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Creating Literacy Instruction for All Children

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780205287932

ISBN10:
020528793X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div
List Price: $87.00
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Summary

Creating Literacy Instruction for All Children is a comprehensive, practical text that provides its readers with step-by-step guidance for teaching all major aspects of reading and writing. Gunning's text helps students discover approaches and techniques that fit teachers' personal styles and situations. It aims to present as fairly, completely, and clearly as possible the major methods and strategies shown to be successful in research and practice. The text features sample lessons for virtually every major literacy skill/strategy and offers numerous reinforcement suggestions and generous listings of materials. With two updated chapters on word analysis skills/strategies, the text continues to give teachers the information and techniques they need to implement a systematic and functional program of word analysis that is integrated with students' reading and writing. The text also presents the theory behind the methods, so students will be free to choose, adapt, and/or construct their own approaches as they create literacy instruction. This edition endorses the viewpoint that a well-prepared classroom teacher is capable of effectively instructing most struggling readers and writers.

Table of Contents

1 The Nature of Literacy and Today's Children
1(22)
Anticipation Guide
1(1)
Using What You Know
2(1)
The Nature of Reading
2(6)
Importance of Language
2(1)
Role of Cognitive Development
3(3)
Importance of Experience
6(1)
Importance of the Students' Culture
7(1)
The Reader's Role in the Reading Process
8(1)
Approaches to Reading Instruction: Whole versus Part Learning
9(1)
Bottom-Uppers
9(1)
Top-Downers
9(1)
Interactionists
10(1)
Importance of Literacy Models
10(1)
Approach Taken by This Text
11(1)
Stages of Reading Development
12(4)
Stage One. Emergent Literacy (Birth to Five Years)
13(1)
Stage Two. Early Reading (Kindergarten and First Grade)
13(1)
Stage Three. Growing Independence (Grades Two and Three)
14(1)
Stage Four. Reading to Learn (Grades Four through Six)
15(1)
Stage Five. Abstract Reading (Grades Seven and Up)
16(1)
A Reading and Writing Program for Today's Students
16(5)
Summary
21(1)
Classroom Applications
21(1)
Field Applications
22(1)
2 Fostering Emergent/Early Literacy
23(58)
Anticipation Guide
23(1)
Using What You Know
24(1)
Understanding Emergent Literacy
24(6)
Readiness versus Emergent Literacy
24(2)
Essential Skills and Understandings for Emergent Literacy
26(1)
Creating a Literacy-Rich Environment
27(3)
Fostering Emergent Literacy
30(1)
Making Reading and Writing a Part of Classroom Activities
30(16)
Reading to Students
31(7)
Emergent Storybook Reading
38(1)
Using Shared Book Experiences
39(3)
Using the Language Experience Approach
42(1)
Shared Writing
43(3)
A New Concept of Writing
46(23)
Planned Instruction of Essential Understandings
56(11)
Fostering Language Development
67(2)
Core Activities for Building Emergent/Early Literacy
69(2)
Reading in Preschool
69(2)
Working with Parents
71(1)
Family Literacy
71(1)
Monitoring Emergent Literacy
72(6)
Informal Assessment Measures
73(4)
Other Measures of Emergent Literacy
77(1)
Using the Assessment Results
77(1)
Help for Struggling Readers and Writers
78(1)
Essential Student Objectives
78(1)
Assessment
79(1)
Summary
79(1)
Classroom Applications
80(1)
Field Applications
80(1)
3 Teaching Phonics, Sight Words, and Syllabic Analysis
81(66)
Anticipation Guide
81(1)
Using What You Know
82(1)
Rationale and Approaches for Phonics Instruction
82(1)
How Words Are Read
83(1)
How Sight Words Are Learned
83(1)
Stages in Reading Words
83(3)
Logographic Stage
83(1)
Early Alphabetic Stage
84(1)
Advanced Alphabetic Stage
84(1)
Orthographic Stage
85(1)
Basic Principles of Phonics Instruction
86(1)
Phonics Elements
87(2)
Consonants
87(1)
Vowels
87(2)
Onsets and Rimes
89(1)
Approaches to Teaching Phonics
89(22)
Teaching Vowel Correspondences
103(8)
Scope and Sequence
111(3)
Major Word Patterns
114(7)
Teaching Vowel Generalizations
114(6)
Using Word Analysis References
120(1)
Using an Integrated Approach
120(1)
Phonics and Spelling
121(1)
Strategy Instruction
122(4)
Incorporating Phonics Strategies with Context
122(1)
Building Independence
123(3)
Sight Words
126(9)
Sources of Sight Words
126(2)
Teaching High-Frequency Words
128(2)
Using Children's Books to Build Sight Vocabulary
130(3)
Using Word Banks
133(1)
Integration of Sight Words with Other Word Recognition Skills
134(1)
Syllabication
135(8)
Generalization Approach to Teaching Syllabication
135(2)
Pattern Approach to Teaching Syllabication
137(2)
Multisyllabic Patterns
139(3)
Combining Generalization and Pattern Approaches
142(1)
Using the Pronounceable Word Part and Analogy Strategies
143(1)
Help for Struggling Readers and Writers
143(1)
Essential Student Objectives
144(1)
Assessment
144(1)
Summary
145(1)
Classroom Applications
146(1)
Field Applications
146(1)
4 Building Vocabulary
147(51)
Anticipation Guide
147(1)
Using What You Know
148(1)
The Need for Vocabulary Instruction
148(1)
Stages of Word Knowledge
149(1)
Seven Principles of Developing Vocabulary
150(19)
Building Experiential Background
150(1)
Relating Vocabulary to Background
151(1)
Building Relationships
151(1)
Developing Depth of Meaning
151(1)
Presenting Several Exposures
152(1)
Creating an Interest in Words
153(1)
Teaching Students How to Learn New Words
153(1)
Techniques for Teaching Words
153(1)
Graphic Organizers
154(6)
Dramatizing
160(1)
Exploring Word Histories
160(1)
Enjoying Words
161(2)
Discovering Sesquipedalian Words
163(1)
Word of the Day
163(1)
Labeling
163(1)
Feature Comparison
164(1)
Using Word-Building Reference Books
164(1)
Predicting Vocabulary Words
165(2)
Word Sorts
167(1)
Wide Reading
167(1)
Reading to Students
168(1)
A Planned Program
169(1)
A Balanced Blend
169(1)
Remembering Vocabulary
170(2)
Key Word Approach
170(2)
Teaching Special Features of Words
172(2)
Homophones
172(1)
Homographs
172(1)
Figurative Language
173(1)
Multiple Meanings
174(1)
Connotations
174(1)
Learning How to Learn Words
174(18)
Morphemic Analysis
174(8)
Contextual Analysis
182(5)
Dictionary Usage
187(5)
Supplying Corrective Feedback
192(2)
Applying a Corrective Cues Hierarchy
193(1)
Using Prompts
193(1)
Help for Struggling Readers and Writers
194(1)
Essential Student Objectives
195(1)
Assessment
196(1)
Summary
196(1)
Classroom Applications
197(1)
Field Applications
197(1)
5 Comprehension: Theory and Strategies
198(51)
Anticipation Guide
198(1)
Using What You Know
199(1)
The Process of Comprehending
199(4)
Schema Theory
199(2)
Situation Models
201(1)
Remembering and Learning
202(1)
Comprehension Strategies
203(35)
Preparational Strategies
204(1)
Organizational Strategies
205(17)
Elaboration Strategies
222(10)
Monitoring
232(5)
Special Comprehension Strategies for Bilingual Readers
237(1)
Social-Constructivist Nature of Comprehension
238(6)
Reciprocal Teaching
238(3)
Questioning the Author
241(3)
Learning Environment
244(2)
Integration of Strategies
244(1)
Importance of Affective Factors
245(1)
Help for Struggling Readers and Writers
246(1)
Essential Student Objectives
246(1)
Assessment
247(1)
Summary
247(1)
Classroom Applications
248(1)
Field Applications
248(1)
6 Comprehension: Text Structures and Teaching Procedures
249(40)
Anticipation Guide
249(1)
Using What You Know
250(1)
Nature of the Text
250(10)
Narrative Text and Story Schema
250(5)
Expository Text
255(4)
Using Narrative and Expository Text for Mutual Support
259(1)
The Role of Questions in Comprehension
260(5)
Planning Questions
260(1)
Placement of Questions
260(1)
Types of Questions
260(1)
Using Wait Time
261(1)
Classroom Atmosphere
262(1)
Techniques for Asking Questions
262(3)
Frameworks for Fostering Comprehension
265(11)
Guided Reading
265(2)
Directed Reading Activity
267(7)
Directed Reading-Thinking Activity
274(2)
The Cloze Procedure
276(3)
Classic Cloze
276(1)
Scoring Close
277(1)
Discussion for Comprehension
277(1)
Constructing Cloze Exercises
278(1)
Variations on Cloze
278(1)
Critical Reading
279(7)
Scope and Sequence of Critical Reading Skills
280(6)
Help for Struggling Readers and Writers
286(1)
Essential Student Objectives
287(1)
Assessment
287(1)
Summary
288(1)
Classroom Applications
288(1)
Field Applications
288(1)
7 Reading and Writing in the Content Areas and Study Skills
289(57)
Anticipation Guide
289(1)
Using What You Know
290(1)
Overall Goals of Literacy Instruction in the Content Areas
290(1)
The Teacher's Role
290(1)
Higher-Order Thinking Skills
291(1)
Using Content Area Textbooks
291(7)
Nature of Content Area Textbooks
292(1)
Choosing Textbooks
293(5)
Children's Books and Periodicals in the Content Areas
298(2)
Talking CD-ROM Books
299(1)
Using Trade Books to Provide Better Coverage
299(1)
Adding a Multicultural Perspective
299(1)
Using Children's Periodicals
300(1)
Group Inventory Placement
300(19)
Instructional Techniques
301(1)
Before Reading
302(5)
During Reading
307(6)
After Reading
313(5)
KWL Plus: A Technique for Before, During, and After Reading
318(1)
Teaching Content Area Knowledge
319(3)
Reading for Conceptual Change
321(1)
Writing to Learn
322(3)
Learning Logs
324(1)
Sheltered English
325(1)
Reading to Remember
326(1)
Fostering Retention
326(5)
Principles for Improving Memory
327(1)
Memory Devices
328(3)
Metacognitive Awareness
331(1)
Distributed versus Massed Practice
331(1)
SQ3R: A Theory-Based Study Strategy
331(2)
Principles of SQ3R
332(1)
Teaching SQ3R
333(1)
Test-Taking Strategies
333(2)
Test-Taking Tips
334(1)
Study Habits
335(1)
Introducing Study Strategies/Habits
336(1)
Expressive Study Skills
336(5)
Taking Notes
336(2)
Outlining
338(1)
I-Charts
339(2)
Metacognitive Study Strategies
341(1)
Help for Struggling Readers and Writers
342(1)
Essential Student Objectives
343(1)
Assessment
343(1)
Summary
344(1)
Classroom Applications
344(1)
Field Applications
345(1)
8 Reading Literature
346(39)
Anticipation Guide
346(1)
Using What You Know
347(1)
Experiencing Literature
347(11)
Reader Respohse Theory
348(6)
Using Literature Discussion Groups to Elicit Responses
354(1)
Book Club
355(3)
Developing Aesthetic Judgment
358(4)
Types of Literature
362(14)
Folklore
362(1)
Poetry
362(4)
Chapter Books and Novels
366(6)
Drama
372(2)
Nonfiction
374(2)
Voluntary Reading
376(6)
Determining Interests and Attitudes
376(1)
The Classroom Library
377(1)
Setting Aside Time for Voluntary Reading
378(1)
Modeling the Process of Selecting and Discussing Books
378(1)
The Importance of Sharing and Instruction in Developing Avid Readers
379(1)
Activities for Motivating Voluntary Reading
380(2)
Help for Struggling Readers and Writers
382(1)
Essential Student Objectives
383(1)
Assessment
383(1)
Summary
384(1)
Classroom Applications
384(1)
Field Applications
384(1)
9 Approaches to Teaching Reading
385(31)
Anticipation Guide
385(1)
Using What You Know
386(1)
Changing Approaches to Teaching Reading
386(1)
Basal Approach
387(5)
Advantages of Basals
388(1)
Disadvantages of Basals
388(1)
Adapting Basals
389(2)
Phonic/Linguistic Basals
391(1)
Selecting a Basal
391(1)
Minibook Series
391(1)
Literature-Based Approach
392(7)
Core Literature
392(1)
Text Sets
393(1)
Literature Discussion Groups
394(1)
Thematic Units
395(2)
Self-Selection
397(1)
Choosing Materials
397(1)
Creating Literature Guides
398(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of a Literature-Based Approach
399(1)
Adapting a Literature-Based Approach
399(1)
Individualized Reading/Reading Workshop
399(8)
Preparation Time
400(1)
Self-Selected Reading and Responding
400(1)
Conferences
400(5)
Using Dialogue Journals
405(1)
Student Sharing
405(1)
Organizing the Program
406(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Reading Workshop
406(1)
Adapting Reading Workshop
407(1)
Language-Experience Approach
407(5)
Personalizing Group Stories
409(1)
An Individual Approach
410(1)
The Language-Experience Approach and ESL Students
410(1)
Variant Dialects
411(1)
The Language-Experience Approach in the Content Areas
411(1)
Other Uses for the Language-Experience Approach
412(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Language-Experience Approach
412(1)
Adapting the Language-Experience Approach
412(1)
Whole Language
412(1)
An Integrated Approach
413(1)
Help for Struggling Readers and Writers
414(1)
Summary
415(1)
Classroom Applications
415(1)
Field Applications
415(1)
10 Writing and Reading
416(36)
Anticipation Guide
416(1)
Using What You Know
417(1)
The Roots of Writing
417(2)
The Process Approach to Writing
419(15)
Prewriting
419(3)
Composing
422(3)
Revising
425(3)
Editing
428(2)
Publishing
430(1)
Conferences
430(4)
Writing Workshop
434(3)
Minilesson
434(1)
Writing Time
434(1)
Group Sharing
435(1)
Management of the Writing Workshop
435(2)
Interpersonal Writing
437(1)
Teaching Writer's Craft
438(6)
Writer's Craft: Basic Techniques
439(1)
Improving Expository Writing
440(3)
Skills Lessons
443(1)
Keeping Track
444(1)
Technology and Writing
444(2)
Desktop Publishing
445(1)
Reading Helps Writing
446(1)
A Full Menu
447(1)
Help for Struggling Readers and Writers
448(1)
Essential Student Objectives
449(1)
Assessment
450(1)
Summary
451(1)
Classroom Applications
451(1)
Field Applications
451(1)
11 Diversity in the Classroom
452(33)
Anticipation Guide
452(1)
Using What You Know
453(1)
Teaching All Students
453(1)
Students at Risk
453(11)
Economically Disadvantaged Students
454(2)
Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Students
456(3)
Bilingual Learners
459(5)
Students with Disabilities
464(11)
Students with Learning Disabilities
464(2)
Students with Attention Deficit Disorder
466(3)
Students with Mental Retardation
469(1)
Slow Learners
469(1)
Students with Physical Disabilities
470(5)
Gifted and Talented
475(6)
Features of Gifted Programs
476(1)
Inclusion
477(1)
Individualized Education Plan
478(1)
Title 1 and Remedial Programs
479(1)
Intervention Programs
479(1)
Reading Recovery
479(1)
Other Intervention Programs
480(1)
Lessons from Early Intervention Programs
481(1)
Help for Struggling Readers and Writers
481(1)
Building Literacy: A Classroom Intervention Program
482(1)
Summary
483(1)
Classroom Applications
484(1)
Field Applications
484(1)
12 Evaluation
485(36)
Anticipation Guide
485(1)
Using What You Know
486(1)
The Nature of Evaluation
486(3)
The Starting Point
486(1)
Three Perspectives of Evaluation
487(1)
Authentic Assessment
487(1)
Product versus Process Measures
488(1)
Questions to Be Asked
489(1)
Placement Information
489(11)
Informal Reading Inventory
490(8)
Running Records
498(2)
Norm-Referenced versus Criterion-Referenced Tests
500(1)
Norm-Referenced Tests
500(1)
Criterion-Referenced Tests
501(1)
Judging Assessment Measures
501(1)
Reliability
501(1)
Validity
502(1)
Reporting Performance
502(3)
Norm-Referenced Reporting
502(1)
Criterion-Referenced Reporting
503(2)
Functional Level Assessment
505(1)
Other Methods of Assessment
505(6)
Retelling
505(1)
Think-Aloud Protocols
506(2)
Observation
508(1)
Ratings
509(1)
Questionnaires
510(1)
Interviews
511(1)
Self-Evaluation
511(2)
Logs and Journals
513(1)
Evaluating Writing
513(2)
Holistic Scoring
513(1)
Analytic Scoring
513(1)
Using a Combination of Techniques
514(1)
Portfolios
515(4)
Types of Portfolios
515(1)
Writing Samples
515(1)
Reading Samples
516(1)
Reviewing Portfolios
516(3)
Summary
519(1)
Classroom Applications
520(1)
Field Applications
520(1)
13 Constructing and Managing a Literacy Program
521(24)
Anticipation Guide
521(1)
Using What You Know
522(1)
Constructing a Literacy Program
522(5)
Setting Goals
523(1)
Choosing Materials
523(1)
Selecting Techniques and Strategies
523(3)
Building a Sense of Community
526(1)
Managing a Literacy Program
527(6)
Using Time Efficently
527(1)
Providing for Individual Differences
528(4)
Continuous Monitoring of Progress
532(1)
Involving Parents
532(1)
Working with Other Professionals
533(1)
Literacy and Technology
534(4)
Computers
534(2)
The Internet
536(1)
Selecting Software
537(1)
Getting the Most Out of Computers
537(1)
Other Technologies
538(1)
Literacy in Today's and Tomorrow's World
538(1)
Professional Development
539(3)
Essential Student Objectives
542(1)
Summary
543(1)
Classroom Applications
543(1)
Field Applications
544(1)
Appendix A: Graded Listing of 500 Children's Books 545(8)
Appendix B: Informal Assessment of Key Word Analysis Skills and Strategies 553(24)
Word Pattern Survey 553(1)
Syllable Survey 554(1)
References 555(1)
Professional 555(20)
Children's Books and Periodicals 575(2)
Index 577


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