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Creating Inclusive Classrooms : Effective and Reflective Practices for All Students,9780131408135
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Creating Inclusive Classrooms : Effective and Reflective Practices for All Students

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780131408135

ISBN10:
0131408135
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $99.00
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Summary

The fifth of Creating Inclusive Classrooms: Effective and Reflective Practices for All Students goes beyond the typical inclusion text in its reflective discussions on how to teach students with varying learning abilities. This text contains all of the core information that an inclusion text requires and then takes the reader to a higher level by including issues of gender, race, ethnicity, language, socioeconomic status, and family structures.

Table of Contents

Part I Understanding the Foundations and Fundamentals of Inclusion
1(155)
Understanding Inclusion
2(44)
What Is Special Education?
5(1)
Special Education
5(1)
What Is Inclusion?
6(1)
Inclusion
6(1)
Mainstreaming
6(1)
Principles of Effective Inclusion
7(5)
What Is the Least Restrictive Environment?
12(3)
Least Restrictive Environment
12(3)
What Factors Contributed to the Movement to Educate Students in Inclusive Classrooms?
15(10)
Normalization
16(1)
Deinstitutionalization
16(1)
Early Intervention and Early Childhood Programs
16(1)
Technological Advances
17(1)
Civil Rights Movement and Resulting Litigation
18(2)
Advocacy Groups
20(1)
Segregated Nature of Special Schools and Classes
21(1)
Disproportionate Representation
21(2)
Standards-Based Reform and No Child Left Behind Act
23(2)
What Are the Laws That Affect Special Education?
25(7)
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
25(3)
Other Laws Affecting Special Education
28(4)
What Is the Impact of Inclusion?
32(11)
Impact of Inclusion on Students with Disabilities
32(4)
Impact of Inclusion on Students Without Disabilities
36(2)
Impact of Inclusion on Educators
38(2)
Impact of Inclusion on Families
40(3)
Summary
43(3)
Understanding the Diverse Educational Strengths and Needs of Students with Disabilities
46(62)
How Does the Special Education Identification Process Work?
49(15)
Comprehensive Planning Team
49(1)
Prereferral System
50(1)
Eligibility Determination
51(1)
Individualized Education Program
51(9)
Student Involvement
60(4)
How Can IEPs Be Implemented in General Education Settings?
64(5)
Involve Teachers in the IEP Process
64(1)
Align the IEP to the General Education Curriculum
65(1)
Differentiate Instruction to Address IEP Goals
66(1)
Establish an Implementation Plan
67(2)
Engage in Curriculum Mapping
69(1)
What Are the Educational Strengths and Needs of Students with High-Incidence Disabilities?
69(35)
Students with Learning Disabilities
70(2)
Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
72(4)
Students with Attention Deficit Disorders
76(1)
Types of ADD
77(1)
Students with Mental Retardation
78(2)
Students with Speech and Language Disorders
80(2)
What Are the Educational Strengths and Needs of Students with Low-Incidence Disabilities?
82(1)
Help Students Access the General Education Curriculum
83(1)
Collaborate with Related Service Providers, Paraeducators, and Peers
83(1)
Use Assistive and Instructional Technology
84(1)
Adopt a Competency-Oriented Approach
84(1)
Understand and Address Students Unique Abilities and Needs
85(13)
Medication Monitoring
98(2)
Students with Sensory Disabilities
100(4)
Summary
104(4)
Understanding the Diverse Educational Strengths and needs of Learners Who Challenge Schools
108(47)
How Have Economic Changes Affected Students and Schools?
110(7)
A Nation of Visible Rich and Invisible Poor
110(1)
Poverty
111(6)
How Have Demographic Shifts Affected Students and Schools?
117(4)
Immigration
118(3)
What Are the Educational Strengths and Needs of Students from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds?
121(1)
Cultural Considerations
121(1)
Linguistic Considerations
122(1)
How Can I Differentiate Cultural and Language Differences from Learning Difficulties?
122(7)
Diversify the Comprehensive Planning Team and Offer Training
123(1)
Compare Student Performance in Both Primary and Secondary Languages
123(1)
Consider the Processes and Factors Associated with Second Language Acquisition
124(2)
Employ Alternatives and Traditional Standardized Testing
126(1)
Identify Diverse Life and Home Experiences That Might Affect Learning and Language Development
126(1)
Analyze the Data and Develop an Appropriate Educational Plan
126(3)
What Are the Educational Strengths and Needs of Students Who Are Gifted and Talented?
129(4)
Students with Special Needs Who Are Gifted and Talented
132(1)
What Is the Effect of Discrimination and Bias on Schools and Students?
133(15)
Racial Discrimination
133(2)
Gender Bias
135(3)
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered (GLBT) Youth
138(1)
Students with HIV/AIDS
139(2)
How Have Family Changes Affected Students and Schools?
141(1)
Changing Definition of Family
141(4)
Child Abuse
145(3)
Substance Abuse
148(1)
What Are Some Alternative Philosophies for Structuring Schools to Address Societal Changes?
148(3)
Multicultural Education
150(1)
Multicultural Education and Inclusion
150(1)
Summary
151(4)
Part II Creating an Inclusive Environment That Supports Learning for All Students
155(178)
Creating Collaborative Relationships and Fostering Communication
156(52)
Who Are Members of the Comprehensive Planning Team?
158(6)
Family Members
158(1)
School Administrators
158(1)
General Educators
159(1)
Special Educators
159(1)
Paraeducators
159(2)
School Psychologists
161(1)
Speech and Language Clinicians
161(1)
Social Workers
161(1)
School Counselors
162(1)
Vocational Educators
162(1)
School Physicians and Nurses
162(1)
Physical and Occupational Therapists
163(1)
Staff from Community Agencies
163(1)
Professionals for Students Who Are Second Language Learners
163(1)
How Can Members of the Comprehensive Planning Team Work Collaboratively?
164(21)
Employ Collaborative and Interactive Teaming
164(3)
Use Person-Centered Planning
167(1)
Work in Cooperative Teaching Arrangements
168(7)
Employ Collaborative Consultation
175(4)
Promote Congruence
179(2)
Engage in Professional Development
181(4)
How Can I Foster Communication and Collaboration with Families?
185(20)
Gain the Trust of Families
186(1)
Advocate for Students and Their Families
187(1)
Ensure Confidentiality
188(1)
Meet Regularly with Families
189(3)
Resolve Conflicts Constructively
192(1)
Address the Diverse Needs, Backgrounds, and Experiences of Families
192(5)
Use Written Communication
197(3)
Employ Technology-Based Communications
200(1)
Encourage and Facilitate Family Observations
200(3)
Offer Educational Programs to Families
203(2)
Summary
205(3)
Creating an Environment That Fosters Acceptance and Friendship
208(40)
How Do Attitudes Toward Individual Differences Develop?
210(1)
How Can I Assess Attitudes Toward Individual Differences?
211(3)
Attitude Assessment Instruments
211(1)
Knowledge of Individual Differences Probes
212(1)
Student Drawings
212(1)
Observational Techniques
212(2)
Sociometric Techniques
214(1)
How Can I Teach Acceptance of Individual Differences Related to Disability?
214(12)
Attitude Change and Information-Sharing Strategies
214(4)
Use Disability Simulations
218(8)
How Can I Teach Acceptance of Individual Differences Related to Culture, Language, Gender, Religion, and Socioeconomic Status?
226(12)
Reflect on Your Knowledge, Experiences, and Beliefs Related to Diversity
226(1)
Promote Acceptance of Cultural Diversity
226(10)
Teach Others to Respond to Stereotyping and Discrimination
236(2)
How Can I Facilitate Friendships?
238(8)
Teach About Friendships
238(2)
Offer Social Skills Instruction
240(1)
Foster Communication Among Students
241(2)
Use Circles of Friends
243(1)
Create a Friendly Classroom Environment
243(1)
Use Peer-Based Strategies
244(1)
Encourage Participation in Extracurricular and Community-Based Activities
245(1)
Involve Family Members
246(1)
Summary
246(2)
Creating Successful Transitions to Inclusive Settings
248(38)
How Can I Help Students Make the Transition to General Education Classrooms?
250(10)
Understand Students' Unique Abilities and Challenges
250(1)
Use Transenvironmental Programming
251(9)
How Can I Help Students from Specialized Schools and Preschool Programs Make the Transition to Inclusive Settings?
260(4)
Plan the Transitional Program
260(2)
Adapt Transitional Models
262(2)
How Can I Help Students from Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Backgrounds Make the Transition to Inclusive Settings?
264(3)
Teach Cultural Norms
264(1)
Orient Students to the School
264(1)
Teach Basic and Interpersonal Communication Skills
265(1)
Teach Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency Skills
266(1)
Offer Newcomer Programs
267(1)
How Can I Help Students Make the Transition from School to Adulthood?
267(7)
Develop an Individualized Transition Plan
267(3)
Prepare Students for Employment
270(2)
Foster Independent Living Arrangements
272(1)
Promote Students' Participation in Leisure Activities
273(1)
Explore Postsecondary Opportunities
273(1)
How Can I Help Students Develop Self-Determination?
274(10)
Teach Goal Setting and Attainment
274(3)
Offer Choices
277(1)
Foster Self-Awareness
278(1)
Develop Self-Advocacy and Leadership Skills
278(1)
Promote Self-Esteem
279(1)
Provide Attribution Training
279(2)
Provide Access to Positive Role Models
281(2)
Use Self-Determination Curricula
283(1)
Summary
284(2)
Creating a Classroom Environment That Promotes Positive Behavior
286(47)
Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Support System
288(1)
How Can I Collaborate with Others to Conduct a Functional Behavioral Assessment?
289(8)
Create a Diverse Multidisciplinary Team
289(1)
Identify the Problematic Behavior
290(1)
Define the Behavior
290(1)
Observe and Record the Behavior
290(3)
Obtain Additional Information About the Student and the Behavior
293(1)
Perform and Antecedents-Behavior-Consequences (A-B-C) Analysis
293(1)
Analyze the Data
293(1)
Develop Hypothesis Statements
294(1)
Consider Sociocultural Factors
295(2)
Develop a Behavioral Intervention Plan
297(1)
Evaluate the Plan
297(1)
How Can I Promote Positive Classroom Behavior in Students?
297(23)
Relationship Building Strategies
297(2)
Develop Students' Self-Esteem
299(3)
Social-Skills Instruction
302(2)
Antecedent-Based Interventions
304(1)
Follow Routines
305(2)
Consequence-Based Interventions
307(3)
Self-Management Interventions
310(3)
Group-Oriented Management Systems
313(5)
Behavior Reduction Interventions
318(2)
How Can I Prevent Student from Harming Others?
320(3)
Students Who Are Bullies
320(2)
Students with Aggressive and Violent Behaviors
322(1)
How Can I Adapt the Classroom Design to Accommodate Students' Learning, Social, and Physical Needs?
323(7)
Seating Arrangements
323(1)
Teacher's Desk
324(1)
Bulletin Boards and Walls
324(1)
Learning Centers and Specialized Areas
325(1)
Classroom Design Adaptations
325(5)
Summary
330(3)
Part III Differentiating Instruction for All Students
333(160)
Differentiating Instruction for Diverse Learners
334(44)
How Can I Differentiate Instruction for Students?
337(10)
Tailor Curricular Goals and Strategies for Your Students and Your Learning Environment
337(1)
Individualize and Personalize Your Curriculum
338(1)
Use Curricular Accommodations
339(1)
Use Universally Designed Curriculum and Teaching Materials
340(2)
Use Individualized Teaching Accommodations
342(1)
Use Instructional Materials Accommodations
342(1)
Provide Personal Supports
343(1)
Address Students' Learning Styles and Preferences
344(1)
Address Students' Sensory Abilities
345(2)
Consider Treatment Acceptability
347(1)
How Can I Differentiate Instruction for Students Who Have Difficulty Reading and Gaining Information from Print Materials?
347(9)
Use Teacher-Directed Text Comprehension Strategies
347(3)
Teach Student-Directed Text Comprehension Strategies
350(3)
Enhance the Readability of Materials
353(3)
How Can I Differentiate Instruction for Students from Diverse Cultural and Language Backgrounds?
356(7)
Use a Multicultural Curriculum
356(2)
Use Multicultural Teaching Materials
358(1)
Use Culturally Relevant and Responsive Teaching Strategies
359(1)
Use Reciprocal Interaction Teaching Approaches
360(1)
Use Effective ESL Approaches
361(2)
Encourage Students to Respond
363(1)
How Can I Use Instructional Technology and Assistive Devices to Differentiate Instruction for Students?
363(12)
Instructional Technology
364(6)
Assistive Devices
370(5)
Summary
375(3)
Differentiating Large- and Small-Group Instruction
378(36)
How Can I Adapt Large-Group Instruction for Students?
480
Have Students Work Collaboratively
380(1)
Encourage Students to Ask Questions
381(1)
Help Students Take Notes
382(3)
Teach Note-Taking Skills and Strategies
385(1)
Foster Students' Listening Skills
385(1)
Gain and Maintain Students' Attention
386(1)
Give Clear and Detailed Directions
387(2)
Motivate Students
389(2)
How Can I Use Effective Teacher-Centered Instruction?
391(11)
Elements of Effective Teacher-Centered Instruction
391(11)
How Can I Successfully Use Cooperative Learning Arrangements with Students?
402(10)
Select an Appropriate Cooperative Learning Format
404(2)
Establish Guidelines for Working Cooperatively
406(1)
Form Heterogeneous Cooperative Groups
407(1)
Arrange the Classroom for Cooperative Learning
407(1)
Develop Students' Cooperative Skills
407(2)
Evaluate Cooperative Learning
409(3)
Summary
412(2)
Differentiating Reading, Writing, and Spelling Instruction
414(38)
How Can I Help Students Learn to Read?
416(13)
Offer Early Identification
416(1)
Promote Phonological Awareness
416(2)
Promote Reading Fluency
418(4)
Enhance Students' Text Comprehension
422(4)
Use a Balanced Approach
426(2)
Use Remedial Reading Programs, Strategies, and Materials
428(1)
How Can I Help Students Learn to Write?
429(15)
Make Writing Meaningful and an Integral Part of the Curriculum
429(2)
Use Journals
431(1)
Use a Process-Oriented Approach to Writing Instruction
431(7)
Provide Feedback
438(1)
Teach Students to Use Learning Strategies
439(1)
Use Computer-Supported Writing Applications
440(4)
How Can I Help Students Learn to Spell?
444(6)
Use a Combination of Approaches
444(1)
Adapt Spelling Instruction
445(5)
Summary
450(2)
Differentiating Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies Instruction
452(41)
How Can I Differentiate Mathematics Instruction?
454(13)
Use a Problem-Solving Approach
454(1)
Present Mathematics Appropriately
455(1)
Use Teaching Aids
456(3)
Use a Variety of Instructional Approaches
459(5)
Help Students Develop Their Math Facts and Computation Skills
464(2)
Provide Feedback and Use Assessment to Guide Future Teaching
466(1)
How Can I Differentiate Science and Social Studies Instruction?
467(24)
Choose and Use Appropriate Instructional Materials
467(7)
Use Content Enhancements
474(6)
Use a Variety of Instructional Approaches and Practices
480(10)
Address the Needs of Diverse Learners
490(1)
Summary
491(2)
Part IV Evaluating Individual and Programmatic Progress
493(52)
Evaluating Student Progress and the Effectiveness of Your Inclusion Program
494(51)
How Can I Evaluate the Academic Performance of Students?
496(27)
Standardized Testing
496(6)
Alternatives to Standardized Testing
502(17)
Gathering Additional Information About the Academic Progress of Diverse Learners
519(3)
Reporting Information About the Academic Progress of Diverse Learners
522(1)
How Can I Grade Students in Inclusive Settings?
523(7)
Report Card Grading
523(7)
How Can I Evaluate the Social and Behavioral Performance of Students?
530(1)
Observational and Sociometric Techniques
530(1)
Self-Concept Measures
531(1)
How Can I Measure Perceptions of My Inclusion Program?
531(8)
Students' Perceptions
532(1)
Teachers' Perceptions
532(5)
Family Members' Perceptions
537(2)
How Can I Improve the Effectiveness of My Inclusion Program?
539(3)
Examine the Impact of Student Performance
539(1)
Determine Program Strengths, Concerns, and Possible Solutions
539(3)
Summary
542(3)
References 545(44)
Name Index 589(18)
Subject Index 607

Excerpts

As reflections of society, our nation's schools have historically been challenged to respond to various societal changes and mandates. The movement toward inclusion has developed as a dynamic way to meet these educational challenges. However, there is still a considerable gap between theory and practice. This book is intended to fill that gap by keeping the perspectives of teachers, students, and families in mind, and translating current research on inclusion into effective and reflective classroom practices that address and expand the realities of the classroom setting. Within each chapter are numerous text-based and CD-ROM video-based classroom examples and case studies of real situations that educators, students, and family members encounter in inclusive classrooms as well as guidelines, strategies, technology, and procedures that have been used to address these situations to educateall studentssuccessfully in inclusive classrooms. The book is designed to serve as a text for undergraduate, graduate, and in-service courses for teachers, ancillary support personnel, and administrators interested in acquiring the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to educateall learners.Because of its focus on instructional procedures and collaboration, the book also can serve as a supplementary text for a course on instructional methods or consultation. ORGANIZATION AND APPROACH The book is organized into four parts. Part I includes Chapters 1, 2, and 3 and introduces you to the foundations and fundamentals of inclusion and the challenges of its implementation. Part II includes Chapters 4, 5, 6, and 7 and provides you with strategies for creating an inclusive environment that supports learning forall students.Part III includes Chapters 8, 9, 10, and 11 and offers you strategies to differentiate instruction to promote the learning ofall studentswithin inclusive educational settings. Part IV consists of Chapter 12, which offers a framework and specific strategies and resources for evaluating inclusion programs in terms of individual and programmatic progress. A Principled Philosophy The following principles of effective inclusion also provide a framework for this book. These four principles--all learners and equal access, individual strengths and needs and diversity, reflective practices and differentiated instruction,andcommunity and collaboration--are integrated into each chapter of the book and demonstrate that inclusion is not just a government mandate but a principled philosophy of reflective, effective teaching for individualizing the educational system forall students. These four principles, along with the incorporation of diversity and instructional technology into each chapter, make the book consistent with the professional standards for preparing teachers to work in today's diverse classrooms established by the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC), Educational Testing Service (PRAXIS), and the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC). The summary questions at the end of each chapter provide you with the alignment of these standards to the content in the book. The principles, content, and innovative pedagogical and technological features also are designed to help you become an effective and reflective practitioner who is able to think critically about your values, beliefs, and practices and to refine your professional practices to facilitate the learning ofall students. A Non-Categorical Approach The book is also organized to serve as a model for creating inclusive classrooms forall students.It is meant to facilitate your development of a holistic approach to educating students while focusing on individual strengths and needs rather than on global disability characteristics. Thus, it is not separated into chapters by disability category or cultural and linguistic background


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