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Converging Media A New Introduction to Mass Communication,9780199342303
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Converging Media A New Introduction to Mass Communication

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780199342303

ISBN10:
019934230X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/31/2014
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press
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Summary

From reading newspapers on smartphones to calling friends on the computer, digital media has changed the ways in which we communicate. Placing convergence at the center of the discussion, Converging Media: A New Introduction to Mass Communication, Fourth Edition, uses the technologies we employ every day to explain our current media environment--and to project where we might be headed. Rather than discussing each media industry in isolation, authors John V. Pavlik and Shawn McIntosh show how each branch of media--print, visual, and audio--relates to and influences the others. This enables students to see the inextricable and dynamic relationship between converging media and traditional media formats.

Learn about topics and examples that are relevant to your everyday life:
* A new chapter 6 on "Interactive Media: The Internet, Video Games, and Augmented Reality"
* A new chapter 14 on "Global Media in the Digital Age"
* Increased emphasis on how social media is changing our world in Chapter 7, "The Impact of Social Media"
* New "Media Pioneers" boxes provide portraits of a diverse array of individuals, past and present, who have made an impact on media history in the five major career areas: Public Relations, Advertising, Broadcasting/Electronic Media, Journalism, and Media Studies

Become a well-rounded expert in mass communication:
* Streamlined content presents a clearer, more accessible narrative that integrates technology, culture, and economic factors more closely
* Increased coverage of the effects of ethics and bias on the media
* Updated coverage throughout, including interpersonal and mass communication convergence, gamification, augmented reality, cyber security, and the third screen

Thought-provoking questions and engaging visuals:
* Stunning new infographic-style art presents key concepts visually
* Critical-thinking questions in specific photo captions ask you to analyze specific aspects of the media
* Media Quizzes now contain more open-ended questions to stimulate critical thinking

Author Biography


John V. Pavlik is Professor in the Department of Journalism and Media Studies at the School of Communication and Information at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey.

Shawn McIntosh is a lecturer in strategic communications at Columbia University's School of Continuing Education.

Table of Contents


Contents
Preface
About the Authors
PART 1. THE CHANGING MEDIA LANDSCAPE
1. Mass Communication and Its Digital Transformation
Telephony: Case Study in Convergence
Three Types of Convergence
--Technological Convergence
--Economic Convergence
--Cultural Convergence
Implications of Convergence
--Media Organization Changes
--Media Type Changes
--Media Content Changes
--Media Use Changes
--Media Distribution Changes
--Media Audience Changes
--Media Profession Changes
--Attitude and Value Changes
Mass Communication in the Digital Age
--Interpersonal Communication
--Mass Communication
--Mass Communication and Convergence
Functions of Mass Communication
--Surveillance
--Correlation
--Cultural Transmission
--Entertainment
Theories of Communication
--Transmission Models
--Critical Theory and Cultural Studies
Television: The Future of Convergence
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Features
--Media Quiz: The Nature of "Intermass" Communication
--Media Pioneers: Steve Jobs
--International Perspectives: Crying in a BMW
--Convergence Culture: User-Generated Content: Creativity or Piracy?
--Ethics in Media: Interactively Mapping Gun Owners
2. Media Literacy in the Digital Age
Education and Media
What Is Media Literacy?
What Makes Mediated Communication Different?
--Semiotics
--Framing
Early Concerns of Media Effects
Media Grammar
--Print Media
--Radio and Recorded Music
--Film and Television
--Digital-Media Grammar
Implications of Commercial Media
--Commercial-Media Debate
--Concentration of Media Ownership
Media Bias
Developing Critical Media-Literacy Skills
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Features
--Media Quiz: Testing Your Media Literacy
--International Perspectives: Mobile Telephony in the Developing World
--Ethics in Media: When SNL Parody Gets Taken Seriously
--Convergence Culture: Dos and Don'ts When Evaluating Online Information
PART 2. MASS-COMMUNICATION FORMATS
3. Print Media: Books, Newspapers, and Magazines
Functions of Print Media
--Transmission of Culture
--Diffusion of Ideas and Knowledge
--Entertainment
Distinctive Functions of Books
History of Books to Today
--Monastic Scribes
--Johannes Gutenberg
--Beginnings of Mass Communication and Mass Literacy
--Cheaper and Smaller Books
--Dime Novels
--Mass-Market Paperbacks
--Print-on-Demand
--Digital Books
Current Book-Industry Issues
Sales and Readership of Books
Outlook for Books
Distinctive Functions of Newspapers
--Local Newspapers
--National Newspapers
History of Newspapers to Today
--The Commercial Press and the Partisan Press
--Colonial Readership and Finances
--The Golden Age of Newspapers
Current Newspaper-Industry Issues
--Newspaper Chains
--Benefits of Chains
--Problems with Chains
--Leading Newspaper Chains
--Declining Number of Daily Newspapers
Sales and Readership of Newspapers
--Circulation and Readership
--Advertising
Outlook for Newspapers
Distinctive Functions of Magazines
History of Magazines to Today
Current Magazine Industry Issues
Sales and Readership of Magazines
Outlook for Magazines
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Features
--Media Quiz: Print Media
--International Perspectives: Global Ebook
--Marketplace
--Media Pioneers: Emilie Jacobi
--Timeline: History (and Pre-History) of Newspapers
--Convergence Culture: Freesheets: Riding the Rails of Newspapers' Future?
4. Audio Media: Music Recordings, Radio
The Recording Industry
Distinctive Functions of the Recording Industry
History of Recorded Music
--From Tin Pan Alley to Hollywood
--Roots of Rock and Roll
--Redefining Rock
The Recorded-Music Industry Today
Recording-Industry Business Model
--Creation
--Promotion
--Distribution
--Pricing Structure
Outlook for the Recording Industry
--Digital Rights Management and Illegal File Sharing
--New Business Models Emerging
What Is Broadcasting?
Radio
Distinctive Functions of Radio
History of Radio
--Wireless Telegraphy
--Exploring Radio's Early Potential
--Voice Transmission
--Radio Before, During, and After WW I
--Widespread Public Adoption of Radio
--FM Radio, Edwin Howard Armstrong, and David Sarnoff
--Creating a Viable Business Model for Radio
--The Rise of Radio Networks
--Consolidation in Radio Station Ownership
The Radio Industry Today
Radio Station Programming
Outlook for the Radio Industry
--Podcasting
--Satellite Radio
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Media Quiz Answers
Features
--Media Quiz: The Revolution Will Not Be Televised; It Will Be Mashed Up
--Media Pioneers: Amanda Palmer and the Grand Theft Orchestra
--Ethics in Media: Prank Calls . . . on the Radio
--Timeline: Milestones in Early Radio Technology Development
--Convergence Culture: NPR and PRI : America's Public Radio Networks
--International Perspectives: Trusting in the Power of the Airwaves
5. Visual Media: Photography, Movies, and Television
Photography
--History of Photography
--Photographic Industry Today
Movies
History of the Movie Industry
--Silent Era: New Medium, New Technologies, New Storytelling
--Méliès and Griffith
--Murnau, Flaherty, and Eisenstein
--Sound and Color
--Hollywood Movie Moguls
--Warner Brothers
--Walt Disney
--Samuel Goldwyn
--Marcus Loew
--Louis B. Mayer
--Hollywood Star System
--The Director as Auteur
--Technological Influences on Movie Genres
--Other Entertainment Sources for Movies
--DVDs and Streaming
Movie Industry Today
Marketing and Distribution for Movies
Movie-Industry Business Model
Outlook for the Movie Industry
Television
History of Television
--Seeing the Light: The First Television Systems
--Modern Television Takes Shape
--Programming and Genre Influences
--Pushing the Programming Envelope
--Cable Comes of Age
--Filling the Days
--Filling the Nights
--Sports
--Reality Shows
--Digital Television: Preparing the Way for Convergence
--The Rise of Flat-Panel Displays
Television Distribution
--Broadcast TV
--Cable TV
--Satellite TV
Television Industry Today
--Cable System Structure
--Satellite vs. Cable
Television-Industry Business Model
Outlook for the Television Industry
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Media Quiz Answers
Features
--Media Quiz: Eye-Q Test
--Timeline: Development of Photography
--Ethics in Media: The Photojournalist's Dilemma: Trauma and the Photojournalist
--Timeline: Selected Milestones in Early Motion Pictures
--Media Pioneers: Kathleen Kennedy, Producer
--Convergence Culture: 3-D Movies: What Will Be the Impact?
6. Interactive Media: The Internet, Video Games, and Augmented Reality
Interactivity Defined
Interactive Media vs. Mass Media
Historical Development of User Interfaces
--Television Interfaces
--Intuitive Interfaces
--Keyboards
--Computer Mouse
--Touch Screens
--Natural Input Methods
--Graphical User Interfaces
Historical Development of the Internet and the World Wide Web
--Internet Protocol
--World Wide Web
--Graphical Web Browsers
--Broadband
--Distribution Dynamics
Video Games
Historical Development of Video Games
Types of Video Games
Video-Game Industry
Trends in Video Games
Gamification
Augmented Reality
Ethics of Interactive Media
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Features
--Media Quiz: Engaging with Interactive Media
--International Perspectives: The Internet of Babel
--Timeline: Milestones in the Development of the Internet
--Timeline: Development of Video Games
--Media Pioneers: Super Mario
--Convergence Culture: Is Playing Video Games Bad for You?
PART 3. MEDIA PERSPECTIVES
7. The Impact of Social Media
Defining Social Media
--Dialogic Commmunication
--Participatory Production
What Is "Social" About Social Media?
--Choice
--Conversation
--Curation
--Creation
--Collaboration
Types of Social Media
--Email
--Discussion Boards and Web Forums
--Chat Rooms
--Blogs and Microblogs
--Wikis
--Social-Networking Sites
Producers and Produsers
--Reputation, Ratings, and Trust
--Privacy
--Transparency
Social Media: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
--Are Social Media Making Us Less Social?
--Are Social Media Making Us Dumber?
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Features
--Media Quiz: How Connected Are You?
--International Perspectives: New Kid on the Social Network Block
--Media Pioneers: Jack Dorsey
--Convergence Culture: Are We Really Separated by Six Degrees?
--Ethics in Media: Cyberbullying: New Twists on an Old Problem
8. Journalism: From Information to Participation
What Is News?
The Historical Development of Journalism
--News Values and the Associated Press
--Pulitzer and Hearst: The Circulation Wars, Sensationalism, and Standards
--Joseph Pulitzer
--William Randolph Hearst
--The Rise of Electronic Journalism
--Murrow and News in TV 's Golden Age
--Changes in Television News
Foundations of Journalism
--The Hutchins Commission and A Free and Responsible Press
--Separation of Editorial and Business Operations
--Fairness and Balance in News Coverage
--Framing the News
--Expert Sources
From Event to Public Eye: How News Is Created
--Gathering the News
--Producing the News
--Distributing the News
Types of Journalism
--Alternative Journalism
--Public Journalism
--Citizen Journalism
--An International Perspective
Journalism in the Digital World
--Nontraditional Sources
--Online User Habits
--Personalization
--Contextualization
--Convergence
The Business Of Journalism
--Salaries
--Diversity in the Newsroom
Careers in Journalism
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Media Quiz Answers
Features
--Media Quiz: A Nose for News
--Media Pioneers: Mary Ann Shadd Cary and the Role of Minority Newspapers
--International Perspectives: Covering Islam
--Convergence Culture: Platypus Journalism: The Future, or Evolutionary Dead End?
--Ethics in Media: Do the Ends Justify the Means?
9. Advertising and Public Relations: The Power of Persuasion
Strategic Communications
--Persuasive Communications
--The Role of Media in Persuasion
Advertising
--The Historical Development of Advertising
--Advertising Agencies
--Commercial Television
--Internet
--The Rise of Branding
--Selling Products, Selling Ideas
--Advertising Channels
--Print Media
--Electronic Media
--Outdoor
--Direct Mail
--Advertising in a Digital World
--Cookies
--Email Marketing
--Banner Ads
--Pop-Ups and Video
--Classifieds and Auction Sites
--Search-Engine Ads
--Mobile Media
--Behavioral Advertising
--Viral Marketing
--The Advertising Business
--Advertising Agencies
Public Relations
--The Historical Development of Public Relations
--Trends in the Development of Public Relations
--PR and Media Relations
--Pseudo-Events
--Distributing News to the Media in the Digital Age
--Finding Sources Online
--PR Firms and the PR Industry
Changing Trends in Advertising and PR
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Media Quiz Answers
Features
--Media Quiz: The Dynamics of Persuasion
--Media Pioneers: Madam C.J. Walker
--Convergence Culture: Me 2.0: The Guide to Branding Yourself
--International Perspectives: Global Advertising
--Media Pioneers: Daniel J. Edelman
--Ethics in Media: Fooling Most of the People Most of the Time . . . Digitally
PART 4. MEDIA AND SOCIETY
10. Media Ethics
Ethics, Morals, and Laws
Major Systems of Ethical Reasoning
--Character, or Virtue Ethics
--The Golden Rule
--The Golden Mean
--Virtue Ethics in Action
--Duties
--The Categorical Imperative
--Discourse Ethics
--Duties-based Ethics in Action
--Consequences
--Utilitarianism
--Social Justice
--Consequence-based Ethics in Action
--Relationships, or Dialogical Ethics
--Ethics of Care
--Dialogical Ethics in Action
--Moral Relativism
Issues in Ethical Decision Making
The Role of Commercialism in Media Ethics
--Media Types Influencing Content
Ethics in Journalism
--Privacy Rights Versus the Public's Right to Know
--Going Undercover
--Victimizing the Victims
--Society of Professional Journalists Code of Ethics
Ethical Issues in Advertising
--Deceptive Advertising
--Puffery
--Conflicts of Interest in Advertising
--Advertising Codes of Ethics
Ethics in Public Relations
--Conflicts of Interest in PR
--Public Relations Codes of Ethics
Ethics in Entertainment
--Stereotypes in Entertainment
--Sex and Violence
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Features
--Media Quiz: How Moral Are You?
--International Perspectives: Mistaken Identity: One Life Lost, Another Ruined
--Convergence Culture: Forbidden Fruit
11. Communication Law and Regulation in the Digital Age
The Legal Framework
The Foundations of Freedom of Expression
--National Security
--Clear and Present Danger
--Prior Restraint
--Libel
--New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)
--Protecting Journalists Against Libel
--Shield Laws
--Censorship
--The Censorship of Comics
--The Hays Code
--Indecent Content
--Obscenity
--Criticism, Ridicule, or Humor
The Evolution of Regulating Electronic Media
--Early Days and the Radio Act of 1912 (1911-1926)
--Increasing Regulation and the Federal Radio Commission (1927-1933)
--The Communications Act and Spectrum Scarcity (1934-1995)
--The Telecommunications Act and Its Effects (1996-present)
--Electronic Media Regulation Internationally
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
--Universal Service
--The FCC , License Renewal, and Regulatory Power
--Spectrum Auction
Regulating Commercial and Political Speech
--Commercial Speech
--Tobacco and Alcohol Advertising
--Unclear Regulatory Boundaries
--Political Speech
--Equal-Time Rule
--Fairness Doctrine
Children's Programming Protections
--The Children's Television Act
--Violent and Sexual Programming: The V-Chip
Intellectual Property Rights
--Fair Use
Privacy
Legal Issues in the Digital World
--Digital Rights Management
--Privacy
--Content Rights and Responsibilities
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Media Quiz Answers
Features
--Media Quiz: Legal Limits
--Media Pioneers: Anthony Lewis and Legal Journalism
--Convergence Culture: The Great Network Neutrality Debate
--International Perspectives: The Rise and Fall of Russian Media
--Ethics in Media: Does the Punishment Fit the Crime?
12. Media Theory and Research: From Writing to Text Messaging
The Role of Theory and Research
Mass Society, Mass Communication
Media-Effects Research
--Propaganda and the Magic Bullet
--Payne Fund
--Radio's Wider Impact
--Television and Violence
--Limited Effects
--Cultivation Analysis
--Spiral of Silence
--Third-Person Effect
--Criticisms of Media-Effects Research
Understanding the Audience
--Audiences Creating Meaning
--Uses and Gratifications
--Encoding/Decoding
--Reception Analysis
--Framing
Cultural Studies
--Ideology and the Culture Industry
--Criticisms of Cultural Studies
Sociohistorical Frameworks
--Information Society
--Political Economy
--Media Ecology
--Agenda Setting
New Directions in Media Research
Media Research: What Type of Science Is It?
--Quantitative Research
--Qualitative Research
--Qualitative and Quantitative Research Working Together
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Features
--Media Quiz: Theory and Practice
--Convergence Culture: Advertising's Potential Negative Effects on Women--and Men
--Media Pioneers: danah boyd, Researcher
--International Perspectives: Theories Old, Theories New, Theories Borrowed . . .
--Ethics in Media: Conducting Online Research: Public, Semipublic, or Private?
13. Mass Communication and Politics in the Digital Age
Journalism and Political Coverage
--Politicians Using the News
--Sound Bites and Horse Races
--The Changing Tone of Television Political Coverage
--Opinion Polls
Political Advertising
--The Impact of Negative Advertising
--Negative Advertising Effectiveness
Politics and Entertainment
--Political Campaigns and Entertainment
--Political Debates
Social Media and Political Campaigns
--Changes with Social Media
--Changing Rules for Politicians
Social Media and Civic Engagement
--Databases and Government Transparency
--Smart Mobs
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Features
--Media Quiz: Playing Politics
--Ethics in Media: Can Imagery Lead to Action?
--Convergence Culture: Image Is Everything
--International Perspectives: Crowdsourcing Election Monitoring
--Media Pioneers: Bill Adair and PolitiFact
14. Global Media in the Digital Age
Four Theories of International Mass Communication
--Authoritarian Theory
--Libertarian Theory
--Social Responsibility Theory
--Soviet Theory
The Public, the Public Sphere, and Public Opinion
Political and Socioeconomic Issues with Global Media
--Media in Developing Countries
--Searching for Truth: Self-Censorship in China
--The Digital Divide
Global Media, Local Values
--New Worlds-or Cultural Imperialism?
--Convergence and Its Discontents
--Globalization of Media Production
--Global Media Flow
--Protecting Local Voices
--Some Developing Nations
--A Neighbouring Nation
--Promoting Global Voices
--Cybersecurity and Media
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Media Quiz Answers
Features
--Media Quiz: Global Media
--Ethics in Media: J-Ethinomics-Teaching Ethics and Economics in Journalism
--Convergence Culture: Following a Natural Disaster
--Media Pioneers: Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim-YouTube Founders
Glossary
Notes
Credits
Index


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