9780375765254

Cracking the AP Biology Exam, 2006-2007 Edition

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  • ISBN13:

    9780375765254

  • ISBN10:

    0375765255

  • Format: Trade Paper
  • Copyright: 1/10/2006
  • Publisher: Princeton Review
  • View Upgraded Edition

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Summary

The Princeton Review realizes that scoring high on the AP Biology Exam is very different from earning straight A's in school. We don't try to teach you everything there is to know about biology--only the strategies and information you'll need to get your highest score. In Cracking the AP Biology Exam, we'll teach you how to Use our preparation strategies and test-taking techniques to raise your score Focus only on the biology topics that are likely to be covered on the test Memorize complicated biology concepts using simple techniques Test your knowledge with review questions for each topic covered This book includes 2 full-length practice AP Biology tests. All of our practice questions are just like those you'll see on the actual exam, and we explain how to answer every question.

Table of Contents

Introductionp. 1
What Is the AP Biology Exam?p. 1
The Princeton Review Approachp. 2
Using the Princeton Review Approach to Crack the Systemp. 8
The Chemistry of Lifep. 19
Elementsp. 19
The Essential Elements of Lifep. 19
Subatomic Particlesp. 20
Compoundsp. 20
Water: The Versatile Moleculep. 21
The Acid Testp. 23
Organic Moleculesp. 24
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
Proteins
Polypeptides
Lipids
Phospholipids
Nucleic Acids
The Heterotroph Hypothesisp. 33
Chapter 2 Quizp. 34
Cells and Organellesp. 37
Living Thingsp. 37
What Are the Different Types of Cells?p. 37
Organelles
Plasma Membrane
The Nucleus
Ribosomes
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Golgi Bodies
Mitochondria
Lysosomes
Centrioles
Vacuoles
Peroxisomes
Cytoskeleton
Plant Cells Versus Animal Cellsp. 41
Transport: The Traffic Across Membranesp. 42
Diffusion
Facilitated Transport
Active Transport
Endocytosis
Bulk Flow
Dialysis
Exocytosis
Cell Junctionsp. 45
Chapter 3 Quizp. 46
Cellular Metabolismp. 49
Bioenergeticsp. 49
Enzymesp. 50
Exergonic Reactionsp. 50
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)p. 54
Aerobic Respirationp. 55
Glycolysis
Formation of Acetyl CoA
The Krebs Cycle
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Chemiosmosisp. 60
Anaerobic Respirationp. 61
Chapter 4 Quizp. 62
Photosynthesisp. 65
The Anatomy of a Leafp. 66
A Closer Look at Photosynthesisp. 67
The Light Reaction
The Light-Independent Reaction
Chapter 5 Quizp. 73
Molecular Geneticsp. 75
DNA: The Blueprint of Lifep. 75
The Molecular Structure of DNAp. 76
DNA Replicationp. 78
RNAp. 80
Protein Synthesisp. 80
Transcription
RNA Processing
Translation
Mutationsp. 84
Recombinant DNAp. 85
Chapter 6 Quizp. 87
Cell Reproductionp. 89
Cell Divisionp. 89
The Cell Cyclep. 89
Interphase: The Growing Phase
Mitosis: The Dance of the Chromosomesp. 91
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Interphase
Haploids Versus Diploidsp. 94
An Overview of Meiosisp. 95
Meiosis I
Meiosis II
Gametogenesis
Mutations
Chapter 7 Quizp. 101
Heredityp. 103
Gregor Mendel: The Father of Geneticsp. 103
Mendelian Geneticsp. 104
The Law of Dominance
Monohybrid Cross
The Law of Segregation
The Law of Independent Assortment
Beyond Mendelian Geneticsp. 109
Sex-Linked Traitsp. 110
Chapter 8 Quizp. 112
Classificationp. 115
Taxonomyp. 115
How Classification Worksp. 116
Kingdom Archaebacteriap. 117
Kingdom Eubacteriap. 117
Kingdom Protistap. 120
Kingdom Fungip. 121
Kingdom Plantaep. 121
Kingdom Animaliap. 122
Virusesp. 124
Chapter 9 Quizp. 126
Plantsp. 129
Plant Classificationp. 130
Bryophytes Versus Tracheophytes
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
Life Cycle of Plantsp. 133
Plant Growthp. 134
Special Structures in Plantsp. 135
Roots
Leaves
Flowering Plants
Double Fertilization
Vegetative Propagation
Tropical Tropismsp. 138
Chapter 10 Quizp. 140
Animal Structure and Functionp. 143
The Digestive Systemp. 144
The Human Digestive System
The Mouth
The Stomach
The Small Intestine
The Pancreas
The Large Intestine
The Respiratory Systemp. 149
The Human Respiratory System
Transport of Oxygen
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
Mechanics of Breathing
The Circulatory Systemp. 151
The Human Circulatory System
Systemic Circulation
The Pulmonary System
Heart Cycle
The Lymphatic System
The Immune Systemp. 158
Types of Immune Cells
AIDS
The Excretory Systemp. 159
The Human Excretory System
How Urine Is Made
Hormones of the Kidney
Skin
The Nervous Systemp. 163
Neurons
Parts of the Nervous System
Parts of the Brain
The Musculoskeletal Systemp. 170
The Human Skeletal System
Bones
Muscles
Organization of Skeletal Muscles
Muscle Contraction
The Endocrine Systemp. 174
The Pituitary Gland
The Pancreas
The Adrenal Glands
The Thyroid
The Parathyroids
The Sex Hormones
How Hormones Work
The Reproductive Systemp. 179
The Menstrual Cycle
The Male Reproductive System
Embryonic Developmentp. 183
Blastula
Gastrula
Neurula
What About Chicken Embryos?
Development of an Embryo
Chapter 11 Quizp. 186
Evolutionp. 191
Natural Selectionp. 191
Lamarck and the Long Necks
Genetic Variabilityp. 193
Causes of Evolutionp. 194
Types of Selection
Speciesp. 195
Population Geneticsp. 196
Hardy-Weinberg Equations
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
Chapter 12 Quizp. 198
Animal Behavior and Ecologyp. 201
Behaviorp. 201
Instinctsp. 202
Learning
Internal Clocks
How Animals Communicate
Social Behavior
Ecologyp. 205
Biosphere
Major Biomes
Ecosystem
Community
Niche
Symbiotic Relationships
Population Ecologyp. 210
Ecological Succession
Human Impact on the Environmentp. 213
Chapter 13 Quizp. 214
The Free-Response Questionsp. 217
The Essaysp. 217
Grading Checklistp. 222
Sample Essaysp. 223
How to Use Our Practice Essaysp. 225
Sample Essay Questionsp. 225
Laboratoryp. 227
Diffusion and Osmosisp. 228
Enzyme Catalysisp. 228
Mitosis and Meiosisp. 229
Plant Pigments and Photosynthesisp. 230
Cell Respirationp. 231
Molecular Biologyp. 231
Genetics of Drosophilap. 232
Population Genetics and Evolutionp. 233
Transpirationp. 233
Physiology and the Circulatory Systemp. 233
Habitat Selectionp. 234
Dissolved Oxygen and Aquatic Primary Productivityp. 234
Answers and Explanations to the Chapter Quizzesp. 235
The Princeton Review AP Biology Practice Test 1p. 247
Answers and Explanations to Practice Test 1p. 269
The Princeton Review AP Biology Practice Test 2p. 285
Answers and Explanations to Practice Test 2p. 307
Indexp. 319
About the Authorp. 327
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