9780892366385

Copper and Bronze in Art : Corrosion, Colorants, and Conservation

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780892366385

  • ISBN10:

    0892366389

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2002-02-01
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

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Summary

Pigments, corrosion products, and minerals are usually considered separately, either as painting materials or as the deterioration products of metals, even though they are often the same compounds. This 190-year review of the literature on copper and its alloys integrates that information across a broad spectrum of interests that are all too frequently compartmentalized. The author discusses the various environmental conditions to which copper alloy objects may be exposed-including burial, outdoor, and indoor museum environments-and the methods used to conserve them. The book also includes information on ancient and historical technologies, the nature of patina as it pertains to copper and bronze, and the use of copper corrosion materials as pigments. Chapters are organized primarily by chemical corrosion products and include topics such as early technologies, copper chlorides and bronze disease, the chemistry and history of turquoise, Egyptian blue and other synthetic copper silicates, the organic salts of copper in bronze corrosion, and aspects of bronze patinas. A detailed survey of conservation treatments for bronze objects is also provided. Four appendixes cover copper and bronze chemistry, replication experiments for early pigment recipes, a list of copper minerals and corrosion products, and X-ray diffraction studies.

Author Biography


David A. Scott is senior scientist at the Getty Conservation Institute and head of the GCI Museum Research Laboratory. His publications include Ancient and Historic Metals, Metallography and Microstructure of Ancient and Historic Metals, and more than sixty published papers in conservation and scientific journals.

Table of Contents

Foreword xi
Timothy P. Whalen
Preface xii
Introduction 1(9)
Corrosion and Environment
10(71)
The Anatomy of Corrosion
11(5)
The electrochemical series
Some Historical Aspects of Copper and Corrosion
16(16)
Primitive wet-cell batteries?
Early technologies with copper and iron
Early history of electrochemical plating
Copper in early photography
Dezincification
Pourbaix Diagrams and Environmental Effects
32(40)
The burial environment
The outdoor environment
The indoor museum environment
The marine environment
Copper in Contact with Organic Materials
72(5)
Positive replacement and mineralization of organic materials
The Metallography of Corroded Copper Objects
77(2)
Corrosion Products and Pigments
79(2)
Oxides and Hydroxides
81(19)
Cuprite
82(13)
Properties of cuprite
Natural cuprite patinas
International cuprite patinas
Copper colorants in glasses and glazes
Tenorite
95(3)
Tenorite formation
Spertiniite
98(1)
Conservation Issues
98(2)
Basic Copper Carbonates
100(22)
Malachite
102(6)
Decorative uses of malachite
Malachite as a copper ore
Nomenclature confusion
Mineral properties
Malachite as a pigment
Malachite in bronze patinas
Isotope ratios to determine corrosion environment
Azurite
108(3)
Azurite as a corrosion product
Azurite as a pigment
Conservation issues for azurite
Formation of Copper Carbonates in Solution
111(2)
Decomposition of Malachite and Azurite by Heat
113(1)
Artificial Malachite and Azurite
113(1)
Blue and Green Verditer
114(2)
Use of blue and green verditer in art
Synthesis of blue and green verditer
Mixed-Cation Copper Carbonates
116(1)
Mixed copper-zinc carbonates in corrosion
Synthetic pigments with copper and zinc salts
Chalconatronite: A Sodium-Copper Carbonate
117(5)
Synthesis and use of chalconatronite
Chalconatronite as a corrosion product
Chlorides and Basic Chlorides
122(23)
The Copper Chlorides
122(3)
Nantokite
Atacamite
Paratacamite (anakarite) and clinoatacamite
Botallackite
Copper Chlorides and Bronze Disease
125(9)
Bronze disease research
Role of chloride ions in corrosion
Pitting corrosion
The Basic Copper Chlorides as Pigments
134(5)
Synthetic pigments
Pigment morphology
Other Basic Copper Chlorides
139(6)
Connellite
Calumetite
Anthonyite
Cumengite and mixed copper-lead chlorides
Mixed copper-zinc chlorides
Other mixed-cation copper chlorides
Basic Sulfates
145(79)
Historical References to Copper Sulfates
146(1)
The Basic Copper Sulfates
147(7)
Brochantite and antlerite
Posnjakite
Other basic sulfates
Environment and Corrosion
154(5)
Atmospheric sulfur dioxide
Microenvironment and corrosion
Case Studies of Exposed Bronzes
159(5)
The Statue of Liberty
The Great Buddha at Kamakura
Gettysburg National Military Park bronzes
Brancusi's Infinite Column
Sulfate Deposition in Burial Environments
164(1)
Basic Sulfates as Pigments
165(59)
Plates
169(55)
Copper Sulfides
224(16)
The Chemistry of Copper Sulfides
226(1)
Corrosion Environments and Copper Sulfide Production
227(8)
Sulfide formation in reducing environments
Sulfide formation from atmospheric exposure
Sulfide formation from pollution in the museum environment
Copper Sulfides and Niello
235(5)
Niello recipes
Artifacts decorated with niello
Niello chemistry
Copper Phosphates and Copper Nitrates
240(12)
The Copper Phosphates
240(6)
Copper phosphate chemistry
Copper phosphate corrosion in different environments
Sampleite and the arid environment
Pseudomalachite: A copper phosphate pigment
Turquoise
246(4)
The chemistry and mineralogy of turquoise
The history of turquoise
The Copper Nitrate Minerals
250(2)
Copper nitrate corrosion products
Copper Silicates
252(16)
Chrysocolla
253(2)
Chrysocolla as a pigment
Dioptase
255(1)
Copper Silicates and Glasses
255(2)
Egyptian Blue and other synthetic Copper Silicates
257(9)
Geographic distribution of Egyptian blue
Lost and found secrets of Egyptian blue
Chemical formulation of Egyptian blue
Egyptian green
Terminology
Pigment deterioration mystery
Han Blue and Han Purple: Synthetic Pigments from China
266(2)
The Organic Salts of Copper
268(49)
The Copper Formates
269(1)
The Copper Acetates
270(9)
The chemistry of verdigris
The history of verdigris
Early Verdigris Recipes
279(15)
Recipes from Pliny the Elder
Variants of verdigris
Problems with verdigris
The Copper Resinates
294(5)
The chemistry of copper resinates
Copper salts of higher acids
Copper proteinates
Organic Salts of Copper and Bronze Corrosion
299(4)
Corrosion problems in the museum environment
Conservation Treatments
303(3)
Treatment residues and the formation of copper salts
Copper Salts as Pigments
306(11)
Green copper pigments
Brown copper pigments
Copper phthalocyanine
Copper as a Substrate for Paintings
317(5)
Early Coatings and Fabrication Methods
317(4)
Analytical techniques
Enamel on Copper
321(1)
Some Aspects of Bronze Patinas
322(30)
Changing Views of Bronze Patinas
323(4)
Some Patina Variations
327(2)
Arsenic coating as a patina
Lead and patinas
Black patina in the aqueous environment
Patinas in the Renaissance
329(4)
Other coatings on Renaissance bronzes
Unraveling an object's patination history
Patination during the Nineteenth Century
333(1)
Two Detailed Studies of Patina and Corrosion
334(15)
Roman bronzes
Chinese bronze mirrors
Some Finishes and Preserved Structures
349(3)
Traditional finishes on scientific instruments
Tool marks preserved in patinas
Conservation Treatments for Bronze Objects
352(46)
Understanding Treatment Histories
353(1)
Some Past Conservation Treatments
353(4)
Patina-stripping techniques
Drying and sealing methods
Other early treatment methods
Preservation without treatment
Mechanical Cleaning
357(5)
Preserving evidence of the past
Mechanical clearning techniques today
Unanswered questions
Chemical Cleaning Treatments
362(7)
General treatments
Localized chemical treatments
Cleaning reagents
Cleaning Marine Finds
369(5)
Stabilization problems and techniques
Repatination of Cleaned Surfaces
374(2)
Outdoor bronzes
An ``indoor'' bronze outdoors
The Use of Corrosion Inhibitors
376(6)
Benzotriazole
AMT as a corrosion inhibitor
Coatings for Copper Alloys
382(9)
Shellacs and lacquers
Resin coatings
Incralac
Ormocer and other polymer coatings
Problems with coatings
Need for research
Passive stabilization
391(1)
Nondestructive Testing
392(6)
Radiographic examination
Ultrasonic scanning
Infrared imaging
Acoustic emission analysis
Other techniques
Appendix A Some Aspects of the Chemistry of Copper and Bronze 398(6)
Appendix B Recipes 404(14)
Appendix C Some Copper Minerals and Corrosion Products 418(6)
Appendix D X-Ray Diffraction Studies 424(32)
References 456(32)
Name Index 488(8)
Subject Index 496(16)
Illustration Credits 512(3)
About the Author 515

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