 422
References / 425
Problems / 426
10 Convection with Change of Phase 428
10.1 Condensation / 428
10.1.1 Laminar Film on a Vertical Surface / 428
10.1.2 Turbulent Film on a Vertical Surface / 435
10.1.3 Film Condensation in Other Configurations / 438
10.1.4 Drop Condensation / 445
10.2 Boiling / 447
10.2.1 Pool Boiling Regimes / 447
10.2.2 Nucleate Boiling and Peak Heat Flux / 451
10.2.3 Film Boiling and Minimum Heat Flux / 454
10.2.4 Flow Boiling / 457
10.3 Contact Melting and Lubrication / 457
10.3.1 Plane Surfaces with Relative Motion / 458
10.3.2 Other Contact Melting Configurations / 462
10.3.3 Scale Analysis and Correlation / 464
10.3.4 Melting Due to Viscous Heating in the Liquid Film / 466
10.4 Melting By Natural Convection / 469
10.4.1 Transition from the Conduction Regime to the Convection Regime / 469
10.4.2 Quasisteady Convection Regime / 472
10.4.3 Horizontal Spreading of the Melt Layer / 474
References / 478
Problems / 482
11 Mass Transfer 489
11.1 Properties of Mixtures / 489
11.2 Mass Conservation / 492
11.3 Mass Diffusivities / 497
11.4 Boundary Conditions / 499
11.5 Laminar Forced Convection / 501
11.6 Impermeable Surface Model / 504
11.7 Other External Forced Convection Configurations / 506
11.8 Internal Forced Convection / 509
11.9 Natural Convection / 511
11.9.1 Mass-Transfer-Driven Flow / 512
11.9.2 Heat-Transfer-Driven Flow / 513
11.10 Turbulent Flow / 516
11.10.1 Time-Averaged Concentration Equation / 516
11.10.2 Forced Convection Results / 517
11.10.3 Contaminant Removal from a Ventilated Enclosure / 520
11.11 Massfunction and Masslines / 527
11.12 Effect of Chemical Reaction / 527
References / 531
Problems / 532
12 Convection in Porous Media 537
12.1 Mass Conservation / 537
12.2 Darcy Flow Model and the Forchheimer Modification / 540
12.3 First Law of Thermodynamics / 542
12.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics / 546
12.5 Forced Convection / 547
12.5.1 Boundary Layers / 547
12.5.2 Concentrated Heat Sources / 552
12.5.3 Sphere and Cylinder in Cross Flow / 553
12.5.4 Channel Filled with Porous Medium / 554
12.6 Natural Convection Boundary Layers / 555
12.6.1 Boundary Layer Equations: Vertical Wall / 555
12.6.2 Uniform Wall Temperature / 556
12.6.3 Uniform Wall Heat Flux / 558
12.6.4 Spacings for Channels Filled with Porous Structures / 559
12.6.5 Conjugate Boundary Layers / 562
12.6.6 Thermal Stratification / 563
12.6.7 Sphere and Horizontal Cylinder / 566
12.6.8 Horizontal Walls / 567
12.6.9 Concentrated Heat Sources / 567
12.7 Enclosed Porous Media Heated from the Side / 571
12.7.1 Four Heat Transfer Regimes / 571
12.7.2 Convection Results / 575
12.8 Penetrative Convection / 577
12.8.1 Lateral Penetration / 577
12.8.2 Vertical Penetration / 578
12.9 Enclosed Porous Media Heated from Below / 579
12.9.1 Onset of Convection / 579
12.9.2 Darcy Flow / 583
12.9.3 Forchheimer Flow / 585
12.10 Multiple Flow Scales Distributed Nonuniformly / 587
12.10.1 Heat Transfer / 590
12.10.2 Fluid Friction / 591
12.10.3 Heat Transfer Rate Density: The Smallest Scale for Convection / 591
12.11 Natural Porous Media: Alternating Trees / 592
References / 595
Problems / 598
Appendixes 607
A Constants and Conversion Factors / 609
B Properties of Solids / 615
C Properties of Liquids / 625
D Properties of Gases / 633
E Mathematical Formulas / 639
Author Index 641
Subject Index 653