9780375765278

Cracking the AP Chemistry Exam, 2006-2007 Edition

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780375765278

  • ISBN10:

    0375765271

  • Format: Trade Paper
  • Copyright: 1/10/2006
  • Publisher: Princeton Review
  • View Upgraded Edition

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Summary

The Princeton Review realizes that scoring high on the AP Chemistry Exam is very different from earning straight A's in school. We don't try to teach you everything there is to know about chemistryonly the strategies and information you'll need to get your highest score. In Cracking the AP Chemistry Exam, we'll teach you how to Use our preparation strategies and test-taking techniques to raise your score Focus on the topics most likely to appear on the test Test your knowledge with review questions for each chemistry topic covered This book includes 2 full-length practice AP Chemistry tests. All of our practice questions are just like those you'll see on the actual exam, and we explain how to answer every question.

Table of Contents

Introduction xi
Orientation
1(12)
What Is the AP Program?
1(1)
What Is the AP Chemistry Exam?
2(1)
Cracking the Multiple-Choice Section
2(4)
The Basics
Pacing
Guessing
About Calculators
Cracking the Free-Response Section
6(3)
Parts A and B---Problems
Cracking the Problems
Part C---Writing Chemical Equations
Part D---Essays
Cracking the Essays
About the Topics Covered on the Test
9(4)
Preparing for the AP Chemistry Exam
13(4)
The Months Before the Test
13(2)
The Week Before the Test
15(1)
The Day of the Test
15(2)
Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table
17(20)
The Periodic Table
18(1)
Electrons
19(6)
Quantum Numbers
The Aufbau Principle
The Pauli Exclusion Principle
Quantum Numbers and the Periodic Table
Hund's Rule
Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism
Electrons and Energy
Names and Theories
Periodic Trends
25(3)
Atomic Radius
Ionization Energy
Electron Affinity
Electronegativity
Questions
28(5)
Answers and Explanations
33(4)
Bonding
37(24)
Coulomb's Law
37(1)
Bonds Within Molecules
38(7)
Ionic Bonds
Covalent Bonds
Lewis Dot Structures
Molecular Geometry
Bonds Between Molecules---Attractive Forces in Solids and Liquids
45(3)
Ionic Bonds
Network (Covalent) Bonds
Metallic Bonds
Van der Waals Forces
Hydrogen Bonds
Questions
48(4)
Answers and Explanations
52(9)
Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations
61(20)
Some Math
61(2)
Significant Figures
Logarithms
Moles
63(1)
Moles and Molecules
Moles and Grams
Moles and Gases
Moles and Solutions
Chemical Equations
64(3)
Balancing Chemical Equations
Chemical Equations and Calculations
Questions
67(4)
Answers and Explanations
71(10)
Gases
81(18)
Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
81(1)
Kinetic Molecular Theory
82(1)
The Ideal Gas Equation
82(1)
Dalton's Law
83(1)
Graham's Law
84(1)
Van der Waals Equation
84(1)
Density
85(1)
Questions
86(5)
Answers and Explanations
91(8)
Phase Changes
99(12)
The Phase Diagram
100(1)
Phase Changes
100(1)
Naming the Phase Changes
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Vaporization
The Phase Diagram for Water
101(1)
The Heating Curve
102(1)
Questions
103(4)
Answers and Explanations
107(4)
Thermodynamics
111(22)
The First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics
111(1)
State Functions
112(1)
Standard State Conditions
112(1)
Enthalpy
112(3)
Enthalpy Change, ΔH
Heat of Formation, ΔH°f
Bond Energy
Hess's Law
Heat Capacity and Specific Heat
Entropy
115(1)
Entropy Change, ΔS°
Gibbs Free Energy
116(2)
Free Energy Change, ΔG
ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS
ΔG and ΔG°
Standard Free Energy Change and the Equilibrium Constant
Energy Diagrams
118(3)
Catalysts and Energy Diagrams
Questions
121(6)
Answers and Explanations
127(6)
Solutions
133(20)
Concentration Measurements
133(1)
Molarity
Molality
Mole Fraction
Solutes and Solvents
134(1)
Colligative Properties
135(1)
Boiling Point Elevation
Freezing Point Depression
Vapor Pressure Lowering (Raoult's Law)
Osmotic Pressure
Density
136(1)
Solubility
136(4)
Solubility Product (Ksp)
The Common Ion Effect
Solubility Rules
Solubility of Gases
Questions
140(5)
Answers and Explanations
145(8)
Equilibrium
153(16)
The Equilibrium Constant, Keq
153(2)
Keq and Gases
155(1)
The Reaction Quotient, Q
156(1)
Keq and Multistep Processes
156(1)
Le Chatelier's Law
156(2)
Concentration
Volume
Temperature
Questions
158(5)
Answers and Explanations
163(6)
Acids and Bases
169(26)
Definitions
169(2)
Arrhenius
Bronsted-Lowry
Lewis
pH
171(1)
Weak Acids
171(2)
Weak Acids and Calculations
Strong Acids
173(1)
Strong Acids and Calculations
Kw
173(1)
Acid and Base Salts
174(1)
Acid-Base Salts and Calculations
Buffers
175(2)
Polyprotic Acids and Amphoteric Substances
177(1)
Anhydrides
177(1)
Titration
178(2)
Questions
180(5)
Answers and Explanations
185(10)
Kinetics
195(26)
The Rate Law Using Initial Concentrations
195(2)
The Rate Law Using Concentration and Time
197(4)
First-Order Rate Laws
Second-Order Rate Laws
Zero-Order Rate Laws
Collision Theory
201(2)
The Rate Constant and Temperature
Reaction Mechanisms
203(1)
Catalysts
204(1)
Kinetics and Equilibrium
205(1)
Questions
206(9)
Answers and Explanations
215(6)
Oxidation-Reduction and Electrochemistry
221(22)
Oxidation States
222(1)
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
223(1)
Reduction Potentials
224(2)
Voltage and Spontaneity
226(1)
Voltage and Equilibrium
226(1)
Galvanic Cells
227(1)
Electrolytic Cells
228(3)
Questions
231(5)
Answers and Explanations
236(7)
Nuclear Decay
243(12)
Types of Nuclear Decay
243(2)
Alpha Emission (4/2α)
Beta Emission (0/-1 β)
Positron Emission (0/+1 β)
Electron Capture (0/-1 e)
Gamma Rays (0/0 γ)
Nuclear Stability
245(1)
Half-Life
Mass Defect and Binding Energy
246(1)
Questions
247(3)
Answers and Explanations
250(5)
Laboratory
255(14)
Recommended Experiments
256(1)
Safety
257(1)
Accuracy
257(1)
Lab Procedures
257(2)
Methods of Separation
Measuring Concentration
Identifying Chemicals in Solution
259(1)
Precipitation
Conduction
Flame Tests
Acid-Base Reaction
Colored Solutions
Laboratory Equipment
260(1)
Questions
261(4)
Answers and Explanations
265(4)
Organic Chemistry
269(16)
Hydrocarbons
270(1)
Alkanes
Alkenes
Alkynes
Hydrocarbon Rings
Some Functional Groups
271(3)
Alcohols
Organic Acids
Halides
Amines
Aldehydes
Ketones
Ethers
Esters
Isomers
274(2)
Organic Reactions
276(2)
Questions
278(4)
Answers and Explanations
282(3)
Descriptive Chemistry
285(8)
Net Ionic Equations
285(1)
Scoring
286(1)
Cracking the Descriptive Chemistry Section
287(6)
The Princeton Review AP Chemistry Practice Exam 1
293(28)
Answers and Explanations for Practice Exam 1
321(44)
The Princeton Review AP Chemistry Practice Exam 2
365(28)
Answers and Explanations for Practice Exam 2
393(44)
Index 437(6)
About the Author 443

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