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Counseling Children

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780495007753

ISBN10:
0495007757
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
6/23/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $166.33
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Summary

Unparalleled in its translation of theory into practice, COUNSELING CHILDREN covers the most practical and up-to-date methods for developing effective approaches to counseling children. The authors provide a comprehensive yet easy-to-read text that includes useful strategies and case studies from actual counseling sessions to present a realistic look at the field. COUNSELING CHILDREN presents a development approach to counseling that considers age and stage differences in counseling children, adolescents, and adults.

Table of Contents

Preface xxii
Author Biographies xxv
PART 1 INTRODUCTION TO COUNSELING CHILDREN
1(72)
Introduction to a Child's World
2(31)
Indicators of Well-Being
4(1)
What Causes Our Children's Problems?
4(1)
A Changing World
5(3)
The American Home
6(1)
Societal Crises
7(1)
Changing Values
7(1)
Summary of Children's Difficulties
8(1)
The Personal World of The Child
8(3)
Child Development
11(1)
A Child's Cognitive World
11(4)
The Child's World of Social Development
15(7)
Resilience
19(3)
What Is Counseling?
22(2)
How Does Counseling Differ from Psychotherapy?
23(1)
What Is an Appropriate Working Definition of Counseling?
23(1)
What Counseling Can Do
24(5)
What Specific Types of Assistance Can Be Expected from the Counseling Session?
24(3)
Who Are the Mental Health Professionals?
27(2)
Summary
29(4)
Introduction to a Child's World Video
29(1)
Websites for Understanding a Child's World
29(1)
References
30(3)
The Counseling Process
33(40)
Which Approaches to Counseling Are Effective?
33(3)
Classifying Counseling Theories
36(3)
Preparing for the Interview
39(1)
What Are Some Things to Consider during the First Interview?
40(5)
Children's Resistance to Counseling
40(2)
Steps to Overcoming Children's Resistance
42(2)
First Interview Goals and Observations
44(1)
A General Model for Counseling
45(3)
Step 1: Defining the Problem through Active Listening
45(1)
Step 2: Clarifying the Child's Expectations
46(1)
Step 3: Exploring What Has Been Done to Solve the Problem
46(1)
Step 4: Exploring What New Things Could Be Done to Solve the Problem
47(1)
Step 5: Obtaining a Commitment to Try One of the Problem-Solving Ideas
47(1)
Step 6: Closing the Counseling Interview
47(1)
Questions Counselors Ask
48(21)
What Does the Counselor Need to Know about Counseling Records?
48(1)
How Much Self-Disclosure Is Appropriate for the Counselor?
48(2)
What Types of Questions Should the Counselor Use?
50(2)
How Can Silences Be Used in Counseling?
52(1)
Should Counselors Give Advice?
52(2)
Should Counselors Give Information?
54(1)
How Does the Counselor Keep the Client on Task during the Counseling Session?
54(1)
What Limits Should Be Set in Counseling?
54(1)
What about the Issue of Confidentiality?
55(1)
Is This Child Telling Me the Truth?
56(1)
What Can Be Done When the Interview Process Becomes Blocked?
56(1)
When Should Counseling Be Terminated?
57(1)
How Can Counseling Be Evaluated?
58(1)
Goal Attainment Score Calculation: Level at Intake
59(2)
Goal Attainment Score Calculation: Level at Follow-up
61(2)
How Do Professional Counselors Work with Managed Health Care?
63(4)
Step One: Problem Identification
67(1)
Step Two: Problem Definition
67(1)
Step Three: Goal Development
67(1)
Step Four: Measurable Objectives
67(1)
Step Five: Creating Interventions
68(1)
Step Six: Diagnosing
68(1)
Summary
69(4)
The Counseling Process Video
69(1)
Websites for the Counseling Process
69(1)
References
70(3)
PART 2 COUNSELING THEORIES AND TECHNIQUES
73(340)
Psychoanalytic Counseling
74(35)
The Nature of People
76(2)
Theory of Counseling
78(8)
Structural Concepts
79(1)
Id
79(1)
Ego
79(1)
Superego
80(1)
Dynamic Concepts
81(1)
Instinct
81(1)
Cathexis
81(1)
Anticathexis
81(1)
Anxiety
81(1)
Developmental Concepts
81(1)
Defense Mechanisms
81(3)
Psychosexual Stages and Erikson's Stages
84(2)
Psychoanalytic Counseling and Development of Self-Esteem
86(4)
Object Relations Theory
87(3)
Counseling Methods
90(14)
Catharsis
91(1)
Free Association
92(1)
Interpretation
92(1)
Interpretation of Dreams
92(2)
Parapraxia
94(1)
Humor
94(1)
Analysis of Transference
94(1)
Analysis of Resistance
94(1)
Analysis of Incomplete Sentences
95(1)
Bibliocounseling
95(1)
Storytelling
96(1)
Psychoanalytic Play Therapy and the Expressive Arts
97(2)
Case Studies
99(5)
Cross-Cultural Applications of Psychoanalytic Counseling
104(1)
Psychoanalytic Counseling, Accountability, and Managed Health Care
105(1)
Summary
105(4)
Websites for Psychoanalytic Counseling
106(1)
References
106(3)
Reality Therapy: Counseling with Choice Theory
109(24)
The Nature of People
110(5)
Choice Theory and the Nature of People
111(4)
Theory of Counseling
115(1)
Counseling Method
116(4)
Reality Therapy Process
120(3)
Case Study
123(3)
The Ten Step Reality Therapy Consultation Model
126(3)
Cross-Cultural Applications of Reality Therapy
129(1)
Reality Therapy, Accountability, and Managed Health Care
130(1)
Summary
130(3)
Introduction to Reality Therapy
131(1)
Websites for Reality Therapy
131(1)
References
131(2)
Brief Counseling: Solution-Focused and Paradoxical Counseling Strategies
133(26)
Background
133(1)
Solution-Focused Brief Counseling
134(16)
The Nature of People
134(1)
Theory of Counseling
135(2)
Counseling Method
137(1)
Orientation Statement
137(1)
Statement of the Problem
138(1)
Setting Counseling Goals
138(1)
The Skeleton Key Question/Statement for Goal Setting
139(1)
Working with Unproductive Client Goals
139(1)
Using the Miracle Question to Formulate Goals
140(2)
Case Study
142(4)
Reviewing the Steps in Solution-Focused Brief Counseling
146(1)
Orientation to the Solution-Focused Brief Counseling Process
146(1)
Setting Goals for Counseling
146(1)
Active Listening
146(1)
Working with Negative Goals
147(1)
Working with Positive Goals
147(1)
The Miracle Question
147(1)
Relationship Questions
147(1)
Exceptions to the Problem Situation
148(1)
Positive Blame
148(1)
Scaling Progress toward Goal
148(1)
Ten Percent Improvements
148(1)
Flagging the Mine Field
148(1)
Closing the Session
148(1)
Writing the Note
149(1)
Ericksonian Play Therapy
150(1)
Paradoxical Counseling Strategies
150(3)
The Nature of People
150(1)
Theory of Counseling
150(1)
Counseling Method
151(1)
Case Examples
152(1)
Cross-Cultural Applications of Brief Counseling
153(1)
Brief Counseling: Accountability and Managed Health Care
154(1)
Summary
155(4)
Introduction to Brief Counseling Video
156(1)
Websites for Brief Counseling
156(1)
References
156(3)
Person-Centered Counseling
159(24)
The Nature of People
161(1)
Theory of Counseling
161(3)
Counseling Method
164(8)
Case Study
170(2)
Person-Centered Counseling and the Development of Self-Esteem
172(3)
Integrating Self-Esteem-Building Activities with the Child's Life
173(2)
Child-Centered Play Therapy
175(1)
Cross-Cultural Applications of Person-Centered Counseling
176(2)
Person-Centered Counseling, Accountability, and Managed Health Care
178(1)
Summary
178(5)
Introduction to Person-Centered Counseling Video
180(1)
Websites for Person-Centered Counseling
180(1)
References
181(2)
Gestalt Therapy
183(24)
The Nature of People
185(2)
Theory of Counseling
187(1)
Counseling Method
188(12)
Gestalt Techniques
189(1)
``I'' Language
189(1)
Substituting Won't for Can't
190(1)
Substituting What and How for Why
190(1)
No Gossiping
190(1)
Changing Questions into Statements
190(1)
Taking Responsibility
190(1)
Incomplete Sentences
190(1)
Bipolarities
191(2)
My Greatest Weakness
193(1)
Resent, Demand, and Appreciate: The Integration of Opposing Thoughts, Feelings, and Beliefs
193(1)
Fantasy Games for Creating Awareness
194(1)
Dreamwork
195(1)
Gestalt Play Therapy
196(1)
Confidence Courses for Play Therapy
197(1)
Case Study
197(3)
Cross-Cultural Applications of Gestalt Therapy
200(1)
Gestalt Therapy, Accountability, and Managed Health Care
201(2)
Summary
203(4)
Introduction to Gestalt Therapy Video
204(1)
Websites for Gestalt Therapy
204(1)
References
204(3)
Rational-Emotive-Behavioral Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
207(31)
The Nature of People
208(2)
Theory of Counseling
210(4)
Counseling Method
214(6)
Rational-Emotive-Behavioral Education
219(1)
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
220(6)
Case Study
223(3)
Applications of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
226(4)
Aggression
226(1)
Anxiety
227(1)
Depression
227(1)
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
228(1)
Obesity
228(1)
Children of Alcoholics
229(1)
Cognitive-Behavioral Play Therapy
229(1)
Cross-Cultural Applications of Rational-Emotive-Behavioral Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
230(1)
Rational-Emotive-Behavioral Therapy, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Accountability, and Managed Health Care
231(1)
Summary
232(6)
Websites for Rational-Emotive-Behavioral Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
234(1)
References
234(4)
Behavioral Counseling
238(31)
The Nature of People
239(1)
Theory of Counseling
240(4)
Behavior Analysis
241(1)
Why People Behave as They Do
241(1)
Steps in Behavior Analysis
242(1)
Principles of Behavior
242(2)
Schedules of Reinforcement
244(1)
Fixed Interval Schedule
244(1)
Variable Interval Schedule
244(1)
Fixed Ratio Schedule
244(1)
Variable Ratio Schedule
244(1)
Counseling Goals
244(1)
Counseling Methods
245(9)
Contingency Contracts
245(1)
Example 1
246(1)
Example 2
247(1)
Self-management
248(1)
Shaping
249(1)
Behavioral Momentum
249(1)
Biofeedback
250(1)
Modeling
250(1)
Token Economies
251(1)
Behavior-Practice Groups
251(1)
Role-playing
252(1)
Role-playing to Define a Problem
252(1)
Role Reversal
252(1)
Role-playing Used as Behavior Rehearsal
253(1)
Counseling Homework Assignments
253(1)
Assertiveness Training
254(1)
Classical Conditioning Methods
254(9)
Ivan Pavlov (1849--1936)
254(1)
Systematic Desensitization
255(3)
Flooding
258(1)
Hypnosis
259(1)
Counterconditioning
259(1)
Aversive Conditioning
259(1)
Case Study
260(3)
Applications of Behavioral Counseling
263(2)
Response Cost
264(1)
Eating Disorders
264(1)
Multimodal Approaches
264(1)
Cross-Cultural Applications of Behavioral Counseling
265(1)
Behavioral Counseling, Accountability, and Managed Health Care
266(1)
Summary
266(3)
Introduction to Behavioral Counseling
267(1)
Websites for Behavioral Counseling
267(1)
References
267(2)
Transactional Analysis
269(30)
The Nature of People and Theory of Counseling
270(13)
Structural Analysis
271(1)
Parent
271(1)
Adult
272(1)
Child
272(1)
Transactional Analysis
273(2)
Script Analysis
275(1)
Game Analysis
276(1)
Life Positions
277(1)
Games Clients Play
278(2)
The Pursuit of Strokes
280(1)
Structuring Time
281(2)
Rackets
283(1)
Counseling Method
283(12)
Case Studies
293(2)
Cross-Cultural Applications of Transactional Analysis
295(1)
Transactional Analysis, Accountability, and Managed Health Care
296(1)
Summary
297(2)
Websites for Transactional Analysis
297(1)
References
297(2)
Individual Psychology
299(36)
The Nature of People
301(8)
The Need for Success
302(1)
Goals of Behavior
302(1)
Lifestyle
303(1)
Social Interest
303(2)
The Family Constellation
305(1)
Only Children
305(1)
Firstborn Children
305(1)
Second-Born Children
306(1)
Middle Children
306(1)
Youngest Children
306(1)
The Family Atmosphere
307(2)
Theory of Counseling
309(5)
Goals of Misbehavior
311(1)
Attention
311(1)
Power
312(1)
Revenge
312(1)
Inadequacy or Withdrawal
312(2)
Counseling Method
314(13)
Early Recollections
317(1)
Understanding
318(1)
Confrontation
318(1)
Stages
319(1)
Interventions for the Four Goals of Misbehavior
319(2)
Sequence of the ``Could It Be . . .?'' Questions
321(1)
Encouragement
322(1)
Praise
323(1)
Bribery
323(1)
Natural and Logical Consequences
323(1)
Natural Consequences
323(1)
Logical Consequences
324(1)
Case Study
324(3)
Adlerian Play Therapy
327(1)
Adlerian Family Counseling
328(2)
Cross-Cultural Applications of Individual Psychology
330(2)
Individual Psychology, Accountability, and Managed Health Care
332(3)
Introduction to Individual Psychology
333(1)
Websites for Individual Psychology
333(1)
References
333(2)
Family Counseling
335(50)
How Does Family Counseling Differ from Individual Counseling?
335(1)
What Defines a Family?
336(1)
How Does General Systems Theory Relate to Families?
337(1)
Systems Approach to Family Therapy
337(9)
Murray Bowen (1913--1990)
337(1)
The Spousal Relationship
338(1)
Differentiation of Self
339(1)
Detriangulation of Self from the Family Emotional System
340(1)
Nuclear Family Emotional Process
340(1)
Family Projection Process
340(1)
Multigenerational Transmission Process
341(1)
Sibling Position
341(1)
Emotional Cutoff
341(1)
Emotional Process in Society
341(4)
Emotional Systems of the Family
345(1)
Modeling Differentiation
345(1)
Structural Family Therapy
346(5)
Salvador Minuchin's Contributions to Structural Family Therapy
347(4)
Strategic Family Therapy
351(6)
Paradoxical Interventions
351(1)
Contributions of Milton Erickson, Jay Haley, and Cloe Madanes to Strategic Family Therapy
352(5)
The Communications Approach to Family Therapy
357(18)
John Gottman's Behavioral Interview Method
357(2)
Virginia Satir's Conjoint Family Therapy
359(1)
The Nature of People
360(2)
Theory of Counseling
362(5)
Counseling Method
367(1)
An Example of Satir's Method
368(1)
The Importance of Including Children
368(2)
Three Keys to Satir's System
370(1)
Satir's Technique
370(1)
Simulated Family Game
371(1)
Systems Games
371(1)
Communication Games
372(1)
The Counselor's Role
372(1)
Case Studies
373(2)
Play Therapy with Families
375(3)
Dynamic Family Play Therapy
376(1)
Filial Therapy
376(1)
Strategic Family Play Therapy
377(1)
Theraplay
378(1)
Cross-Cultural Applications of Family Counseling
378(1)
Family Counseling, Accountability, and Managed Health Care
379(1)
Summary
380(5)
Introduction to Family Counseling
381(1)
Websites for Family Counseling
381(1)
References
381(4)
Personality Types
385(28)
The Nature of People
386(1)
Theory of Counseling
387(19)
Psyche
387(1)
Psychic Energy
387(1)
Consciousness
388(1)
The Personal Unconscious
388(1)
The Ego
388(1)
The Ego Gatekeeper
389(2)
Complexes
391(1)
Individuation
391(1)
Dreams
391(1)
Progression and Regression
392(1)
The Collective Unconscious
392(1)
Archetypes
392(1)
The Self
392(1)
The Anima and Animus
393(1)
The Shadow
393(1)
The Persona
393(1)
Word Association
394(1)
Psychological Types
394(3)
Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®)
397(5)
The Type Table™
402(1)
Dominance
402(1)
Temperament
402(1)
Preferences in Learning
403(1)
Psychological Diversity in Children
404(1)
Usefulness in Counseling
405(1)
Theory of Type Development
406(1)
Counseling Method
406(5)
Case Study
407(4)
Cross-Cultural Applications of Jung
411(1)
Summary
411(2)
Websites for Jungian Counseling
411(1)
References
412(1)
PART 3 COUNSELING WITH CHILDREN: SPECIAL TOPICS
413(216)
Play Therapy
414(43)
Defining Play Therapy
414(1)
Advantages of Play Therapy
415(2)
Empirical Support for Play Therapy
417(2)
Cross-Cultural Applications of Play Therapy
419(1)
Play Therapy Approaches
420(7)
Applications of Play Therapy
420(1)
Group Play Therapy
420(2)
Prescriptive Play Therapy
422(1)
Play Therapy with Families
423(1)
Filial Therapy
423(2)
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy
425(2)
Play Therapy with Specific Child Populations and Problems
427(5)
Children Experiencing Adjustment Difficulties in School
427(2)
Children Witnessing Domestic Violence
429(1)
Children Facing Persistent Illness and Children in the Hospital
429(1)
Autistic Children
430(1)
Children Experiencing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
431(1)
Play Therapy in Combination with Other Interventions
432(1)
Considerations in Play Therapy
433(1)
Therapist
433(1)
Appropriate Clients
434(1)
Play Stages
435(1)
Play Therapy and Managed Health Care
436(1)
Play Therapy Media and Strategies
436(9)
Basic Skills of Play Therapy
438(1)
Art
439(1)
Puppets
440(1)
Sand
441(2)
Case Study
443(2)
Summary
445(12)
Introduction to Play Therapy
446(1)
Websites for Play Therapy
446(1)
References
446(11)
Cultural Factors in Counseling Children
457(30)
Competence
459(1)
Multicultural Counseling Competencies
459(9)
Awareness
460(1)
Knowledge
461(3)
Ethnic Identity Development
464(1)
Acculturation
465(1)
Skills
466(2)
Children
468(12)
African American Children
470(3)
American Indian and Alaskan Native Children
473(2)
Asian American Children
475(2)
Latino Children
477(2)
Multiracial Children
479(1)
Summary
480(7)
Websites for Cultural Factors in Counseling Children
480(1)
References
480(7)
Consultation and Collaboration
487(23)
Consultation
488(11)
Models of Consultation
489(1)
Mental Health Consultation
489(1)
Process Consultation
489(2)
Behavioral Consultation
491(2)
Cross-Cultural Consultation
493(1)
Consulting Process
494(2)
Combinations
496(1)
Consultation Interventions
497(1)
Role Shift
497(1)
Listing of Behaviors
497(1)
Logical Consequences
498(1)
Isolation Techniques
498(1)
Collaboration
499(7)
Teaming
502(1)
Assessment as a Consulting and Counseling Intervention
502(1)
The Interview
502(2)
Case Histories
504(1)
Behavioral Observations
504(1)
Formal Psychological and Educational Tests
504(1)
Intelligence Tests
504(1)
Projective Techniques
505(1)
Achievement Tests
505(1)
Aptitude Tests
505(1)
Other Tests
505(1)
Summary
506(4)
Websites for Consultation and Collaboration
507(1)
References
507(3)
Group Counseling with Children
510(28)
Definition of Group
511(1)
Types of Groups
511(2)
Theoretically Oriented Group Counseling
513(2)
Group Leadership Skills
515(1)
Getting Started
516(5)
Group Focus
516(3)
Selecting Group Members
519(1)
Forming a Group
519(1)
Screening Interview
520(1)
Size of Group
521(1)
Group Setting
521(1)
Group Stages
521(2)
Group Counseling Process
523(8)
The First Session
523(1)
Guidelines for the Remaining Sessions
524(1)
Implications for Different Ages
525(2)
Evaluation of Groups
527(1)
Group Counseling Example
528(2)
Classroom Meetings
530(1)
Group Crisis Intervention
531(2)
Summary
533(5)
Websites for Group Counseling with Children
534(1)
References
534(4)
Counseling Children with Special Concerns
538(50)
Child Maltreatment
538(10)
Physical Abuse and Neglect
541(3)
Child Sexual Abuse
544(1)
General Counseling Strategies for Working with Children Who Have Been Abused
545(2)
Children's Memories of Abuse
547(1)
Children in Chemically Dependent Families
548(3)
Interventions for Children from Chemically Dependent Families
550(1)
Death and Bereavement
551(5)
Interventions for Children Who Are Grieving
553(3)
Depression and Suicide
556(6)
Interventions for Depression
557(1)
Suicide
558(2)
Interventions for Suicide
560(1)
Postsuicide Interventions
561(1)
Family Structures
562(18)
Children of Divorce
562(6)
Children in Stepfamilies
568(2)
Children in Single-Parent Homes
570(1)
Homeless Children
571(2)
Children and Violence
573(4)
Gangs
577(3)
Summary
580(8)
Websites for Counseling Children with Special Concerns
580(1)
References
580(8)
Counseling with Children with Special Needs
588(21)
The Situation
588(1)
History
589(1)
Categories of Exceptionality
590(3)
Methods for Counseling with Children Who Have Special Needs
593(1)
Children with Behavioral-Emotional Disorders
593(2)
The Child with a Learning Disability
595(3)
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention Deficit Disorder
598(2)
The Child with Mental Retardation
600(2)
The Child with a Physical Disability
602(1)
General Ideas
603(1)
Counseling with Parents of Exceptional Children
604(1)
Summary
605(4)
Websites for Counseling with Exceptional Children
605(1)
References
606(3)
Legal and Ethical Considerations for Counselors
609(20)
Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues
609(13)
Decision-Making Models
611(1)
Counseling Minors
612(1)
Competence
613(1)
Informed Consent
614(1)
Confidentiality
615(3)
Confidentiality of Files
618(2)
Breaching Confidentiality
620(1)
Duty to Protect
621(1)
Confidentiality in Groups
621(1)
Child Abuse Reporting
622(1)
An Ethical Decision-Making Process
622(3)
Summary
625(4)
Websites for Legal and Ethical Considerations for Counselors
625(1)
References
625(4)
Appendices 629(66)
Name Index 695(10)
Topical Index 705


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