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Creating Black Americans African-American History and Its Meanings, 1619 to the Present

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780195137569

ISBN10:
0195137566
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/9/2006
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press
List Price: $53.28

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  • Creating Black Americans : African American History and Its Meanings, 1619 to the Present
    Creating Black Americans : African American History and Its Meanings, 1619 to the Present




Summary

Here is a magnificent account of a past rich in beauty and creativity, but also in tragedy and trauma. Eminent historian Nell Irvin Painter blends a vivid narrative based on the latest research with a wonderful array of artwork by African American artists, works which add a new depth to ourunderstanding of black history. Painter offers a history written for a new generation of African Americans, stretching from life in Africa before slavery to today's hip-hop culture. The book describes the staggering number of Africans--over ten million--forcibly transported to the New World, most doomed to brutal servitudein Brazil and the Caribbean. Painter looks at the free black population, numbering close to half a million by 1860 (compared to almost four million slaves), and provides a gripping account of the horrible conditions of slavery itself. The book examines the Civil War, revealing that it only slowlybecame a war to end slavery, and shows how Reconstruction, after a promising start, was shut down by terrorism by white supremacists. Painter traces how through the long Jim Crow decades, blacks succeeded against enormous odds, creating schools and businesses and laying the foundations of ourpopular culture. We read about the glorious outburst of artistic creativity of the Harlem Renaissance, the courageous struggles for Civil Rights in the 1960s, the rise and fall of Black Power, the modern hip-hop movement, and two black Secretaries of State. Painter concludes that African Americanstoday are wealthier and better educated, but the disadvantaged are as vulnerable as ever. Painter deeply enriches her narrative with a series of striking works of art--more than 150 in total, most in full color--works that profoundly engage with black history and that add a vital dimension to the story, a new form of witness that testifies to the passion and creativity of theAfrican-American experience. * Among the dozens of artists featured are Romare Bearden, Elizabeth Catlett, Beauford Delaney, Jacob Lawrence, and Kara Walker * Filled with sharp portraits of important African Americans, from Olaudah Equiano (one of the first African slaves to leave a record of his captivity) and Toussaint L'Ouverture (who led the Haitian revolution), to Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth, to Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X

Author Biography


Nell Irvin Painter is the Edward Professor of American History at Princeton. A former Director of Princeton's Program in African-American Studies, she is the author of Sojourner Truth: A Life, A Symbol and Standing at Armageddon: The United States 1877-1919.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Acknowledgments xxi
Africa and Black Americans
3(20)
``African'' Americans and Africa
3(13)
Ethiopianism: Ancient Egypt + Cush + Ethiopia = the Negro Race
7(2)
Absent Africa
9(1)
Black Scholars in an African Diasporic Framework
10(2)
Black Nationalism and the New Negro Movement
12(1)
The Call for Racial Art
12(2)
Textbook Recognition of African History
14(1)
Ghana
14(1)
Mali
15(1)
Songhay
15(1)
African-American Artists Encounter Independent Africa
16(7)
Conclusion
18(2)
Timeline
20(1)
Review Questions
20(1)
Discussion Questions
21(2)
Captives Transported, 1619--ca. 1850
23(24)
1619 and Two Early Slave-Trade Narratives
24(7)
The Founders of Black America
25(6)
The Atlantic Slave Trade
31(7)
The Scale of the Forced Migration
32(2)
Three Stages of the Journey
34(4)
Artists Represent the Atlantic Slave Trade
38(9)
Conclusion
43(1)
Timeline
44(1)
Review Questions
45(1)
Discussion Questions
45(2)
A Diasporic People, 1630--ca. 1850
47(22)
Religion in the African Diaspora
48(8)
Dimensions of African-American Religion
49(5)
Christian Themes in Black Art
54(2)
Spirituals
56(1)
Language and Literature in the African Diaspora
56(2)
Ethnic and Racial Identities
58(5)
Africans and Indians
59(2)
Africans and Europeans
61(2)
``Mulatto Population''
63(1)
Minority Status
63(2)
The Black Population Lived Throughout North America
65(4)
Conclusion
65(1)
Timeline
66(1)
Review Questions
67(1)
Discussion Questions
67(2)
Those Who Were Free, ca. 1770--1859
69(22)
American and Haitian Revolutions
70(6)
Black Soldiers in the American Revolution
70(2)
Petitioning for Emancipation and Civil Rights
72(2)
The Haitian Revolution
74(2)
Free People in the United States
76(8)
Free Black People at Work
78(1)
Education and Voluntary Associations
78(2)
Protest in Word and Deed
80(1)
Black Abolitionists
81(3)
The Reach of Slavery Lengthens
84(7)
Conclusion
86(2)
Timeline
88(1)
Review Questions
89(1)
Discussion Questions
89(2)
Those Who Were Enslaved, ca. 1770--1859
91(24)
The Enslaved Lay the Foundations of the American Economy
92(4)
Enslaved Laborers
93(3)
The Domestic Slave Trade
96(2)
Slavery: A Dehumanizing Institution
98(5)
Physical Trauma
98(1)
Psychological Trauma
99(1)
What Slavery Cost Slaves
100(1)
The Value System That Slaves Took from Slavery
101(1)
Family and Religion as Protection Against Dehumanization
102(1)
Undermining Slavery
103(12)
Conspiracies and Insurrections
103(1)
Running Away
104(2)
The Underground Railroad
106(1)
Harriet Tubman, Moses of Her People
106(5)
Conclusion
111(1)
Timeline
112(1)
Review Questions
112(1)
Discussion Questions
113(2)
Civil War and Emancipation, 1859--1865
115(26)
Sectional Tensions Leading to War
117(1)
A War About Union, Not About Slavery
118(3)
Rebuff of Black Volunteers
118(1)
Fugitive Slaves as ``Contraband of War''
119(1)
Pressure to Enlist Blacks
120(1)
Emancipation and Colonization
120(1)
The War Against Slavery
121(6)
The Emancipation Proclamations
122(1)
Black Regiments in the Union Army
123(2)
Summer 1863: The Turning Point
125(1)
Struggles over Officers and Equal Pay
125(2)
African Americans in the War Effort
127(3)
Two Hundred Thousand Black Soldiers and Sailors
127(2)
Spies, Scouts, Guides, and Nurses
129(1)
Memorializing African Americans in the Civil War
130(4)
Slavery Destroyed
134(7)
Conclusion
137(1)
Timeline
138(1)
Review Questions
139(1)
Discussion Questions
139(2)
The Larger Reconstruction, 1864--1896
141(20)
Making Freedom Real
142(9)
Reuniting Families and Finding Work
142(2)
Land Ownership: Forty Acres and a Mule
144(1)
Education for Freedpeople
145(2)
Freedpeople's Churches
147(1)
Voting and Holding Office
148(3)
The Destruction of Democracy
151(10)
White Supremacist Violence
151(1)
Exodus to Kansas of 1879
152(1)
Undermining of Black Civil Rights by the Supreme Court
153(1)
African Americans and Indians
154(2)
What Reconstruction Did
156(1)
Conclusion
157(1)
Timeline
158(1)
Review Questions
159(1)
Discussion Questions
159(2)
Hard-Working People in the Depths of Segregation, 1896--ca. 1919
161(28)
Struggle, Survival, and Success
163(15)
Hard-Working People
163(1)
Sharecropping, Debt, and Prison
163(3)
Educational Gains
166(4)
Black Professionals
170(1)
The Golden Age of Black Business
170(2)
Black Towns and Churches: Havens from Racist Oppression
172(1)
New Black Music
173(2)
Black Athletes
175(1)
Countering Antiblack Stereotypes
175(3)
White Supremacy: An Attempt to Halt Black Success
178(11)
White Supremacy: Disfranchisement
178(1)
White Supremacy: Segregation
179(1)
Lynching and Antilynching Campaigns
180(3)
Conclusion
183(3)
Timeline
186(1)
Review Questions
187(1)
Discussion Questions
187(2)
The New Negro, 1915--1932
189(26)
The Great Migration
190(3)
The First World War: Struggle on Two Fronts
193(13)
Black Military Bands Introduce Jazz
198(1)
Antiblack Riots and the Red Summer of 1919
199(2)
The New Negroes' Initiatives
201(2)
The Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)
203(3)
The Harlem Renaissance
206(9)
Music of the Harlem Renaissance
206(2)
Literature of the Harlem Renaissance
208(2)
Scholarship of the Harlem Renaissance
210(1)
Art of the Harlem Renaissance
211(1)
Conclusion
211(1)
Timeline
212(1)
Review Questions
213(1)
Discussion Questions
213(2)
Radicals and Democrats, 1930--1940
215(24)
The Depression Crisis
216(7)
Catastrophic Black Unemployment
217(1)
The New Deal and Political Realignment
217(2)
The Scottsboro Cases and Protests Against Lynching
219(2)
``Don't Buy Where You Can't Work'' Boycotts and Self-Help Campaigns
221(2)
The New Deal
223(7)
New Deal Goals and Programs
223(1)
The Works Progress Administration (WPA) and Black Artists
224(4)
African Americans Confront New Deal Racism
228(1)
The ``Black Cabinet''
229(1)
Black Activism Increases in Depth and Range
230(9)
African Americans Rally to Support Ethiopia
230(2)
Black Heroes of the Depression Years
232(2)
Fighting Racial Oppression in the Courts
234(1)
Campaigns for Civil Rights and Workers' Rights in the South
234(1)
Conclusion
235(1)
Timeline
236(1)
Review Questions
237(1)
Discussion Questions
237(2)
The Second World War and the Promise of Internationalism, 1940--1948
239(22)
Struggles at Home and Abroad
239(9)
Familiar Issues
240(1)
The ``Double Vee'' Strategy and the FEPC
240(1)
Black Men and Women in the Second World War
241(4)
Black Flyers Disprove Stereotypes and Win Medals
245(1)
The Battle for Civil Rights in the South
246(2)
``No Such Thing as the Status Quo''
248(13)
The Invention of Bebop
248(2)
Broadened Horizons, Increased Opportunities
250(1)
The Promise of the United Nations
250(2)
Post-war Confrontations in the South over Citizenship Rights
252(1)
The Truman Administration and the Progressive Party Embrace Black Civil Rights
253(1)
Migration and Increased Incomes: Long-Term Changes Wrought by War
254(2)
Conclusion
256(2)
Timeline
258(1)
Review Questions
259(1)
Discussion Questions
259(2)
Cold War Civil Rights, 1948--1960
261(28)
Human Rights in a Cold War Context
262(8)
Anti-Communism Eclipses Internationalism
262(3)
Brown v. Board of Education and Cold War Politics
265(1)
Southern ``Massive Resistance'' to Legal Desegregation
266(2)
New Segregation: The Growth of All-White Suburbs
268(2)
Activism and Anger
270(8)
The Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955--1956
270(2)
Desegregation of Little Rock, Arkansas, Central High School
272(1)
Unremitting Antiblack Violence Stirs Bitterness and Anger
273(3)
The Nation of Islam Grows
276(2)
African-American Visibility in the Mainstream Culture
278(11)
Black Intellectuals Speak to America and Are Heard
278(3)
The Growing Popularity of African-American Music
281(4)
Conclusion
285(1)
Timeline
286(1)
Review Questions
287(1)
Discussion Questions
287(2)
Protest Makes a Civil Rights Revolution, 1960--1967
289(28)
The Early 60s: Action Direct and Indirect
290(13)
Student Movements of the Early 1960s
290(4)
The Protests of 1963, the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation
294(5)
Freedom Summer, Mississippi, 1964
299(1)
Malcolm X's Evolution from the NOI to Pan-Africanism, 1964--1965
300(3)
Mid-1960s Legislation and Opposition
303(14)
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Great Society
303(2)
The Vietnam War Consumes the Great Society's Resources
305(1)
Urban Revolts of the Mid-1960s
306(2)
Background Causes of the Riots
308(4)
Conclusion
312(2)
Timeline
314(1)
Review Questions
315(1)
Discussion Questions
315(2)
Black Power, 1966--1980
317(32)
The Emergence of Black Power
318(6)
Black Power as Self-Definition and Self-Defense
319(2)
The Black Panther Party
321(3)
Cultural Nationalism: Emphasis on African Roots
324(4)
Black Power After 1968
328(21)
Assassination and Aftermath
328(7)
Angry Reaction in Vietnam
335(3)
Black Power Workers, Artists, Feminists, and Intellectuals
338(5)
Black Power Lives On
343(1)
Conclusion
343(3)
Timeline
346(1)
Review Questions
347(1)
Discussion Questions
347(2)
Authenticity and Diversity in the Era of Hip-Hop, 1980--2005
349(28)
Racial Politics and Economics After Black Power: Increased Diversity
350(11)
Affirmative Action: Controversial and Effective
350(2)
Black Conservatives Gain Prominence
352(2)
Black Democrats: More Numerous, More Influential
354(2)
Black Voters Disfranchised in the 2000 Presidential Election
356(1)
The Reparations Movement
357(2)
Reclaiming Black History
359(1)
Afrocentrism Provokes Controversy
360(1)
African Americans Remake American Culture
361(16)
Hip-Hop Culture Presents a New Vision of the Inner City
363(5)
Opportunity in the Military, Opposition to War
368(3)
Conclusion
371(1)
Timeline
372(2)
Review Questions
374(1)
Discussion Questions
375(2)
Epilogue: A Snapshot of African Americans in the Early Twenty-First Century
377(16)
The Black Middle Class
378(2)
Family Structure Influences Class
380(1)
Wealth: A Sound Measure of Financial Well-being
380(2)
African Americans at the Extremes of Wealth and Poverty
382(2)
The Crisis of Drugs and Incarceration
384(1)
The War on Drugs Sends Hundreds of Thousands of African Americans to Prison
384(3)
Poor Health: A Chronic Problem for African Americans
387(1)
Racial and Ethnic Diversity of African Americans
388(2)
African Americans Are People of the City
390(2)
Review Questions
392(1)
Discussion Questions
392(1)
Notes 393(40)
Further Reading 433(5)
Artists Whose Work Appears in Creating Black Americans 438(22)
Picture Credits 460(4)
Index 464


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