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About the Series | p. xi |
Foreword | p. xv |
List of Contributors | p. xix |
Introduction | p. 1 |
Introduction | p. 1 |
Principle of emission tomography | p. 2 |
Electromagnetic spectrum | p. 4 |
Need for correction techniques | p. 4 |
References | p. 7 |
Background | p. 9 |
Biomedical Applications of Emission Tomography | p. 11 |
The role of imaging in biomedical research and applications | p. 11 |
Functional and molecular imaging by emission tomography enables high sensitivity and spatial resolution | p. 13 |
Biomedical applications of emission tomography depend on tracers | p. 14 |
Applications | p. 16 |
Preclinical applications | p. 16 |
Clinical applications | p. 17 |
Examples of biomedical applications of emission tomography | p. 18 |
Bioluminescence imaging of tumor growth | p. 18 |
Dynamic PET in pharmakodynamic studies | p. 19 |
From mice to men-Non-invasive translational imaging of inflammatory activity in graft-versus-host disease | p. 20 |
PET to quantify catecholamine recycling and receptor density in patients with arrhythmias | p. 22 |
Multiparametric imaging of brain tumors | p. 23 |
References | p. 26 |
PET Image Reconstruction | p. 31 |
Introduction | p. 31 |
Analytical algorithms | p. 32 |
Mathematical basis | p. 32 |
Filtered backprojection | p. 35 |
Implementation: Resolution and complexity | p. 37 |
Implementation and rebinning | p. 38 |
2D Rebinning | p. 39 |
3D filtered backprojection | p. 40 |
Limitations | p. 40 |
Discrete algorithms | p. 40 |
ART-Algebraic reconstruction technique | p. 41 |
EM | p. 42 |
Computing the system matrix | p. 44 |
List mode | p. 45 |
Summary | p. 47 |
References | p. 47 |
Correction Techniques in PET and SPECT | p. 49 |
Basics of PET and SPECT Imaging | p. 51 |
Introduction | p. 51 |
Interaction of photons with matter | p. 52 |
Photoelectric effect | p. 52 |
Compton scattering | p. 52 |
Photon attenuation | p. 54 |
Scatter | p. 57 |
Variation in detector efficiency, normalization | p. 58 |
Dead time effects (loss of count rate) (PET and SPECT) | p. 59 |
Partial volume effects (PET and SPECT) | p. 59 |
Spill out | p. 60 |
Spill in | p. 60 |
Time resolution and randoms (PET only) | p. 61 |
Collimator effects-Distance dependent spatial resolution (SPECT only) | p. 62 |
Positron range and annihilation (PET only) | p. 63 |
References | p. 64 |
Corrections for Physical Factors | p. 67 |
Introduction | p. 67 |
Decay correction | p. 69 |
Randoms correction | p. 71 |
Singles-based correction | p. 72 |
Delayed window correction | p. 72 |
Attenuation correction | p. 73 |
Stand-alone emission tomography systems | p. 77 |
PET/CT and SPECT/CT systems | p. 80 |
Attenuation correction artifacts | p. 82 |
Scatter correction | p. 90 |
Energy windowing methods | p. 91 |
Analytical methods | p. 92 |
Direct calculation methods | p. 94 |
Iterative reconstruction methods | p. 95 |
Concluding remarks | p. 95 |
References | p. 95 |
Corrections for Scanner-Related Factors | p. 105 |
Positron emission tomography | p. 105 |
Introduction | p. 105 |
Data normalization | p. 107 |
Noise equivalent count rates | p. 108 |
System dead time | p. 108 |
Partial volume | p. 110 |
Single photon emission computed tomography | p. 112 |
Linearity, center of rotation, and whole body imaging | p. 112 |
Motion correction | p. 114 |
References | p. 115 |
Image Processing Techniques in Emission Tomography | p. 119 |
Introduction | p. 119 |
Denoising | p. 121 |
Image domain | p. 122 |
Fourier transform domain | p. 123 |
Wavelet transform domain | p. 124 |
Interpolation | p. 126 |
Registration | p. 129 |
Categorization | p. 130 |
Nature of transformation | p. 132 |
Similarity measure | p. 133 |
Validation | p. 135 |
Software | p. 137 |
Partial volume correction | p. 137 |
The partial volume effect in PET imaging | p. 138 |
Correction methods | p. 140 |
Super-resolution | p. 144 |
Validation | p. 146 |
Intensity-based measures | p. 146 |
Phantoms | p. 148 |
Hardware | p. 148 |
Software | p. 149 |
References | p. 150 |
Motion Correction in Emission Tomography | p. 157 |
Introduction | p. 157 |
Magnitude of motion | p. 158 |
Patient motion | p. 158 |
Respiratory motion | p. 158 |
Cardiac motion | p. 159 |
Motion correction on 3D PET data | p. 160 |
Overview | p. 161 |
Rigid motion correction | p. 162 |
Elastic motion correction | p. 163 |
Optical flow | p. 164 |
Image constraint equation | p. 164 |
Optical flow methods | p. 166 |
Optical flow in medical imaging | p. 167 |
Lucas-Kanade optical flow | p. 168 |
Horn-Schunck optical flow | p. 169 |
Bruhn optical flow | p. 170 |
Preserving discontinuities | p. 172 |
Correcting for motion | p. 173 |
Mass conservation-based optical flow | p. 174 |
Correcting for motion | p. 175 |
References | p. 177 |
Combined Correction and Reconstruction Methods | p. 185 |
Introduction | p. 186 |
Parameter identification | p. 187 |
Compartment modeling | p. 187 |
4D methods incorporating linear parameter identification | p. 189 |
4D methods incorporating nonlinear parameter identification | p. 190 |
Combined reconstruction and motion correction | p. 192 |
The advantages of the list mode format | p. 193 |
Motion correction during an iterative reconstruction algorithm | p. 194 |
Approaches based on a rigid or affine motion model | p. 194 |
Approaches based on a non-rigid motion model | p. 196 |
Combination of parameter identification and motion estimation | p. 198 |
References | p. 200 |
Recent Developments | p. 207 |
Introduction Hybrid Tomographic Imaging | p. 209 |
Introduction | p. 209 |
Combining PET and SPECT | p. 210 |
The combination with MR | p. 211 |
Combining ultrasound with PET and SPECT | p. 214 |
References | p. 215 |
MR-based Attenuation Correction for PET/MR | p. 217 |
Introduction | p. 218 |
MR-AC for brain applications | p. 220 |
Segmentation approaches | p. 220 |
Atlas approaches | p. 221 |
Methods for torso imaging | p. 224 |
Discussion | p. 229 |
The presence of bone | p. 230 |
MR imaging with ultrashort echo time (UTE) | p. 231 |
Required PET accuracy | p. 232 |
Validation of MR-AC methods | p. 232 |
Truncated field-of-view | p. 232 |
MR coils and positioning aids | p. 233 |
User intervention | p. 233 |
Potential benefits of MR-AC | p. 234 |
Additional potential benefits of simultaneous PET/MR acquisition | p. 234 |
Conclusion | p. 234 |
References | p. 235 |
Optical Imaging | p. 241 |
Introduction | p. 241 |
Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) | p. 244 |
Light propagation model | p. 244 |
Photon interaction with biological tissue | p. 244 |
The diffusion approximation | p. 246 |
Model for a fluorescence heterogeneity | p. 248 |
Reconstruction of the fluorochrome distribution | p. 249 |
FMT and hybrid FMT systems | p. 251 |
Instrumentation | p. 251 |
Illumination | p. 251 |
Detection | p. 252 |
360° projections | p. 252 |
Multimodal optical imaging | p. 253 |
Optical tomography and MRI | p. 253 |
FMT-XCT | p. 254 |
References | p. 257 |
Index | p. 263 |
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