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Convergence of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender : The Multiple Identities in Counseling

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780131186101

ISBN10:
0131186108
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

For courses in Multicultural Counseling and Cross-Cultural Psychology. This text presents diversity from a much broader perspective than just race and ethnicity, exploring a broad spectrum of cultural and diversity issues and their impact upon the client-counselor relationship. The author, herself an African-American, examines the dominant cultural beliefs and values in the United States, and discusses how their nearly wholesale acceptance as "normal" and "better" can perpetuate feelings of inadequacy, shame, confusion, and distrust on both sides of the counseling "couch." Embracing feminist and diversity theories, methods, and techniques, while injecting humor and fascinating stories, she has created a genuinely insightful and thoroughly practical volume.

Table of Contents

Part One Imaging Diversity
Chapter 1 Multiple Identities: Defined
MULTICULTURALISM IN COUNSELING DEFINED
3(1)
DIVERSE IDENTITIES: AN OVERVIEW
4(2)
A, B, AND C DIMENSIONS
6(1)
CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE SELF
6(1)
IMAGES OF DIVERSE IDENTITIES
7(10)
Culture
7(2)
Race
9(1)
Ethnicity
10(1)
Gender
11(2)
Sexuality
13(1)
Disability
13(1)
Socioeconomic Class
14(2)
Spirituality
16(1)
IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS
17(1)
CASE STUDY: NOT WANTING TO BE INSENSITIVE
17(1)
SUMMARY
18(1)
REFERENCES
19(3)
Chapter 2 Multicultural Competencies and Skills
22(18)
MULTICULTURAL COMPETENCIES: AN OVERVIEW
24(5)
Counselor Awareness of Own Cultural Values and Biases
25(1)
Counselor Awareness of Client's Worldview
26(1)
Culturally Appropriate Intervention Strategies
27(2)
DIVERSITY TRAINING IN COUNSELING: AN OVERVIEW
29(1)
A MODEL FOR MULTICULTURAL COUNSELOR TRAINING PROGRAMS
30(1)
ASSESSMENT AND DIVERSITY
31(2)
IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS
33(1)
CASE STUDY: ACROSS THE PACIFIC, HOME
34(3)
SUMMARY
37(1)
REFERENCES
37(3)
Chapter 3 Statused Identities
40(20)
IDENTITIES AS STATUS: THE CONTEXTUAL AND SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF DIFFERENCES MODEL
42(2)
ASSUMPTIONS OF HIERARCHICAL SOCIALIZATION PATTERNS
44(10)
Racism
44(4)
Patriarchy
48(1)
Sexism
49(1)
Homophobia
50(1)
Able-Body-ism
51(1)
Class Elitism
52(1)
Ageism
53(1)
IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS
54(1)
CASE STUDY: MULTIPLE AND TEXTURED IDENTITIES
55(2)
SUMMARY
57(1)
REFERENCES
58(2)
Part Two Valued Cultures
Chapter 4 Native Americans and Alaskan Natives
60(18)
HISTORY
62(2)
DEMOGRAPHY
64(1)
CULTURAL PHILOSOPHIES AND ORIENTATION
65(2)
ACCULTURATION
67(1)
SOCIAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, AND PHYSICAL HEALTH ISSUES
68(1)
CASE STUDY: A WOUNDED SPIRIT
69(1)
IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS
70(1)
SUMMARY
71(1)
REFERENCES
72(6)
Chapter 5 Latinos 76
THE SPANISH, INDIANS, ASIANS, AND AFRICANS
78(1)
DEMOGRAPHY
78(2)
SOCIAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, AND PHYSICAL HEALTH ISSUES
80(1)
MIGRATORY PATTERNS FROM MEXICO
81(1)
CULTURAL ORIENTATION AND VALUES
81(3)
CASE STUDY: LA MUJER Y LA FAMILIA
84(1)
IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS
85(2)
SUMMARY
87(1)
REFERENCES
88(2)
Chapter 6 People of African Descent
90(16)
DEMOGRAPHY AND THE DIASPORA
92(1)
HISTORY, 500-1500 A.D.
92(1)
THE SLAVE TRADE
93(1)
RESISTANCE TO SLAVERY
94(2)
DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS
96(1)
SOCIAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, AND PHYSICAL HEALTH ISSUES
97(1)
CULTURAL ORIENTATION AND VALUES
98(3)
CASE STUDY: CHRONIC POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER
101(2)
IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS
103(1)
SUMMARY
104(1)
REFERENCES
104(2)
Chapter 7 People of Asian Descent, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders
106(18)
DEMOGRAPHY
108(1)
MIGRATORY PATTERNS
109(2)
ACCULTURATION AND EXPERIENCES IN AMERICA
111(2)
SOCIAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND HEALTH ISSUES
113(2)
CULTURAL ORIENTATION AND VALUES
115(2)
CASE STUDY: DUAL DIAGNOSIS
117(2)
IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS
119(2)
SUMMARY
121(1)
REFERENCES
121(3)
Part Three Converging Identities
Chapter 8 Converging Race
124(24)
RACE AND SCIENCE
126(1)
ORIGINS OF RACIAL GROUPS
127(1)
RACE AS A SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION
128(1)
RACIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT
129(9)
Cross's Nigresence Model
129(2)
Native American Identity
131(1)
Multiracial Identity Development
131(1)
Latino Identity Development
132(1)
Asian American Identity Development
133(2)
White Racial Identity Development
135(1)
Additional Measures of Identity
136(1)
Optimal Theory Applied to Identity Development
137(1)
A BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF THE RESEARCH
138(2)
IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS
140(1)
CASE STUDY: NOT WANTING TO BE RACIST
141(2)
SUMMARY
143(1)
REFERENCES
144(4)
Chapter 9 Converging Gender
148(20)
GENDER DEFINITIONS
150(1)
GENDER AND BIOLOGY
151(1)
THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF GENDER
151(1)
SEX ROLE TYPOLOGY
152(3)
SEX AND GENDER ROLES
155(1)
GENDER AND EMOTION
156(2)
GENDER-BASED IDENTITY MODELS
158(2)
The Womanist Model
158(35)
White Male Identity Development Model
159(1)
IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS
160(2)
CASE STUDY: I WISH
162(2)
SUMMARY
164(1)
REFERENCES
165(3)
Chapter 10 Converging Socioeconomic Class
168(18)
CLASS: AN IDENTITY CONSTRUCT
170(1)
THE NEGLECT OF CLASS AS A STATUS VARIABLE
171(1)
MIDDLE-CLASS BIAS AND COUNSELOR TRAINING
172(3)
THE FLUIDITY OF CLASS
175(1)
MIDDLE-CLASS BIAS AND ETHICAL STANDARDS
176(2)
CULTURAL LINKS AND CLASS EFFECTS
178(2)
RACE, GENDER, AND CLASS
180(2)
IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS
182(1)
CASE STUDY: CLASS DIVIDE
183(1)
SUMMARY
184(1)
REFERENCES
184(2)
Chapter 11 Converging Sexual Orientation
186(20)
DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY 188 NARRATIVE QUESTIONS
191(1)
THE IMPORTANCE OF A FOCUS ON GAY, LESBIAN, BISEXUAL, AND TRANSGENDER ISSUES IN COUNSELING
191(2)
DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESSES
193(6)
Cass's Model of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Sexual Identity Formation
193(5)
Troiden's Homosexual Identity Development Model
198(1)
Sullivan's Model of Sexual Identity Development
199(1)
IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS
199(1)
COUNSELING GAYS, LESBIANS, AND BISEXUALS OF COLOR
199(2)
CASE STUDY: STAYING CLOSETED OR COMING OUT
201(2)
SUMMARY
203(1)
REFERENCES
204(2)
Chapter 12 Converging Physical Attractiveness, Ability, and Disability
206(20)
PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS AS A STATUS VARIABLE
208(1)
THE CONVERGENCE OF PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS WITH GENDER AND RACE
209(5)
SEX ROLE TYPOLOGY, BODY IMAGE, AND SATISFACTION
214(2)
MEN AND BODY IMAGE
216(1)
DISABILITY AND EXPERIENCES IN AND OF THE BODY
217(3)
IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS
220(1)
CASE STUDY: REDEFINING MANHOOD
220(2)
SUMMARY
222(1)
REFERENCES
222(4)
Part Four Reimaging Counseling
Chapter 13 Diversity in Relationships
226(20)
CASE STUDY: TWO WHITE MOTHERS, ONE BLACK MALE CHILD
228(1)
DEMOGRAPHIC OVERVIEW OF LIVING AND FAMILY ARRANGEMENTS
228(2)
THE ECONOMY AND RELATIONSHIPS
230(1)
GENDER AND RELATIONSHIPS
230(3)
COUNSELING THEORIES FOR FAMILY PRACTICE
233(4)
Structural Family Therapy
233(1)
Subsystems
234(1)
Boundaries
235(1)
Goals
236(1)
MULTICULTURAL THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES IN FAMILY THERAPY
237(5)
Native American Indians
238(1)
Latinos
239(1)
Blacks and African Americans
240(1)
Asian Americans
241(1)
IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS
242(1)
SUMMARY
242(1)
REFERENCES
243(3)
Chapter 14 Mutuality, Empathy, and Empowerment in Therapy
246(12)
POWER AND POWERLESSNESS
248(1)
POWER AND THE THERAPEUTIC PROCESS
249(2)
GENDER, EMPOWERMENT, AND THERAPY
251(1)
FEMINIST THERAPY FOR WOMEN AND MEN
252(2)
IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS
254(1)
GROUP CASE STUDY: FIRM GROUND
255(1)
SUMMARY
256(1)
REFERENCES
256(2)
Chapter 15 Diverse Counseling and Healing Strategies
258(15)
HEALTHY RESISTANCE
260(2)
Umoja
262(1)
CASE STUDY: UMOJA
262(1)
Kujichagalia
263(1)
CASE STUDY: KUJICHAGALIA
263(1)
Ujima
264(1)
CASE STUDY: UJIMA
264(1)
Ujaama
264(1)
CASE STUDY: UJAAMA
264(1)
Nia
265(1)
CASE STUDY: NIA
265(1)
Kuumba
265(1)
CASE STUDY: KUUMBA
266(1)
Imani
266(1)
CASE STUDY: IMANI
266(1)
NARRATIVE THERAPY
266(1)
ALTERNATIVE HEALING STRATEGIES
267(3)
Effective Lay-Led Healing
268(2)
Other Approaches
270(1)
Creative Arts
270(1)
Wellness
270(1)
IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS
270(1)
RELABELING AND REFRAMING
271(1)
SUMMARY
271(1)
REFERENCES
272(1)
Epilogue 273(2)
Name Index 275(6)
Subject Index 281

Excerpts

As we learn to bear the intimacy of scrutiny and to flourish within it, as we learn to use the products of that scrutiny for power within our living, those fears which rule our lives and form our silences begin to lose their control over us. --Audre Lorde, Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches In 1989, as a new Assistant Professor, I started talking about convergence. What I meant by convergence was the intersections of race, ethnicity, gender, and other primary identity constructs within the context of counseling. Each of these constructs is critical to a person's emotional and psychological development and each intersects with other human dimensions. Recently, these intersecting identities have been receiving greater attention in the multicultural counseling literature. Prior to this, much of the literature focused on individual aspects of identity (most often race, culture, or ethnicity) and their subsequent influences on a cross-cultural counseling event in which the client was a person of color and the counselor was not. A consideration of how multiple identities, visible and invisible, converge simultaneously and affect development, behavior, and the counseling event itself was missing. This new paradigm for imaging differences, both visible and invisible, allows each of us to engage in the unrelenting process of increasing self-awareness as gendered, cultural, racial, ethnic, sexual, and cultural beings influenced by class, ability, and disability That differences exist is not refuted nor regarded as problematic. The inequity promoted and perpetuated within a society in which immutable human characteristics hold rank is the problem. Multicultural counseling emphasizes an ecological framework in which person-environment interaction, culture, ethnicity, family, collective society, history, and spirituality are regarded as fundamental to understanding the client in therapy. Multicultural counseling also recognizes the way in which dominant cultural beliefs and values furnish and perpetuate feelings of inadequacy, shame, confusion, and distrust for clients in both the counseling process and the larger society The overall goal of this work is to engage in a dialectical, "both/and" discussion about how identity constructs operate conjointly in people's lives to affect personal development and problem presentation in counseling. The response to the first edition from colleagues and students has been inspiring and humbling. This second edition offers an updated format with new chapters, case studies, and storytellings. New and existing theories and research are discussed, and greater attention is devoted to the application of clinical practice. In a spirit ofUmoja(unity) andUjima(collective work and responsibility), 1 acknowledge and celebrate the good work that elders, colleagues, and students have done and continue to do in multicultural counseling. A MESSAGE TO STUDENTS The material presented in this book can provoke dissonance. Students often feel fatigued, guilty, and put off by their new feelings and the voices of others that they have never truly heard before, both within the book and within the context of the course where this book is used. Once the course is finished and you have your grade, it is easy to retreat to more comfortable pre-cross-cultural class experiences. However, if you are to become a multiculturally competent counselor, your thoughts, actions, behaviors, and beliefs about yourself and others need to "bear the intimacy of scrutiny and to flourish within it." The process of transformation moves you toward strategies and solutions to change the social structure and become an advocate and change agent for the long haul. I welcome you to this exploration. Please read the storytellings and case studies, and listen to other people's stories, and mine, and your own as well. Although growth cannot happen without disequi


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