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Corrections in America : An Introduction,9780131027282
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Corrections in America : An Introduction

by ; ;
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780131027282

ISBN10:
013102728X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $91.00
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Table of Contents

PART 1: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES 1(60)
CHAPTER 1: Early History (2000 B.C. to A.D.1800)
3(21)
Overview
3(1)
Behavior as a Continuum
4(1)
Redress of Wrongs
5(1)
Retaliation
5(1)
Fines and Punishments
5(1)
Early Codes
6(2)
Babylonian and Sumerian Codes
6(1)
Crime and Sin
7(1)
Roman and Greek Codes
7(1)
The Middle Ages
7(1)
Punishment
8(4)
Capital and Corporal Punishment
8(1)
Deterrence
9(1)
Emergence of Secular Law
10(1)
Early Prisons
11(1)
Workhouses
12(1)
The Age of Enlightenment and Reform
12(3)
Montesquieu and Voltaire: The French Humanists
13(1)
Bentham and the Hedonistic Calculus
14(1)
John Howard
15(1)
Houses of Correction, Workhouses, and Gaols
15(1)
Transportation Systems
16(2)
Deportation to the American Colonies and Australia
16(1)
Hulks: A Sordid Episode
17(1)
Early Cellular Prisons
18(3)
The Maison de Force at Ghent and the Hospice of San Michele
18(1)
William Penn and the "Great Law"
18(1)
The Walnut Street Jail
19(2)
Summary
21(1)
Review Questions
21(1)
Words to Remember
21(1)
Endnotes
22(2)
CHAPTER 2: Prisons (1800 to the Present)
24(19)
Overview
24(1)
The Pennsylvania System
25(1)
The Auburn System
26(2)
Discipline at Auburn
26(2)
Prison Competition
28(1)
Rules
28(2)
Maconochie and Crofton: A New Approach
30(2)
Maconochie and the Indeterminate Sentence
31(1)
Crofton and the Irish System
32(1)
The Reformatory Era (1870 to 1910)
32(2)
Post-Civil War Prisons
34(1)
The Twentieth Century and the Industrial Prison
34(2)
The Period of Transition (1935 to 1960)
36(2)
The Modern Era
38(1)
Internally Sought Reform
38(2)
The Prison Population Boom
39(1)
Summary
40(1)
Review Questions
40(1)
Words to Remember
40(1)
Endnotes
40(3)
CHAPTER 3: Correctional Ideologies: The Pendulum Swings
43(18)
Overview
43(1)
Conflicting Correctional Ideologies
44(1)
The Punishment Ideology
44(5)
Retribution
45(1)
Deterrence
45(2)
Incapacitation
47(1)
The Effect of Punishment
47(2)
The Treatment Ideology
49(3)
The Prevention Ideology
51(1)
The Pendulum Swings
52(1)
Restorative Justice
53(2)
Balanced and Restorative Justice Philosophy
54(1)
The Balanced Approach and Its Application
54(1)
Contemporary Corrections
55(2)
Summary
57(1)
Review Questions
57(1)
Words to Remember
58(1)
Endnotes
58(1)
Suggested Readings: Part 1
59(2)
PART 2: THE COURT PROCESS 61(32)
CHAPTER 4: Sentencing
63(16)
Overview
63(1)
The Correctional Filter
64(1)
The Prosecutor's Decision
64(1)
The Sentencing Decision
65(8)
Rapid Change in Sentencing Processes
65(1)
New Goals
66(1)
Reform Options
67(1)
Reform Effects
68(1)
Predicting Behavior
68(1)
The Presentence Investigation
68(1)
Judicial versus Administrative Sentencing
69(1)
Practical Problems in Sentencing
70(1)
Problems in Setting Prison Terms
71(2)
Felony Sentences in State Court, 1998
73(3)
Deterrence by Sentencing
76(1)
Summary
76(1)
Review Questions
77(1)
Terms to Remember
77(1)
Endnotes
77(2)
CHAPTER 5: Appellate Review
79(14)
Overview
79(1)
The Issue of Due Process
80(1)
The Path of a Criminal Case
81(2)
The Mechanics of an Appeal
83(2)
The Courts of Appeal
84(1)
Appeals from Behind the Walls
85(1)
Reform by Judicial Decree
85(1)
Court Orders and Court Decrees
86(1)
Appeals Flood the Courts
87(2)
Types of Prisoner Petitions
87(1)
Legislative Initiatives to Reduce Prisoner Litigation
88(1)
Summary
89(1)
Review Questions
89(1)
Terms to Remember
89(1)
Endnotes
90(1)
Suggested Readings: Part 2
91(2)
PART 3: ALTERNATIVES TO IMPRISONMENT 93(70)
CHAPTER 6: Jails and Detention Facilities
95(21)
Overview
95(2)
Jails: A Grim History
97(2)
Jails Today
99(1)
Jail Populations and Characteristics
100(1)
The New Generation Jail
101(4)
The Jail in Context
105(3)
The Problem with Overcrowding
105(2)
Problems with Personnel
107(1)
Jail Standards
107(1)
Health Care in Jails
108(1)
Alternatives to Jail
108(3)
Fines
108(1)
Weekend Confinement
109(1)
Community Work Orders
110(1)
Alternatives to Jail at the Pretrial Stage
111(2)
Summary
113(1)
Review Questions
113(1)
Words to Remember
114(1)
Endnotes
114(2)
CHAPTER 7: Probation
116(23)
Overview
116(1)
Suspended Sentence and Sanctuary
117(1)
The History of Probation
118(1)
The Spread of Probation
118(3)
Organization and Administration of Probation
121(5)
The Role of the Probation Agency
121(1)
The Decision to Grant Probation
122(1)
The Presentence Investigation Report
123(1)
Private Presentence Reports
123(1)
The Sentencing Hearing
124(1)
Risk Assessment
125(1)
Targeting Risk Factors: Challenge for Probation
126(2)
Conditions of Probation
128(2)
Probation Revocation
130(3)
Felony Probation
133(1)
The Broken Windows Approach
134(1)
Probation and its Role in Corrections
134(2)
Summary
136(1)
Review Questions
136(1)
Words to Remember
136(1)
Endnotes
137(2)
CHAPTER 8: Intermediate Sanctions
139(24)
Overview
139(1)
Overcrowding
140(1)
Intermediate Sanctions
141(16)
Restitution Programs
142(1)
Day Fines
143(1)
Intensive Supervised Probation
144(1)
Drug Courts
145(2)
Community Service Programs
147(1)
Home Detention
147(2)
Electronic Monitoring
149(2)
Community Residential Treatment Centers
151(1)
Day Reporting Centers
152(2)
Shock Incarceration
154(1)
Shock Probation
154(1)
Boot Camp Programs
154(3)
Summary
157(1)
Review Questions
158(1)
Words to Remember
158(1)
Endnotes
158(3)
Suggested Readings: Part 3
161(2)
PART 4: CORRECTIONAL SYSTEMS 163(72)
CHAPTER 9: Imprisonment
165(18)
Overview
165(2)
Prison Populations Continue to Climb
167(3)
Classification: A Basic Element of Corrections
170(2)
Maximum-Security Prisons
172(5)
Inside the Walls
174(2)
Supermax: The Next Notch Up on Security
176(1)
The Special Housing Unit: A Jail Within a Maximum Security Prison
177(1)
Medium- and Minimum-Security Institutions
177(1)
New Prisons: 1989 to 2002
178(2)
Alternatives to Prison Overcrowding
180(1)
The Future of Imprisonment
180(1)
Summary
181(1)
Review Questions
181(1)
Words to Remember
181(1)
Endnotes
181(2)
CHAPTER 10: State and Local Prison Systems
183(18)
Overview
183(1)
State Correctional Institutions: The Core of the System
184(5)
Organization of State Systems
186(1)
Development of State Systems
187(1)
Classification and Assignment in State Prisons
188(1)
Inmates in State Prisons
189(3)
Local Adult City-Operated Prisons
192(1)
Are Prisons "Cruel and Unusual Punishment"?
193(5)
Training in State Systems
198(1)
Summary
199(1)
Review Questions
199(1)
Words to Remember
199(1)
Endnotes
200(1)
CHAPTER 11: The Federal System
201(18)
Overview
201(1)
The Use of State Facilities
202(1)
Early Federal Prison Facilities
203(1)
The Bureau of Prisons is Born
204(4)
Early Growth of the Federal Bureau of Prisons
205(1)
Recent Developments
205(3)
Organization and Administration
208(1)
Inmate Populations Explode
208(1)
Community-Based Programs and Contract Facilities
208(1)
A Model Inmate Classification System
209(3)
Unicor: Federal Prison Industries, Inc.
212(1)
Education and Training: Inmates and Staff
213(1)
Federal Female Offenders
214(1)
Community Corrections in the Federal System
215(1)
Changing Population of Federal Institutions
216(1)
Summary
217(1)
Review Questions
217(1)
Words to Remember
217(1)
Endnotes
217(2)
CHAPTER 12: Private Sector Systems
219(16)
Overview
219(1)
The Private Sector in Community Corrections
220(1)
Some Historical Considerations
221(2)
Early History
221(2)
More Recent Developments
223(1)
Private Sector Treatment Programs
223(2)
Low-Security Custody Programs
225(1)
Surveillance and Control Technologies
226(1)
The Era of Expansion of Privatization
226(2)
Correctional Privatization: Issues and Evidence
228(3)
Training Needed for Staff
231(1)
Summary
231(1)
Review Questions
232(1)
Words to Remember
232(1)
Endnotes
232(1)
Suggested Readings: Part 4
233(2)
PART 5: CORRECTIONS FUNCTIONS 235(48)
CHAPTER 13: Custody Functions
237(24)
Overview
237(1)
Institutions: Bureaucratic Control
238(1)
Administration's Problem: Punish, Control, or Rehabilitate?
238(1)
Custody: A Twenty-Four-Hour Impact
239(1)
Wardens and Superintendents
240(1)
Correctional Officers and Jailers: On The Front Lines
241(4)
Correctional Officer Attitudes
241(1)
Diminished Control
242(2)
Unionization and the Correctional Officer
244(1)
Inmate Organization: The Social System
245(2)
Custody as a Way of Life
247(7)
Discipline and Inmate Traffic Control
249(2)
Contraband and Shakedowns
251(3)
Prevention of Escape
254(3)
Technology to Prevent Escapes: Electric Fences
254(2)
Project Costs and Operational Savings
256(1)
The Military Model
256(1)
Unit Team and Other Methods to Avoid Compartmentalization
257(1)
Upgrading Correctional Personnel
258(1)
Summary
259(1)
Review Questions
259(1)
Words to Remember
259(1)
Endnotes
259(2)
CHAPTER 14: Management and Treatment Functions
261(22)
Overview
261(1)
The Treatment Model
262(1)
Perceptions and Correctional Management
263(1)
Classification for Security and Treatment
264(1)
Treatment in Prison
264(10)
Health and Medical Services
265(4)
Religious Assistance and Services
269(2)
Educational and Training Programs for Inmates
271(3)
The Vocational-Rehabilitation Model
274(2)
The Reintegration Model
276(2)
Summary
278(1)
Review Questions
278(1)
Words to Remember
278(1)
Endnotes
278(2)
Suggested Readings: Part 5
280(3)
PART 6: INSTITUTIONAL CLIENTS 283(100)
CHAPTER 15: Female Offenders
285(25)
Overview
285(1)
Female Crime and Incarceration Rates
286(2)
A Differential Justice System for Females?
288(3)
Females in Jail
291(3)
Females in Prison
294(2)
Female Institutions
296(2)
Special Problems for Incarcerated Females
298(4)
The Co-Correctional Institution
302(3)
Community Corrections and Female Offenders
305(1)
Summary
306(1)
Review Questions
306(1)
Words to Remember
307(1)
Endnotes
307(3)
CHAPTER 16: Male Offenders
310(18)
Overview
310(1)
Prison Populations Continue to Soar
311(1)
Prisoner Population
312(7)
Criminal History
312(3)
Dangerousness
315(1)
Drugs and Alcohol
316(1)
Education and Work
316(1)
Reasons for the Soaring Prison Populations
317(2)
Prisonization Plays a Big Role
319(4)
Rape in All-Male Institutions
321(2)
The Graying of America's Male Prisoners
323(2)
Summary
325(1)
Review Questions
325(1)
Words to Remember
326(1)
Endnotes
326(2)
CHAPTER 17: Juvenile Offenders
328(27)
Overview
328(1)
Where Does the Juvenile Fit In?
329(1)
Criminal Behavior Declines with Aging
330(3)
Categories of Juvenile Offenders
333(2)
Juvenile Rights: The Landmark Cases
335(3)
Juveniles Held in Institutional Environments
338(2)
A View from a Practitioner
340(4)
The New Breed
340(1)
The Early Years
341(1)
Counseling Component
342(1)
Unprecedented Growth
342(1)
Today's Challenges
343(1)
Who is a Juvenile Today?
344(2)
The Juvenile Crime Problem
346(1)
Juvenile Violence: A Growing Problem?
346(1)
Juvenile Victims of Violence
347(3)
Today's Approach to Juvenile Institutions
350(2)
Institutional Treatment and Rehabilitation
352(1)
Summary
352(1)
Review Questions
353(1)
Words to Remember
353(1)
Endnotes
353(2)
CHAPTER 18: Special Category Offenders
355(28)
Overview
355(1)
The Mentally Disordered Offender
356(4)
Mentally Ill Inmates
357(1)
Two Ways to Escape Criminal Responsibility
358(1)
The Criminally Insane
359(1)
The Problems of Prediction
360(1)
The Developmentally Challenged Offender
360(4)
A Historic Perspective
362(2)
Sex Offenders
364(5)
Common Sex Offenses
364(3)
Sex Offenders and Probation
367(1)
Sex Offenders in Prison
368(1)
Aids in Prisons
369(4)
HIV Positive Prison Inmates, by Offense and Prior Drug Use
370(1)
AIDS and Custody Staff
371(1)
AIDS and Inmates
372(1)
Geriatric Inmates: The Graying of American Prisons
373(4)
Washington State Efforts with Geriatric Prisoners
375(2)
Summary
377(1)
Review Questions
378(1)
Words to Remember
378(1)
Endnotes
378(3)
Suggested Readings: Part 6
381(2)
PART 7: RIGHTS OF CORRECTIONAL CLIENTS 383(48)
CHAPTER 19: Inmate and Ex-Offender Rights
385(26)
Overview
385(1)
The Status of the Convicted Offender
386(1)
Basic Inmate Rights
387(7)
Visiting and Community Ties
387(1)
Use of Mail
388(1)
Contraband and Mail
389(2)
Religious Rights in Prison
391(1)
Access to Court and Counsel
391(1)
The Right to Medical Treatment and Care
392(2)
Tort Suits
394(1)
Civil Rights Act "1983" Suits
395(1)
Remedies for Violations of Rights
396(1)
The Legend of the Ex-Con
397(1)
Consequences of a Conviction
397(4)
Stigma
397(1)
The Transition Period
398(1)
Loss of Civil Rights
398(1)
Legal Consequences of a Felony Conviction
399(2)
Right to Work Versus Need to Work
401(2)
Restricted Trades: Barriers To Employment
403(1)
The Problem With A Record
403(3)
Registration of Criminals
404(1)
Registration of Ex-Offenders
404(1)
Expungement as a Response
405(1)
Restoring Offenders' Rights
406(1)
Summary
407(1)
Review Questions
407(1)
Words to Remember
408(1)
Endnotes
408(3)
CHAPTER 20: The Death Penalty-The Ultimate Right
411(20)
Overview
411(1)
Origins of the Death Penalty
412(1)
Better Ways to Die?
412(1)
Arbitrary and Infrequent Punishment
413(2)
The Eighth Amendment and the Death Penalty
415(3)
Prosecutor's Discretion
418(1)
Deterrence of the Death Penalty
418(2)
Public Opinion and the Death Penalty
418(1)
The Controversy Continues
419(1)
The Issue of Equability
420(1)
Women and the Death Penalty
421(2)
Juveniles and the Death Penalty
423(2)
Justifications
424(1)
The Death Penalty and Terrorism
425(1)
Death Row Populations Continue to Mount
425(1)
Summary
426(1)
Review Questions
426(1)
Words to Remember
426(1)
Endnotes
426(2)
Suggested Readings: Part 7
428(3)
PART 8: REINTEGRATION SYSTEMS 431(34)
CHAPTER 21: Parole and Reentry
433(14)
Overview
433(1)
The Development of Parole
434(2)
The Roots of American Parole
434(1)
Early Practices in Other Nations
434(1)
Parole Comes to the United States
435(1)
Pardon and Parole: Two Ways Out of Prison
436(1)
What is Parole?
437(1)
Parole Administration
438(1)
The Parole Board
438(1)
Parole Release
438(1)
Parole Release Guidelines
439(1)
Parole Conditions
440(1)
Parole Revocation
441(1)
Parole Remains a Major Segment of Corrections
441(1)
Pardons
442(2)
Reentry: The New Challenge
444(1)
Summary
444(1)
Review Questions
445(1)
Words to Remember
445(1)
Endnotes
445(2)
CHAPTER 22: Community Corrections
447(18)
Overview
447(1)
Prisons: At a Turning Point
448(1)
Diversion: Keeping the Offender out of the System
449(3)
Community-Based Diversion Programs
449(1)
Police-Based Diversion Programs
450(1)
Court-Based Diversion Programs
450(2)
Adjuncts to Institutionalization: An Intermediate Step
452(1)
Probation and Parole: A Changing Role in the Community
453(1)
Reentry Into the Community from the Institution
453(2)
Halfway Houses as Alternatives to Incarceration
455(1)
Models of Community Residential Programs
455(3)
Is Cheaper Better?
457(1)
Correctional Outcomes
458(2)
The Integrated Contract Model: A Possible Compromise
460(2)
Summary
462(1)
Review Questions
462(1)
Words to Remember
462(1)
Endnotes
462(2)
Suggested Readings: Part 8
464(1)
PART 9: A LINK TO THE FUTURE 465(10)
CHAPTER 23: The Futures of Corrections
467(8)
Overview
467(1)
Current Trends
468(2)
Alternatives
470(1)
Promising Changes
470(1)
Intermediate Sanctions
471(1)
Creating Change
472(1)
Summary and Conclusion
472(1)
Endnotes
473(1)
Suggested Readings: Part 9
474(1)
GLOSSARY 475(24)
INDEX OFAUTHORS 499(6)
SUBJECT INDEX 505


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