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This is a revision of an introduction to mass communication text that uses the technologies we employ every day to explain our current media environment and predict how it might change. Rather than discussing each media industry in isolation, Converging Media shows how each branch of media -print, visual, and audio - relates to and influences the others. This enables students to see the inextricable and dynamic relationship between new media and traditional media formats.We reviewed the current edition of Converging Media. In response to these reviews, the authors have decided to shift the chapter on ethics nearer the chapter on law while still maintaining an early introduction to the topic and integrating it throughout the text. In addition to updating examples,the authors will add more content on media economics to better compete with the Vivian text. Pavlik and McIntosh will also be adding content on global media, hyperlocal media, and other emerging media types, including social media. The number and quality of end-of-chapter questions will beincreased and the number of International Perspectives doubled. The authors will also introduce a new feature box containing inspirational stories about famous journalists, and all existing feature boxes will be updated to contain photo captions and reflection questions. The glossary will be editedfor consistency and to include page numbers. The book will undergo a robust copyedit to minimize repetition and streamline the prose for intro-course accessibility. The interior will be redesigned along the lines of the Rodman text. The photography program will be updated for an edgier look, and the font used for the marginal definitionswill be changed. Lastly, the PowerPoints to be distributed via the Instructor's Resource CD and Companion Website will be redone so that they are less crowded and reflect good practice.
Table of Contents
Preface About the Authors Part 1: The Changing Media Landscape Chapter 1: Mass Communication and its Digital Transformation Telephony: Case Study in Convergence Three Types of Convergence -Technological Convergence -Economic Convergence -Cultural Convergence Implications of Convergence -Media Organization Changes -Media Type Changes -Media Content Changes -Media Use Changes -Media Distribution Changes -Media Audience Changes -Media Profession Changes -Attitude and Value Changes Mass Communication in the Digital Age -Interpersonal Communication -Mass Communication -Mass Communication and Convergence Functions of Mass Communication -Surveillance -Correlation -Cultural Transmission -Entertainment Theories of Communication -Transmission Models -Critical Theory and Cultural Studies Television: The Future of Convergence Looking Back and Moving Forward Discussion Questions Further Reading Features Media Quiz: The Nature of "Intermass" Communication Convergence Context: User-Generated Content: Creativity or Piracy? Convergence Culture: Mapping Sex Offenders International Perspectives: Crying in a BMW Chapter 2: Media Literacy in the Digital Age Education and Media What is Media Literacy? Historical Development of Media -Regulatory Factors -Sociocultural Factors -Technological Factors -Economic Factors Media Grammar -Print Media -Radio and Recorded Music -Film and Television Commercial Forces on Media Content -Profit and Nonprofit Media -Commercial Forces in Public Service Media -Product Placement and Corporate Sponsorship -Concentration of Media Ownership Historical Development of Digital Media Discussing Digital Media: Networks Are Key The World of Digital Media -Digital Print --Digital Books --Digital Newspapers and Magazines -Digital Audio -Digital Visual Media Digital Media Grammar -Multimedia -Interactivity -Automation -Ethereality Commercial Forces on Digital Media Content -The Open-Source Movement -Revenue Models for Digital Media --Advertising --Subscriptions --Ecommerce Looking Back and Moving Forward Discussion Questions Further Reading Media Quiz Answers Features Media Quiz: How Media Literate Are You? Ethics in Media: The Filter Bubble Convergence Culture: Text Messaging and the Thumb Tribe International Perspectives: Mobile Telephony in the Developing World Convergence Context: Wikipedia in Our Cites: The Trouble with Collaborative Knowledge Part 2: Mass Communication Formats Chapter 3: Print Media: Books, Newspapers, and Magazines Functions of Print Media -Transmission of Culture -Diffusion of Ideas and Knowledge -Entertainment Distinctive Functions of Books History of Books to Today -Monastic Scribes -Johannes Gutenberg -Beginnings of Mass Communication and Mass Literacy -Cheaper and Smaller Books --Dime Novels --Mass-Market Paperbacks --Print-on-Demand Current Book Industry Issues Sales and Readership of Books Outlook for Books Distinctive Functions of Newspapers -Local Newspapers -National Newspapers History of Newspapers to Today -The Commercial Press and Partisan Press -Colonial Readership and Finances -The Golden Age of Newspapers Current Newspaper Industry Issues -Newspaper Chains --Benefits of Chains --Problems with Chains Leading Newspaper Chains Declining Number of Daily Newspapers Sales and Readership of Newspapers -Circulation and Readership -Advertising Outlook for Newspapers Distinctive Functions of Magazines History of Magazines to Today Current Magazine Industry Issues Sales and Readership of Magazines Outlook for Magazines Looking Back and Moving Forward Discussion Questions Further Reading Features Media Quiz: Print Media International Perspectives: Education for All 2015 Timeline: History (and Pre-History) of Newspapers Convergence Culture: Freesheets: Riding the Rails of Newspapers' Future? Convergence Context: Will Printing on Dead Trees Ever Die? Chapter 4: Audio Media: Music Recordings, Radio The Recording Industry Distinctive Functions of the Recorded-Music Industry History of Recorded Music The Recorded-Music Industry Today Recording-Industry Business Model -Creation -Promotion -Distribution -Pricing Structure Outlook for the Recording Industry -Digital Rights Management and Illegal File Sharing -New Business Models Emerging What Is Broadcasting? Radio Distinctive Functions of Radio History of Radio -Wireless Telegraphy -Exploring Radio's Early Potential -Voice Transmission -Radio Before, During, and After WWI -Widespread Public Adoption of Radio -FM Radio, Edwin Howard Armstrong, and David Sarnoff -Creating a Viable Business Model for Radio -The Rise of Radio Networks -Consolidation in Radio Station Ownership The Radio Industry Today -Radio Station Programming Outlook for the Radio Industry -Podcasting -Satellite Radio Looking Back and Moving Forward Discussion Questions Further Readings Media Quiz Answers Features Media Quiz: The Revolution Will Not Be Televised (It Will Be Listened To) Convergence Context: The Alphabet Soup of Spectrum Allocation Timeline: Milestones in Early Radio-Technology Development Ethics in Media: On Call...And On the Radio Convergence Culture: NPR and PRI: America's Public Radio Networks International Perspectives: Trusting in the Power of the Airwaves Chapter 5: Visual Media: Movies and Television Photography -History of Photography -Seeing Beyond the Human Eye -Photographic Industry Today Movies -The Functions of the Movie Industry History of the Movie Industry -Silent Era: New Medium, New Technologies, New Storytelling --George Méliès and D.W. Griffith --F.W. Murnau and Sergei Eisenstein -Sound and Color Come to Movies -The Birth of Hollywood --Hollywood Star System Movie Industry Today Marketing and Distribution for Movies Movie Industry Business Model Outlook for Movie Industry Television -Functions of Television History of Television Industry -Seeing the Light: The First Television Systems -Modern Television Takes Shape Digital Television: Preparing the Way for Convergence -The Rise of Flat-Panel Displays Television Distribution -Broadcast TV -Cable TV -Satellite TV Television Industry Today -Cable System Structure -Satellite vs. Cable Television Industry Business Model -Cable and Satellite Services and Programming: Overcoming Audience Fragmentation Outlook for Television Industry Looking Back and Moving Forward Discussion Questions Further Reading Media Quiz Answers Features Media Quiz: Eye-Q Test Timeline: Development of Photography Ethics in Media: Photojournalist's Dilemma: Sudan, Starvation, and Suicide Timeline: Selected Milestones in Early Motion Pictures Convergence Context: 3-D Movies: What will be the impact? Convergence Culture: A Brief History of Interactive TV Part 3: How Digital Media Are Changing Our World Chapter 6: Information Overload, Usability, and Interactive Media Characteristics of Storage, Representation, and Retrieval -Longevity -Capacity -Portability -Accessibility -Reproducibility Nonelectronic Media Versus Electronic Media Social and Political Impact of Storing Information -Stone Tablets to Papyrus -Vellum to Paper -The Kitchen Debate to Watergate -Rodney King to the Oval Office -Email to Facebook Managing Information -Development of Digital Storage Devices -Compression of Digital Audio and Video -The Role of Search Engines -Social and Political Impact of Information Overload The Importance of User Interface Current Problems with User Interface Development of the Digital User Interface -The Television Screen -Television and Remote Control -The Computer Interface -The Creation of Intuitive Interfaces --Keyboards --Computer Mouse --Touch-Sensitive Screens --Natural Input Methods -Graphical User Interface The Desktop Metaphor Implications of User Interface for Mass Communication Interactive Media Interactivity Defined The Importance of Interactive Media Ethics of Interactive Media -Free Speech For Everyone? -Interactive Advertising -Search Engine Keywords Looking Back and Moving Forward Discussion Questions Further Reading Media Quiz Answers Features Media Quiz: Searching for Knowledge Timeline: Development of Electronic Recording Devices Timeline: Development of Digital Storage Media Convergence Context: Do's and Don'ts of Evaluating Information Online International Perspectives: The Internet of Babel Convergence Culture: Douglas Englebart: Visionary of Computing's Future Chapter 7: Networks and Digital Distribution Historical Influences on Modern Networks -Government and Private Industry -Evolving Technology: From the Telegraph to Fiber Optics --Telegraphy --Telephony -Radio and Television -Satellites -Fiber Optics Historical Development of the Internet and World Wide Web -Creating an Internet Protocol -Creating the World Wide Web -Creating Graphical Web Browsers The Internet Today -Bandwidth -Telephone and Cable Company Broadband Services -Broadband Changing Consumer Patterns --Social Effects of Broadband The Nature of Networks: Key Concepts -Sarnoff's Law -Metcalfe's Law -Reed's Law Computer Networks: Key Concepts -Peer-to-Peer Model -Client/Server Model -Wireless Networks -Connectivity -Quality of Service Characteristics of Digital Distribution -Distributing Bits -Low Distribution Costs -Perfect Infinite Copies -Instantaneous Distribution -New Distribution Dynamics -The Audience as Distributor File-Sharing Services -Centralized File Sharing: The Case of Napster -Decentralized File Sharing --Gnutella --Freenet --Jabber -Streaming File Sharing: The Next Wave New Distribution Technologies, New Legal, Ethical, and Social Issues -Legal Issues -Ethical Issues -Social Issues Looking Back and Moving Forward Discussion Questions Further Reading Media Quiz Answers Features Media Quiz: Network Knowledge Media Pioneers: Reuters and the Creation of News Wire Services International Perspectives: Al-Jazeera: CNN of the Middle East? Timeline: Milestones in the Development of the Internet Convergence Context: The Great Network Neutrality Debate Convergence Culture: SETI@Home: Is There Anybody Out There? Chapter 8: Social Media and Web 2.0 Defining Social Media -Differences with Traditional Media What Is "Social" About Social Media? -Choice -Conversation -Curation -Creation -Collaboration Types of Social Media -Email -Discussion Boards and Web Forums -Chat Rooms -Blogs --Micro-blogs -Wikis -Social-networking Sites Why Social Networks Matter Collaborative Media Work -Changing Audiences: From Consumers to "Producers" -Reputation, Ratings, and Trust Ethical and Legal Issues with Social Media -Privacy -Transparency Looking Back and Moving Forward Discussion Questions Further Reading Media Quiz Answer Features Media Quiz: How Connected Are You? International Perspectives: Lily Allen: MySpace Star Reaches the Stars Convergence Culture: Are We Really Separated by Six Degrees? Convergence Context: Web 3.0: The Semantic Web Part 4: Media Perspectives Chapter 9: Journalism: From Information to Participation What Is News? The Historical Development of Journalism -Objectivity and the Associated Press -Pulitzer and Hearst: The Circulation Wars, Sensationalism, and Standards --Joseph Pulitzer --William Randolph Hearst -The Muckrakers -The Rise of Electronic Journalism --Murrow and News in TV's Golden Age --Changes in Television News -Foundations of Journalism -The Hutchins Commission and A Free and Responsible Press -Separation of Editorial and Business Operations -Fairness and Balance in News Coverage -Framing the News -Expert Sources From Event to Public Eye: How News Is Created -Gathering the News -Producing the News -Distributing the News Types of Journalism -Alternative Journalism -Public Journalism -Citizen Journalism -An International Perspective Journalism in the Digital World -The 24/7 News Cycle -Nontraditional News Sources -Online Users' Media Habits -Personalization -Contextualization of News -Convergent Journalism The Business of Journalism -Salaries -Diversity in the Newsroom Careers in Journalism Looking Back and Moving Forward Discussion Questions Further Reading Media Quiz Answers Features Media Quiz: A Nose for News Media Pioneers: Mary Shadd Cary and the Role of Minority Newspapers International Perspectives: Covering Islam Convergence Culture: Platypus Journalism: Journalism's Future, or Evolutionary Dead End? Ethics In Media: Do the Ends Justify the Means? Convergence Context: ProPublica: Reviving Investigative Journalism Chapter 10: Entertainment Functions of Entertainment The Historical Development of Entertainment Entertainment Media Television -Early Days: Programming and Genre Influences -Pushing the Programming Envelope -The MTV Generation and the Rise of Cable -Cable Comes of Age -Public Service Broadcasting: Public Service in a Commercial World -Types of Programming --Changes in Media, Changes in Programming --Filling the Days --Filling the Nights --Sports --Reality Shows Movies -Hollywood's Legendary Movie Moguls --The Warner Brothers --Walt Disney --Samuel Goldwyn --Marcus Loew: Mogul of the East --Louis B. Mayer - Film Genres -The Director as Auteur -Technological Influences on Movie Genres -Other Entertainment Sources for Movies -DVDs and Netflix Video Games -The Rise of Social Games Music -From Tin Pan Alley to Hollywood -Roots of Rock and Roll -Redefining Rock -Music and MTV Books and Magazines Entertainment and Law -The Censorship of Comics -The Hays Code The Business of Entertainment -Careers in Entertainment -Salaries in Entertainment Looking Back and Moving Forward Discussion Questions Further Reading Features Media Quiz: Are You an Entertainment Junkie? International Perspectives: Copyright and International Piracy in the Digital Era Convergence Culture: The Quiz Show That Became a Town Convergence Context: Is Playing Video Games Bad for You? Ethics in Media: Jersey Shore and the G Word Chapter 11: Advertising and Public Relations: The Power of Persuasion Strategic Communications -Persuasive Communications -The Role of Media in Persuasion Advertising -The Historical Development of Advertising --Greater Prominence of Advertising --Development of the Advertising Agency --Growth of Commercial Television --Commercialization of the Internet -The Rise of Branding -Selling Products, Selling Ideas -Advertising Channels --Print Media --Electronic Media --Outdoor --Direct Mail -Advertising in a Digital World --Email Marketing --Banner Ads --Pop-Ups, Interstitials, Superstitials, and Video --Classifieds and Auction Sites --Search Engine Ads --Behavioral Advertising --Viral Marketing -The Advertising Business -Advertising Agencies Public Relations -The Historical Development of Public Relations -Trends in the Development of Public Relations -PR and Media Relations --Pseudo Events --Distributing News to the Media in the Digital Age --Finding Sources Online -PR Firms and the PR Industry Changing Trends in Advertising and PR -Careers in Advertising and PR Looking Back and Moving Forward Discussion Questions Further Reading Media Quiz Answers Features Media Quiz: The Dynamics of Persuasion Convergence Context: Me 2.0: The Guide to Branding Yourself Convergence Culture: Going Viral International Perspectives: Finding the Right Formula for Advertising Regulations Ethics in Media: Fooling Most of the People Most of the TimeDigitally Part 5: Media and Society Chapter 12: Media Ethics Ethics, Morals, and Laws Major Systems of Ethical Reasoning -Character, or Virtue Ethics --The Golden Rule --The Golden Mean -Duties --The Categorical Imperative -Discourse Ethics --Consequences --Utilitarianism --Social Justice -Relationships, or Dialogical Ethics --Ethics of Care -Moral Relativism Issues in Ethical Decision-Making -The Role of Commercialism in Media Ethics -Media Types Influencing Content -New Worlds-Or Cultural Imperialism? Ethics in Journalism -Privacy Rights vs. the Public's Right to Know -Going Undercover -Victimizing the Victims -Society of Professional Journalists Code of Ethics Ethics in Advertising -Deceptive Advertising -Puffery -Conflicts of Interest in Advertising -Advertising Codes of Ethics Ethics in PR -Conflicts of Interest in PR -Public Relations Codes of Ethics Ethics in Entertainment -Stereotypes in Entertainment -Sex and Violence Looking Back and Moving Forward Discussion Questions Further Reading Features Media Quiz: How Moral Are You? Convergence Context: Selling a War Chapter 13: Communication Law and Regulation in the Digital Age The Legal Framework The Foundations of Freedom of Expression -National Security --Clear and Present Danger --Prior Restraint -Libel --New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) --Protecting Journalists Against Libel --Shield Laws -Censorship --Indecent Content --Obscenity --Criticism, Ridicule, or Humor The Evolution of Regulating Electronic Media -Early Days and the Radio Act of 1912 (1911-1926) -Increasing Regulation and the Federal Radio Commission (1927-1933) -The Communications Act and Spectrum Scarcity (1934-1995) -The Telecommunications Act and Its Effects (1996-present) -Electronic Media Regulation Internationally The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) -Regulating Radio and Television -Universal Service -The FCC, Station ID, and License Renewal -FCC Limits on Stations -Spectrum Auction The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) -Commercial Speech --Tobacco and Alcohol Advertising --Unclear Regulatory Boundaries -Political Speech --Equal-Time Rule --Fairness Doctrine Children's Programming Protections -The Children's Television Act -Violent and Sexual Programming: The V-Chip Intellectual Property Rights -Fair Use Legal Issues in the Digital World -Digital Rights Management -Privacy -Content Rights and Responsibilities Looking Back and Moving Forward Discussion Questions Further Reading Media Quiz Answers Features Media Quiz: Legal Limits Convergence Culture: (Low) Power to the People International Perspectives: The Rise and Fall of Russian Media Convergence Context: Jailed as a Journalist Chapter 14: Media Theory and Research: From Writing to Text Messaging The Role of Theory and Research Early Concerns of Media Effects What Makes Mediated Communication Different -Semiotics -Framing Mass Society, Mass Communication Media-Effects Research -Propaganda and the Magic Bullet -Payne Fund -Radio's Wider Impact -Television and Violence -Limited Effects --Cultivation Analysis --Spiral of Silence --Third-Person Effect -Criticisms of Media Effects Research Understanding the Audience -Audiences Creating Meaning --Uses and Gratifications --Encoding/Decoding --Reception Analysis -Audiences as Consumers, Users, or Produsers? Cultural Studies -Ideology and the Culture Industry -Criticisms of Cultural Studies Socio-Historical Frameworks -Information Society -Political Economy -Media Ecology -Agenda-Setting Media Research: What Type of Science Is It? -Quantitative Research -Qualitative Research -Qualitative and Quantitative Research Working Together Looking Back and Moving Forward Discussion Questions Further Reading Media Quiz Answers Features Media Quiz: Bringing Out Your Inner Researcher Convergence Culture: Advertising's Potential Negative Effects on Women-And Men Convergence Context: It's a Mean, Mean World--At Least on TV International Perspectives: Theories Old, Theories New, Theories Borrowed. . . Chapter 15: Mass Communication and Politics in the Digital Age Four Theories of International Mass Communication -The Authoritarian Theory -The Libertarian Theory -The Social Responsibility Theory -The Soviet Theory The Public, the Public Sphere, and Public Opinion Political Issues with Media -Media in Developing Countries -The Digital Divide Role of Media in Political Elections -Sound Bites and Horse Races -The Changing Tone of Television Political Coverage -Opinion Polls -Political Advertising --The Impact of Negative Advertising --Negative Advertising Effectiveness --Political Debates The Internet and Political Campaigns -The Role of YouTube -Changing Rules for Politicians Online Media and Political Communications Looking Back and Moving Forward Discussion Questions Further Reading Media Quiz Answers Features Media Quiz: Playing Politics International Perspectives: Searching for Truth: Self-Censorship in China Convergence Context: Sound Bite Shakespeare Ethics in Media: Can Imagery Lead to Action? Convergence Culture: Image Is Everything Glossary Notes Credits Index