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Core Concepts in Biological Anthropology,9780767424264
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Core Concepts in Biological Anthropology

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780767424264

ISBN10:
0767424263
Format:
Nonspecific Binding
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages

Summary

Written by a professor who has spent eleven years teaching and practicing biological anthropology and who takes care to relate its significance to everyday life, this new text focuses on central contemporary issues: genetics and genomics, "natural" behavior, evolution, and human variation. The book tells the story of biological anthropology and evolutionary theory, our bio-history, in a way that encourages students to use it in their own lives and to think critically about the issues explored."This textbook seeks to meld the traditional and the new, to create a textbook/web hybrid from the ground up, facilitating access to biological anthropological knowledge. The field is growing at a fantastic rate; multiple disciplines (genomics, epidemiology, physiology, anatomy, paleoanthropology, and primatology, for example) currently contribute to its knowledge base. My goal is to create a book that has the core information, access to more in-depth details, and is engaging for students and faculty alike." -- Agustin Fuentes

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
About the Author xx
Virtual Tour xxi
Introduction FAQs About Biological Anthropology 1(1)
How Old Is the Planet and What Organisms Have Lived on It Over That Time?
1(2)
If Life on Our Planet Has Changed So Much Over Time, What About the Planet Itself?
3(1)
Have Humans Changed?
3(1)
Where Did Modern Science Come From?
4(2)
Where Is Uzbekistan?
6(4)
Introduction to Evolutionary Fact and Theory
10(34)
Anthropology Is the Study of Human and Nonhuman Primates
13(1)
Anthropology Is a Scientific Discipline
14(6)
Critical Thinking Is the Systematic Assessment of Information
15(1)
The Scientific Method Is a Way of Testing Ideas About the World Around Us
16(3)
Scientific Investigation Is a Collaborative Process
19(1)
Evolutionary Theory Is the Cornerstone of Anthropology
20(19)
Evolution Is Both Fact and Theory
20(1)
Early Explanations of Life Were Both Philosophical and Religious
21(2)
The Scientific Revolution Opened the Door to Systematic Study of the World
23(1)
Evolutionary Thought Emerged From Scientific Collaboration
24(6)
Charles Darwin Proposed Natural Selection as the Mechanism of Evolution
30(9)
Summary
39(1)
What We Know/Questions That Remain
40(1)
Critical Thinking
41(1)
Resources
42(2)
Introduction to Genetics and Genomics
44(28)
Heredity Is the Passing of Genetic Information From Generation to Generation
47(1)
DNA Is the Molecule of Heredity
48(10)
DNA Has a Specific Structure
48(2)
DNA Has Three Main Functions
50(8)
Mendel's Basic Model of Inheritance
58(3)
Traits Are Passed From Generation to Generation
58(2)
Mendel's Work Continues to Inform Current Knowledge
60(1)
The Relationship Between Genes and Traits Is Complex
61(3)
Four Ways Genes Produce Traits
62(1)
Are There Specific Genes for Certain Diseases?
63(1)
Most DNA Doesn't Appear to Do Anything!
63(1)
Does DNA Cause Certain Behaviors?
64(2)
Population Genetics Helps Us Understand Evolution
66(1)
Summary
67(1)
What We Know/Questions That Remain
68(1)
Critical Thinking
69(1)
Resources
69(3)
Basics of Human Biology
72(26)
The Place of Human Beings in Nature
75(2)
Where Do Humans Fit In?
75(1)
How Are Relationships Among Organisms Determined?
75(2)
Human Morphology: The Body's Form and Structure
77(7)
Cells Are the Basic Building Blocks of Organisms
77(1)
Tissues Bind Us Together
77(2)
The Skeleton: Our Basic Form
79(4)
The Musculature Interacts With the Skeleton
83(1)
All Mammals Share Common Skeletal Structures
84(1)
Human Physiology: The Systems of the Body
84(10)
The Circulatory and Respiratory Systems Transport Nutrients and More
85(2)
The Nervous System and Brain Control the Actions of the Body and Assess the Organism's Surroundings
87(1)
The Endocrine System Regulates and Communicates Hormonal Information Throughout the Body
88(2)
The Digestive System Processes Nutrients
90(1)
The Reproductive System Enables Us to Produce Offspring
91(2)
All of These Systems (and More) Are Interconnected
93(1)
Summary
94(1)
What We Know/Questions That Remain
94(1)
Critical Thinking
95(1)
Resources
96(2)
Modern Evolutionary Theory
98(24)
Evolutionary Change Occurs In Populations In Four Ways
100(10)
Mutations Are Changes in the DNA
102(1)
Gene Flow Is the Movement of Alleles Within and Between Populations
102(2)
Genetic Drift Is a Change in Allele Frequency Across Generations Due to Random Factors
104(2)
Current Concepts of Natural Selection Involve an Understanding of Genetics
106(3)
The Four Processes Do Not Explain All Change
109(1)
Speciation Is the Process by Which New Species Arise
110(6)
Species Can Be Defined in Many Ways
110(2)
Subspecies Are Divisions Within a Species
112(1)
Allopatric Speciation Results From Separation and Isolation
112(1)
Phyletic Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibrium: Different Paces of Change
112(1)
Similarities Can Result From Either Parallel or Convergent Evolution
113(3)
Biodiversity in Evolution: Why We Should Care About Biological Variation
116(1)
Summary
117(1)
What We Know/Questions That Remain
118(1)
Critical Thinking
119(1)
Resources
120(2)
Primate Behavioral Ecology
122(46)
Comparative Primatology Provides Insights Into Modern Human Behavior
124(12)
The Living Primates Are Widespread and Diverse
124(9)
Comparing the Primates Helps Us Understand Behavior
133(1)
To Study Behavior, We Have to Measure It
133(1)
Specific Methodologies Are Used to Measure Primate Behavior
133(1)
A Behavior Can Be Viewed From Five Perspectives
134(1)
Behavior and Genetics Are Interconnected
135(1)
Behavioral Ecology Provides the Basis for Evolutionary Investigations of Behavior
136(5)
Socioecological Pressures Affect Organisms in Five Areas
137(1)
Success of a Behavioral Adaptation Is Measured in Terms of Energy Costs and Benefits
138(1)
Reality Is More Complex Than Suggested by Cost-Benefit Analyses
139(2)
General Behavior Patterns in the Living Primates
141(5)
Mother-Infant Bonds Are the Core of Primate Societies
141(1)
There Are a Few Primary Grouping Patterns in Primates
142(1)
Affiliation and Grooming Are Important in Primate Societies
143(1)
Hierarchies and Dominance Help Structure Primate Societies
144(1)
Dispersal and Life History Patterns Are Important to Social Behavior
145(1)
Cooperation and Conflict Are Integral to Primate Societies
145(1)
Social Organization in Two Nonhuman Primate Societies: Macaques and Chimpanzees
146(11)
Macaques: A Widespread Primate Genus
146(5)
Chimpanzees: Our Closest Relatives
151(6)
Humans Are Also Primates, and Human Behavior Has an Evolutionary History
157(5)
Social Organization and Behavior in Humans
157(1)
Comparisons With Macaques
158(1)
Comparisons With Chimpanzees
159(1)
What Is Uniquely Human?
160(1)
Conserving the Nonhuman Primates Is a Critical Challenge
161(1)
Summary
162(1)
What We Know/Questions That Remain
162(2)
Critical Thinking
164(1)
Resources
165(3)
Early Primate Evolution
168(26)
Fossils Provide Direct Evidence of an Organism's Existence
170(2)
Humans Are Members of the Order of Mammals Called Primates
172(2)
A Very Brief History of the Mammals
172(1)
Primates Are Mammals With Specific Characteristics
173(1)
The Fossil Primates
174(15)
The Earliest Possible Primates Are Found in the Paleocene
174(3)
Why Did Primates Evolve Out of Early Mammalian Groups?
177(1)
True Primates Appear in the Eocene
178(2)
Anthropoids (Simiiformes) Radiate in the Oligocene
180(3)
Hominoid Primates Radiate During the Miocene
183(5)
Nonhominoid Anthropoid Primates Radiate During the Pliocene and Pleistocene
188(1)
Evolutionary Relationships Among These Fossil Primates Are a Matter of Debate
189(1)
Summary
189(2)
Critical Thinking
191(1)
What We Know/Questions That Remain
192(1)
Resources
192(2)
Early Hominin Evolution
194(30)
Classification of Hominids/Hominins Is a Subject of Debate
197(3)
Early Hominins Evolved Primarily in East Africa
200(13)
Early Possible Hominins Are Found in Kenya
201(6)
Hominins of the Middle and Late Pliocene Were Bipedal and Sexually Dimorphic
207(5)
Were There Early Hominins in Southern Africa?
212(1)
Evolutionary Relationships Are Unclear
212(1)
Fossils Give Us Clues About Early Hominin Behavior
213(3)
Habitat: Where They Lived
214(1)
Diet: What Did They Eat, and How Did They Get It?
214(1)
Tools: Did They Use Bone, Wood, or Stone Tools?
215(1)
Social Life: How Did They Live Together?
215(1)
The Evolution of Bipedality Has Several Possible Explanations
216(2)
Summary
218(1)
What We Know/Questions That Remain
218(2)
Critical Thinking
220(1)
Resources
221(3)
Plio-Pleistocene Hominins and the Genus Homo
224(42)
Changes at the Late Pliocene-Pleistocene Boundary
227(1)
The Robust Hominins Had Unique Cranial and Dental Anatomy
228(7)
The Genus Paranthropus: Hominins With Massive Chewing Adaptations
229(4)
Robust Hominin Behavior
233(2)
The Gracile Hominins Shared Characteristics With Both Earlier and Later Groups
235(11)
Genus Australopithecus: Two Plio-Pleistocene Forms
235(3)
Are These Australopithecines Ancestral to Humans?
238(2)
Early Homo: A New Genus Emerges
240(3)
Gracile Hominin Behavior and the Advent of Biocultural Evolution
243(3)
Genus Homo Diversifies: The First Humans
246(14)
A Classification Debate: One Genus but How Many Species?
247(2)
Physical Characteristics of H. erectus
249(1)
Geographic Distribution of H. erectus
250(4)
When Did Hominins Expand Beyond Africa?
254(1)
Why Did Hominins Expand Beyond Africa?
255(1)
H. erectus Material Culture and the Expansion of the Biocultural Evolution
256(4)
Summary
260(1)
Critical Thinking
261(1)
What We Know/Questions That Remain
262(1)
Resources
262(4)
The Rise of Modern Humans
266(40)
Archaic Homo Sapiens and the Changing Speed of Innovation
269(8)
The Oldest Archaic Human Fossils Are Found in Africa
270(1)
Archaic Human Fossils Are Found Across Eurasia
271(1)
Archaic Humans Are Found in China but Not in Southeast Asia
272(2)
Is Homo heidelbergensis a True Species?
274(1)
The Neanderthals Were Not as Different as First Thought, but They Were Different
275(2)
Material Culture of the Archaic Humans
277(5)
Increased Complexity in Tool Use and Hunting
277(1)
Dietary and Behavior Changes Associated With New Tool Kits
278(2)
Social Patterns: High Levels of Communal Cooperation
280(1)
Postmortem Modification of Bodies
281(1)
The Appearance of ``Anatomically Modern'' Homo sapiens
282(4)
Anatomically Modern Humans Are Defined Morphologically, Not Behaviorally
282(1)
The Earliest Anatomically Modern Fossils Are Found in Africa
283(1)
The Eurasian Record Demonstrates the Spread of Modern Humans
284(2)
Material Culture Becomes Very Complex With the Appearance of Modern Humans
286(6)
Blades and Associated Industries Revolutionized the Human Tool Kit
287(2)
Changing Technologies and Behavioral Patterns Affected Diet
289(1)
Modern Humans Used Art and Symbols
289(1)
Burial of the Dead Was Ubiquitous and Postmortem Modification Common
290(2)
Current Human Patterns Began to Emerge 20,000 Years Ago
292(1)
The Origin of Modern Humans Is a Matter of Debate
292(8)
The Case for a Recent African Origin
293(3)
The Case for Multiregional Evolution
296(2)
The Case for Multiple Dispersals
298(1)
As Usual, Reality Is Not This Clear
299(1)
These Models Influence the Way We Think About Human Differences
300(1)
Summary
300(2)
What We Know/Questions That Remain
302(1)
Critical Thinking
302(1)
Resources
303(3)
Human Biological Diversity in Context
306(38)
Humans Have Long Exhibited Biological Diversity
309(14)
A Visible but Misunderstood Variation: Skin ``Color''
309(4)
Another Visible Difference: Body Shape and Size
313(2)
A Cornerstone of Variation Research: Skull Morphology
315(1)
Sex Differences Are Seen in the Skeletal and Soft Tissue of Humans
316(3)
The Impact of Disease Environments: Variation in the Human Immune System
319(1)
Blood Groups Vary Within and Across Populations
320(2)
Most Genetic Variation Is Found Within Populations
322(1)
Human Biological Diversity Is Best Explained Using a Biocultural Approach
323(6)
Natural Selection and Human Cultural Behavior
323(2)
Examples of Selection and Adaptation in Human Variation
325(4)
There Are No Races in Homo sapiens sapiens
329(8)
What Is the Evidence Regarding Biological Races in Humans?
330(3)
There Is a Scientific Study of Human Biological Variation
333(1)
Why Does the Notion of Biological Race Persist?
333(1)
A Very Brief History of Racism
334(2)
Modern Notions Are Also Due to a Lack of Context
336(1)
Summary
337(3)
What We Know/Questions That Remain
340(1)
Critical Thinking
341(1)
Resources
341(3)
Modernity and Human Biology
344(22)
Humans Are Still Evolving
346(10)
Diseases and Modern Humans
347(4)
Cultural Patterns Influence Morphology
351(5)
Culture, Evolution, and the Future: Where Are We Headed?
356(6)
Human Densities and Global Population Are Dramatically Different Today
356(4)
Genetic Manipulation Can Influence Our Evolution
360(1)
Some of Our Behavior Reflects Adaptations
360(2)
Understanding Biological Anthropology and Understanding Ourselves
362(1)
Summary
363(1)
What We Know/Questions That Remain
364(1)
Critical Thinking
364(1)
Resources
365(1)
Credits 366(2)
Glossary 368(7)
Index 375


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