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Corrections in the 21st Century w/online learning center,9780073522364

Corrections in the 21st Century w/online learning center

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780073522364

ISBN10:
0073522368
Format:
Nonspecific Binding
Pub. Date:
3/3/2006
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
List Price: $138.27

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Summary

Offering a practical approach, this text introduces students to the ideas and practices characteristic of modern corrections while equipping them with the skills necessary to succeed in the field. Its three-pronged approach to corrections includes a thorough description of correctional ideology, including professionalism, policy issues, and society's avowed goals for the correctional enterprise; a comprehensive overview of correctional practice, including the everyday operations of correctional agencies, prisons, jails, and the procedures of parole and probation; and the development of personal skills applicable to the corrections field. The text's central theme throughout is professionalism in corrections. "Corrections professionalism has garnered support from policy-makers and is winning respect among the public. It serves as this textbook's organizing principle." (from the Preface)The Third Edition has been extensively updated, revised, and reorganized and now features enhanced coverage of the goals of punishment, restorative and retributive justice, the impact of terrorism on facility management, prison and sentencing reform, professional credentialing, capital punishment, and much more.

Table of Contents

Preface xviii
A Guided Tour xxvi
PART 1 Introduction to Correction
1(110)
Corrections: An Overview
2(38)
The Corrections Explosion
4(4)
Historical Roots of the Corrections Explosion
6(1)
Correctional Expenditures
7(1)
Crime and Corrections
8(6)
Measuring Crime
9(4)
The Crime Funnel
13(1)
Corrections and the Criminal Justice System
14(9)
Entering the Correctional System
15(1)
Prosecution and Pretrial Procedure
16(1)
Judicial Procedures
17(1)
Sentencing and Sanctions
17(3)
The Correctional Subsystem
20(3)
Professionalism in Corrections
23(10)
Standards and Training
26(1)
Basic Skills and Knowledge
27(3)
Standard-Setting Organizations
30(1)
Education
31(2)
Social Diversity in Corrections
33(7)
Punishments: A Brief History
40(30)
Punishments in Ancient Times
42(1)
Ancient Greece
42(1)
Ancient Israel
43(1)
Early Rome
43(1)
Physical Punishments
43(9)
Flogging
45(1)
Branding
46(1)
Mutilation
46(1)
Instant Death
46(1)
Lingering Death
47(1)
The Role of Torture
48(1)
Exile and Transportation
48(3)
Public Humiliation
51(1)
Confinement
51(1)
Incarceration as Punishment
52(3)
The House of Correction (1550-1700)
52(1)
The Emergence of the Prison
53(2)
The Reformers
55(15)
William Penn
57(1)
John Howard
57(1)
Cesare Beccaria
58(2)
Jeremy Bentham
60(1)
Sir Samuel Romilly
61(3)
Sir Robert Peel
64(1)
Elizabeth Fry
65(1)
Mary Belle Harris
65(5)
Sentencing: To Punish or to Reform?
70(41)
Sentencing: Philosophy and Goals
73(10)
Philosophy of Criminal Sentencing
73(1)
The Goals of Sentencing
74(9)
Sentencing Options and Types of Sentences
83(4)
Options
83(2)
Types of Sentences
85(2)
Sentencing Models
87(12)
Indeterminate Sentencing
88(1)
Determinate Sentencing
88(1)
Guideline Sentencing
89(8)
Mandatory Minimum Sentencing
97(2)
Three-Strikes Models---Washington and California
99(4)
Impact on Local Courts and Jails
101(1)
Impact on State Prison Systems
102(1)
Issues in Sentencing
103(8)
Proportionality
103(1)
Equity
104(1)
Social Debt
105(1)
Truth in Sentencing
105(1)
Broader Issues
105(6)
PART 2 Community Corrections
111(100)
Diversion and Probation: How Most Offenders Are Punished
112(50)
Overview of Diversion and Probation
114(1)
Diversion
115(5)
Rationales for Diversion
118(1)
The Process of Diversion
118(1)
Diversion Policy Issues
119(1)
Probation
120(16)
Reasons for and Goals of Probation
121(2)
History of Probation
123(4)
Characteristics of Adults on Probation
127(2)
Who Administers Probation?
129(3)
Does Probation Work?
132(4)
What Probation Officers Do
136(26)
Case Investigation
137(9)
Supervision
146(16)
Intermediate Sanctions: Between Probation and Incarceration
162(49)
Intermediate Sanctions
165(38)
Value of Intermediate Sanctions
169(1)
Varieties of Intermediate Sanctions
170(31)
Policy-Centered Approach to Developing Intermediate Sanctions
201(1)
Program-Centered Approach to Developing Intermediate Sanctions
202(1)
Community Corrections
203(8)
Community Corrections Acts
204(7)
PART 3 Institutional Correlections
211(160)
Jails: Way Stations Along the Justice Highway
212(44)
Purpose of Jails
215(2)
Jails in History
217(7)
First Jail in America
218(1)
American Jails in the 20th Century
219(1)
Architecture and Inmate Management
220(4)
Characteristics of Jail Inmates, Facilities, and Staff
224(9)
Jail Inmates
224(6)
Jail Facilities
230(2)
Jail Staff
232(1)
Jail Issues
233(23)
Privatization
233(6)
Overcrowding
239(1)
Ways to Reduce Jail Crowding
239(4)
Educational and Vocational Programs
243(1)
Mental Health Programs
244(2)
Religious Programs
246(2)
Jail Accreditation
248(2)
Jail Staff as Professionals
250(6)
Prisons Today: Change Stations or Warehouses?
256(63)
History of Prisons in America
259(9)
Stages of Development
261(7)
Who Is in Prison Today?
268(6)
State and Federal Inmates Held in Privately Operated Facilities
270(1)
State and Federal Inmates Held in Local Jails
270(1)
Gender
270(2)
Race
272(2)
Age
274(1)
Most Serious Offense
274(1)
Programs for Prisoners
274(27)
Classification
274(10)
Orientation to the Institution
284(1)
Unit Management and Faith-Based Honor Dorms and Prisons
284(2)
Daily Routine
286(1)
Work Assignments
287(9)
Education and Recreation Programs
296(3)
Health Care
299(2)
Prison Organization and Administration
301(1)
State Prison Systems
301(9)
Federal Bureau of Prisons
307(3)
Does Incarceration Work?
310(9)
Parole: Early Release and Reentry
319(52)
Parole as Part of the Criminal Justice System
321(22)
Historical Overview
322(5)
Reentry
327(16)
Characteristics of Parolees
343(7)
Trends in the Parole Population
344(1)
Does Parole Work?
345(5)
Issues in Parole
350(21)
Can Parolees Vote?
350(3)
Reentry Courts and Community Partnership Councils
353(4)
Reintegration of Offenders
357(2)
Reintegration Involving Victims
359(3)
Legal Decisions Affecting Parole
362(1)
Abolition of Discretionary Parole Board Release
363(8)
PART 4 The Prison World
371(148)
The Staff World: Managing the Prison Population
372(36)
The Staff Hierarchy
375(1)
The Correctional Officer---The Crucial Professional
376(10)
Bases of Power
377(1)
The Staff Subculture
378(4)
Gender and Ethnicity of Correctional Officers
382(1)
Correctional Officer Personalities
383(2)
Correctional Officer Job Assignments
385(1)
Correctional Staff Issues
386(22)
Female Officers
386(3)
Stress
389(3)
Staff Safety
392(1)
Job Satisfaction
393(3)
Professionalism
396(4)
The Impact of Terrorism on Corrections
400(8)
The Inmate World: Living Behind Bars
408(34)
Men in Prison
410(11)
What Is the Inmate Subculture?
412(1)
How Does an Inmate Subculture Form?
413(1)
Norms and Values of Prison Society
414(1)
Prison Argot---The Language of Confinement
414(1)
Social Structure in Men's Prisons
415(3)
Sexuality in Men's Prisons
418(3)
Women in Prison
421(21)
Characteristics of Women Inmates
422(2)
Offenses of Incarcerated Women
424(1)
Social Structure in Women's Prisons
425(1)
Pseudofamilies and Sexual Liaisons
426(2)
Special Needs of Female Inmates
428(1)
Mothers in Prison
429(7)
Cocorrectional Facilities
436(6)
The Legal World: Prisoners' Rights
442(38)
The Hands-Off Doctrine
444(2)
Decline of the Hands-Off Doctrine
445(1)
Prisoners' Rights
446(9)
Legal Foundations
446(2)
Mechanisms for Securing Prisoners' Rights
448(3)
Inmate Grievance Procedures
451(4)
The Prisoner Rights Era (1970-1991)
455(18)
First Amendment
457(5)
Fourth Amendment
462(2)
Eighth Amendment
464(3)
Fourteenth Amendment
467(3)
End of the Prisoner Rights Era
470(3)
Female Inmates and the Courts
473(7)
The Cases
474(6)
Special Prison Populations: The Elderly, HIV/AIDS, and the Mentally Challenged
480(39)
Special-Needs Inmates
483(14)
Substance-Abusing Inmates
483(2)
HIV-Positive and AIDS Inmates
485(3)
Mentally Ill Inmates
488(5)
Inmates with Tuberculosis
493(1)
Older Inmates
494(3)
Drug Treatment Programs
497(7)
Recidivism
498(1)
Program Evaluation
499(2)
Recommendations for Managing Substance-Abusing Offenders
501(3)
Drug Courts
504(1)
HIV and AIDS in Correctional Facilities
505(1)
Education and Prevention
506(1)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Jail
506(1)
Legal Issues
507(12)
Inmates with Disabilities
508(1)
Inmates with HIV/AIDS
509(1)
Inmates with Mental Illness
509(10)
PART 5 Issues in Corrections
519
Prison Issues and Concerns: Security, Privatization, Technology, and Accreditation
520(48)
Overcrowding
522(4)
Why Are Prisons Overcrowded?
523(1)
How Can Prison Overcrowding Be Controlled?
524(1)
What Are the Consequences of Prison Overcrowding?
525(1)
Prison Security
526(13)
Prison Gangs---Security Threat Groups
526(8)
Prison Riots and Disturbances
534(5)
Supermax Housing and ``No-Frills'' Prisons and Jails
539(10)
Supermax Housing
540(5)
``No-Frills'' Prisons and Jails
545(4)
Accreditation
549(3)
Why Should Correctional Agencies and Facilities Be Accredited?
550(2)
Privatization
552(7)
The Debate
553(5)
Privatizing Community Supervision
558(1)
Future Trends
559(1)
Technocorrections
559(9)
Communication
559(2)
Offender and Officer Tracking and Recognition
561(2)
Detection
563(1)
Implementation
563(5)
The Victim: Helping Those in Need
568(40)
A Brief History of America's Victims' Rights Movement
570(13)
Legislation
572(4)
The Proposal for a Federal Victims' Rights Constitutional Amendment
576(7)
The Costs and Consequences of Victimization
583(3)
Who Pays the Bill?
585(1)
The Role of Corrections
586(7)
Victim Notification
586(2)
Victim and Witness Protection
588(2)
Community Notification
590(1)
Crime Impact Classes
591(1)
Victim-Offender Dialogue
592(1)
The Victimization of Correctional Staff
593(1)
Victim Compensation
593(5)
President's Task Force on Victims of Crime
594(1)
Victims of Crime Act
595(1)
Recent Trends
595(1)
Eligibility Requirements
595(1)
Benefit Criteria
596(1)
Restitution
597(1)
The Office for Victims of Crime
598(1)
Victim Impact Statements
599(4)
The Future of Victims' Rights
603(5)
Death: The Ultimate Sanction
608(50)
History of Capital Punishment
611(2)
Capital Punishment Around the World
612(1)
Capital Punishment in the United States
613(5)
The Federal Death Penalty
615(3)
Death Row Today
618(14)
Characteristics of People Executed Since
1977 618(619)
Characteristics of Prisoners Under Sentence of Death
619(2)
Murder Rates, Race, and the Death Penalty
621(1)
Victim Race and Gender and the Death Penalty
621(2)
Methods of Execution
623(2)
What Is Death Row Like?
625(2)
Public Opinion, Politics and Capital Punishment
627(5)
The Courts and the Death Penalty
632(9)
Appealing the Death Penalty
639(2)
Death Penalty Issues in the 21st Century
641(17)
Wrongful Convictions: The Liebman Study
641(3)
Banning the Juvenile Death Penalty
644(7)
Banning the Execution of People with Mental Retardation
651(7)
Juvenile Corrections: End of an Era?
658(36)
History of the Juvenile Justice System
661(3)
Houses of Refuge
661(1)
Reform Schools
662(1)
Industrial Schools
662(1)
The First Juvenile Court
663(1)
The U.S. Supreme Court and the Juvenile Justice System
664(4)
Kent v. United States (1966)
664(2)
In re Gault (1967)
666(1)
In re Winship (1970)
666(1)
McKeiver v. Pennsylvania (1971)
667(1)
Breed v. Jones (1975)
667(1)
Schall v. Martin (1984)
667(1)
Impact on Juvenile Court
668(1)
The Contemporary Juvenile Justice System
668(2)
Juvenile Crime
668(1)
Profile of the Juvenile Delinquent
669(1)
The Juvenile Justice Process
670(11)
Intake
670(3)
Adjudication
673(1)
Disposition
673(4)
Transfer to Adult Criminal Court
677(4)
Teen Courts
681(1)
Youth Gangs
682(4)
The American Correctional Association and Juvenile Justice Reform
686(8)
Professionalism in Corrections
694
Today's Challenges
698(9)
The Expansion of Prison Construction
698(1)
Who Is Entering Our Jails and Prisons?
699(1)
New Technology
699(1)
The Effects of 9/11
700(1)
The Public Image of Corrections
700(1)
Safety First
701(1)
Inmate Programs Second
701(2)
Recruitment
703(1)
The Importance of Training
704(1)
Execution Teams
705(2)
Inmates
707(1)
Professionalism
707
The Need for Professionalism
707(1)
What Is Professionalism?
708(1)
How to Foster Professionalism
709(2)
Relationships
711(1)
Participation in the Larger Corrections Community
711(3)
Professional Development
714
Employee Recognition
419
APPENDIX Careers in Corrections
Career Planning
1(4)
Self-Assessment
1(1)
Occupational Research
2(3)
Decision Making
5(1)
Seeking Employment
5(16)
Submitting an Application
7(1)
Writing Your Resume
7(1)
Resume Format
8(4)
The Cover Letter
12(3)
The Examination Process: Testing and Background Investigation
15(1)
The Job Interview
16(4)
The Thank-You Letter
20(1)
Reevaluation
21
Endnotes 0(1)
Glossary 1(1)
Credits 1
Case Index 0(1)
Subject Index 1


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