About the Series | p. xi |

Foreword | p. xv |

List of Contributors | p. xix |

Introduction | p. 1 |

Introduction | p. 1 |

Principle of emission tomography | p. 2 |

Electromagnetic spectrum | p. 4 |

Need for correction techniques | p. 4 |

References | p. 7 |

Background | p. 9 |

Biomedical Applications of Emission Tomography | p. 11 |

The role of imaging in biomedical research and applications | p. 11 |

Functional and molecular imaging by emission tomography enables high sensitivity and spatial resolution | p. 13 |

Biomedical applications of emission tomography depend on tracers | p. 14 |

Applications | p. 16 |

Preclinical applications | p. 16 |

Clinical applications | p. 17 |

Examples of biomedical applications of emission tomography | p. 18 |

Bioluminescence imaging of tumor growth | p. 18 |

Dynamic PET in pharmakodynamic studies | p. 19 |

From mice to men-Non-invasive translational imaging of inflammatory activity in graft-versus-host disease | p. 20 |

PET to quantify catecholamine recycling and receptor density in patients with arrhythmias | p. 22 |

Multiparametric imaging of brain tumors | p. 23 |

References | p. 26 |

PET Image Reconstruction | p. 31 |

Introduction | p. 31 |

Analytical algorithms | p. 32 |

Mathematical basis | p. 32 |

Filtered backprojection | p. 35 |

Implementation: Resolution and complexity | p. 37 |

Implementation and rebinning | p. 38 |

2D Rebinning | p. 39 |

3D filtered backprojection | p. 40 |

Limitations | p. 40 |

Discrete algorithms | p. 40 |

ART-Algebraic reconstruction technique | p. 41 |

EM | p. 42 |

Computing the system matrix | p. 44 |

List mode | p. 45 |

Summary | p. 47 |

References | p. 47 |

Correction Techniques in PET and SPECT | p. 49 |

Basics of PET and SPECT Imaging | p. 51 |

Introduction | p. 51 |

Interaction of photons with matter | p. 52 |

Photoelectric effect | p. 52 |

Compton scattering | p. 52 |

Photon attenuation | p. 54 |

Scatter | p. 57 |

Variation in detector efficiency, normalization | p. 58 |

Dead time effects (loss of count rate) (PET and SPECT) | p. 59 |

Partial volume effects (PET and SPECT) | p. 59 |

Spill out | p. 60 |

Spill in | p. 60 |

Time resolution and randoms (PET only) | p. 61 |

Collimator effects-Distance dependent spatial resolution (SPECT only) | p. 62 |

Positron range and annihilation (PET only) | p. 63 |

References | p. 64 |

Corrections for Physical Factors | p. 67 |

Introduction | p. 67 |

Decay correction | p. 69 |

Randoms correction | p. 71 |

Singles-based correction | p. 72 |

Delayed window correction | p. 72 |

Attenuation correction | p. 73 |

Stand-alone emission tomography systems | p. 77 |

PET/CT and SPECT/CT systems | p. 80 |

Attenuation correction artifacts | p. 82 |

Scatter correction | p. 90 |

Energy windowing methods | p. 91 |

Analytical methods | p. 92 |

Direct calculation methods | p. 94 |

Iterative reconstruction methods | p. 95 |

Concluding remarks | p. 95 |

References | p. 95 |

Corrections for Scanner-Related Factors | p. 105 |

Positron emission tomography | p. 105 |

Introduction | p. 105 |

Data normalization | p. 107 |

Noise equivalent count rates | p. 108 |

System dead time | p. 108 |

Partial volume | p. 110 |

Single photon emission computed tomography | p. 112 |

Linearity, center of rotation, and whole body imaging | p. 112 |

Motion correction | p. 114 |

References | p. 115 |

Image Processing Techniques in Emission Tomography | p. 119 |

Introduction | p. 119 |

Denoising | p. 121 |

Image domain | p. 122 |

Fourier transform domain | p. 123 |

Wavelet transform domain | p. 124 |

Interpolation | p. 126 |

Registration | p. 129 |

Categorization | p. 130 |

Nature of transformation | p. 132 |

Similarity measure | p. 133 |

Validation | p. 135 |

Software | p. 137 |

Partial volume correction | p. 137 |

The partial volume effect in PET imaging | p. 138 |

Correction methods | p. 140 |

Super-resolution | p. 144 |

Validation | p. 146 |

Intensity-based measures | p. 146 |

Phantoms | p. 148 |

Hardware | p. 148 |

Software | p. 149 |

References | p. 150 |

Motion Correction in Emission Tomography | p. 157 |

Introduction | p. 157 |

Magnitude of motion | p. 158 |

Patient motion | p. 158 |

Respiratory motion | p. 158 |

Cardiac motion | p. 159 |

Motion correction on 3D PET data | p. 160 |

Overview | p. 161 |

Rigid motion correction | p. 162 |

Elastic motion correction | p. 163 |

Optical flow | p. 164 |

Image constraint equation | p. 164 |

Optical flow methods | p. 166 |

Optical flow in medical imaging | p. 167 |

Lucas-Kanade optical flow | p. 168 |

Horn-Schunck optical flow | p. 169 |

Bruhn optical flow | p. 170 |

Preserving discontinuities | p. 172 |

Correcting for motion | p. 173 |

Mass conservation-based optical flow | p. 174 |

Correcting for motion | p. 175 |

References | p. 177 |

Combined Correction and Reconstruction Methods | p. 185 |

Introduction | p. 186 |

Parameter identification | p. 187 |

Compartment modeling | p. 187 |

4D methods incorporating linear parameter identification | p. 189 |

4D methods incorporating nonlinear parameter identification | p. 190 |

Combined reconstruction and motion correction | p. 192 |

The advantages of the list mode format | p. 193 |

Motion correction during an iterative reconstruction algorithm | p. 194 |

Approaches based on a rigid or affine motion model | p. 194 |

Approaches based on a non-rigid motion model | p. 196 |

Combination of parameter identification and motion estimation | p. 198 |

References | p. 200 |

Recent Developments | p. 207 |

Introduction Hybrid Tomographic Imaging | p. 209 |

Introduction | p. 209 |

Combining PET and SPECT | p. 210 |

The combination with MR | p. 211 |

Combining ultrasound with PET and SPECT | p. 214 |

References | p. 215 |

MR-based Attenuation Correction for PET/MR | p. 217 |

Introduction | p. 218 |

MR-AC for brain applications | p. 220 |

Segmentation approaches | p. 220 |

Atlas approaches | p. 221 |

Methods for torso imaging | p. 224 |

Discussion | p. 229 |

The presence of bone | p. 230 |

MR imaging with ultrashort echo time (UTE) | p. 231 |

Required PET accuracy | p. 232 |

Validation of MR-AC methods | p. 232 |

Truncated field-of-view | p. 232 |

MR coils and positioning aids | p. 233 |

User intervention | p. 233 |

Potential benefits of MR-AC | p. 234 |

Additional potential benefits of simultaneous PET/MR acquisition | p. 234 |

Conclusion | p. 234 |

References | p. 235 |

Optical Imaging | p. 241 |

Introduction | p. 241 |

Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) | p. 244 |

Light propagation model | p. 244 |

Photon interaction with biological tissue | p. 244 |

The diffusion approximation | p. 246 |

Model for a fluorescence heterogeneity | p. 248 |

Reconstruction of the fluorochrome distribution | p. 249 |

FMT and hybrid FMT systems | p. 251 |

Instrumentation | p. 251 |

Illumination | p. 251 |

Detection | p. 252 |

360° projections | p. 252 |

Multimodal optical imaging | p. 253 |

Optical tomography and MRI | p. 253 |

FMT-XCT | p. 254 |

References | p. 257 |

Index | p. 263 |

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