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Creative Expression and Play in Early Childhood,9780130873088

Creative Expression and Play in Early Childhood

by ;
ISBN13:

9780130873088

ISBN10:
013087308X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $50.67
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Summary

This popular book provides novice and experienced early childhood teachers and caregivers with the roles, responsibilities, and strategies that lead to a more child-centered, play-based curriculum--to nurture children's creative expression in all of its forms. It shows how to foster learning and growth by integrating children's creativity and play into the curriculum. The authors treat play and creative expression as the cornerstones of a child-centered classroom through foundational chapters on creativity, play, and the arts. The book also contains three unique chapters on the traditional treatment of creativity and play--assessment, guidance, and families. For teachers, parents, and any other adults involved in the early development of children.

Table of Contents

Part 1 The Young Child: Developing Flexible and Divergent Thinking 1(95)
Creativity and the Young Child
2(48)
Teachers' Reflections on Creativity
3(1)
Case Study: Excerpts from a Teacher's Notebook
4(1)
Theoretical and Research Base: Defining Creativity
5(18)
Criteria for Creativity
6(3)
Creativity During Early Childhood
9(5)
Modes of Thinking
14(1)
The Theory of Multiple Intelligences
15(5)
Stages in the Creative Process
20(3)
Identifying Creativity
23(7)
Children's Creative Abilities
23(3)
Reggio Emilia: Nurturing Creativity
26(4)
Unlocking Creative Potential
30(2)
Psychological Safety
30(1)
Psychological Freedom
31(1)
Social Support
31(1)
Creativity and Education
32(6)
Schools That Nurture Creativity
34(4)
Teachers' Roles and Responsibilities in Promoting Creative Expression
38(2)
Practical Applications for Your Classroom
40(10)
Experiences to Support Cultural and Ethnic Diversity
41(1)
Experiences to Support Inclusion
42(1)
Adaptations for Individual Learners
42(8)
Play and the Young Child
50(45)
Teachers' Reflections on Play
51(1)
Case Study: Restaurant Play
52(1)
Theoretical and Research Base: What Is Play?
53(6)
Characteristics of Play
53(3)
Controversies Surrounding Play
56(1)
The Educational Role of Play
57(2)
Why Is Play Important?
59(10)
Cognitive Development
59(2)
Language Development
61(1)
Literacy Development
62(3)
Social and Emotional Development
65(3)
Physical Development
68(1)
Creative Development
68(1)
How Does Play Develop?
69(10)
Developmental Stages of Cognitive Play
70(7)
Developmental Stages of Social Play
77(2)
Why Do Children Play?
79(2)
Classical Theories
79(1)
Modern Theories
80(1)
Teachers' Roles and Responsibilities
81(4)
Why Should Teachers Intervene in Children's Play?
82(1)
When Should Teachers Intervene in Children's Play?
82(1)
What Are Teachers' Roles in Children's Play?
82(3)
Practical Applications for Your Classroom
85(10)
Experiences to Support Cultural and Ethnic Diversity
85(1)
Experiences to Support Inclusion
86(1)
Adaptations for Individual Learners
87(8)
Part 2 The Creative Arts Curriculum 95(152)
Art in the Early Childhood Curriculum
96(59)
Teachers' Reflections on Art
97(1)
Case Study: Four Teachers' Ideas about Art
98(1)
Theoretical and Research Base: What Is Art and Aesthetic Experience?
99(5)
How Children Learn Through Art
104(4)
Process As Well As Product
106(1)
Orginality Rather Than Conformity
106(1)
Children Retain Ownership
107(1)
An Appreciation for Mixtures and Balances
108(1)
Critical Issues in Teaching Art
108(4)
Providing a Safe and Healthy Art Environment
108(1)
Selecting and Presenting Materials and Experiences
108(4)
Evaluating Materials and Experiences
112(1)
Teachers' Roles and Responsibilities
112(25)
Establishing Rules and Limits
122(1)
Talking with Children about Their Art
122(3)
Developing Concepts and a Vocabulary of Art
125(1)
Ways of Discussing Art
126(2)
Locating Resources and Storing Materials
128(6)
Displaying Children's Art
134(3)
Learner-Centered Art Experiences
137(2)
Paper
137(1)
Sculpture and Pottery
138(1)
Fabric
138(1)
Integrating Art into the Subject Areas
139(5)
Media and Technology
139(1)
Mathematics and Science
139(4)
Language, Literacy, and Art
143(1)
Social Studies, Health, and Nutrition
143(1)
Practical Applications for Your Classroom
144(11)
Experiences to Support Cultural and Ethnic Diversity
144(1)
Experiences to Support Inclusion
145(1)
Adaptations for Individual Learners
146(9)
Music and Movement in the Early Childhood Curriculum
155(46)
Teachers' Reflections on Music and Movement
156(1)
Case Study: Raphael
157(1)
Music, Movement, and the Young Child
158(1)
Theoretical and Research Base: What Is Music and Movement?
158(3)
The Educational Role of Music and Movement
161(2)
The Educational Value of Music and Movement
163(4)
How Do Music and Movement Develop?
167(3)
The Music-Movement Connection
170(1)
Critical Issues in Teaching Music and Movement
170(14)
Identifying Appropriate Content
171(3)
Providing Musical Materials and Experiences
174(6)
Selecting Teaching Strategies
180(3)
Evaluating Musical Materials and Experiences
183(1)
Teachers' Roles and Responsibilities
184(4)
Motivator
184(1)
Planner
185(1)
Co-Participant
186(1)
Observer
186(1)
Resource Manager
187(1)
Integrating Music and Movement into the Subject Areas
188(3)
Mathematics, Science, and Technology
188(1)
Language, Literature, and Literacy
189(1)
Social Studies, Health, and Nutrition
190(1)
Practical Applications for Your Classroom
191(10)
Experiences to Support Cultural and Ethnic Diversity
191(1)
Sample Teaching Theme on African Rhythms and Harmonies
191(2)
Experiences to Support Inclusion
193(1)
Adaptations for Individual Learners
194(1)
Conclusion
195(6)
Creative Drama in the Early Childhood Curriculum
201(46)
Teachers' Reflections on Drama
202(1)
Case Study: Reenacting a Story
203(1)
Theoretical and Research Base: What Is Creative Drama?
204(4)
The Meaning of Enactment
206(1)
Forms of Enactment
207(1)
The Importance of Creative Drama in the Curriculum
208(5)
Criteria for Integrating Drama into the Curriculum
213(3)
Selecting and Presenting Experiences and Materials
213(2)
Teachers' Roles and Responsibilities
215(1)
Appropriate Creative Drama Activities and Experiences
216(18)
Dramatic and Sociodramatic Play
216(6)
Story Play
222(3)
Pantomime
225(2)
Puppets
227(4)
Story Drama
231(1)
Readers Theater
232(2)
Integrating Creative Drama into the Subject Areas
234(6)
Mathematics, Science, and Technology
234(1)
Language, Literature, and Literacy
235(2)
Social Studies, Health, and Nutrition
237(3)
Practical Applications for Your Classroom
240(7)
Experiences to Support Cultural and Ethnic Diversity
240(1)
Experiences to Support Inclusion
241(1)
Adaptations for Individual Learners
241(6)
Part 3 Contexts for Creative Expression and Play 247(98)
Planning and Managing the Creative Learning Environment
248(50)
Teachers' Reflections on Creative Environments
249(2)
Case Study: The Creative Classroom
251(1)
Theoretical and Research Base: Features of Creative Environments
251(8)
Climate
252(2)
Space
254(1)
Time
255(4)
Planning and Managing the Indoor Environment
259(17)
Room Arrangement
259(3)
Centers
262(12)
Transitions and Routines
274(2)
Planning and Managing the Outdoor Environment
276(11)
Types of Playgrounds
278(1)
Developmentally Appropriate Outdoor Play Environments
279(6)
Outdoor Environments for Children of Different Ages and with Diverse Needs
285(2)
Teachers' Roles and Responsibilities
287(2)
Practical Applications for Your Classroom
289(9)
Experiences to Support Cultural and Ethnic Diversity
289(1)
Experiences to Support Inclusion
290(1)
Adaptations for Individual Learners
291(7)
Play Materials for Creative Expression and Play
298(47)
Teachers' Reflections on Play Materials
299(2)
Case Study: Dramatic Play in the Block and Housekeeping Areas
301(1)
Theoretical and Research Base: The Importance of Self-Expressive Play Materials
302(4)
History of Toys and Playthings
302(1)
Convergent and Divergent Play Materials
303(2)
Selection and Use of Safe Play Materials
305(1)
Types of Materials
306(2)
Skill/Concept Materials
307(1)
Gross Motor Materials
307(1)
Manipulative Materials
307(1)
Construction Materials
307(1)
Self-Expressive Materials
308(1)
Natural and Everyday Objects
308(1)
Developmentally Appropriate Materials
308(12)
Infants and Toddlers
311(3)
Preschoolers and Kindergartners
314(4)
School-Age Children
318(2)
Technology Materials and Children's Play
320(4)
Appropriate Software for Young Children
321(3)
Other Divergent Play Materials
324(5)
Blocks
324(2)
Modeling Materials
326(2)
Sand and Water
328(1)
Organized Games
329(3)
What Is a Game?
329(1)
The Value of Games
330(1)
Competition versus Cooperation
331(1)
Child-Constructed Games
332(3)
Invented Games
332(3)
Making Games with Children
335(1)
Practical Applications for Your Classroom
335(10)
Experiences to Support Cultural and Ethnic Diversity
336(1)
Experiences to Support Inclusion
336(2)
Adaptations for Individual Learners
338(7)
Part 4 Learner-Centered Teaching for Today and Tomorrow 345(132)
Guiding Young Children's Creative Expression and Communicating with Families
346(43)
Teachers' Reflections on Guiding Creative Expression
347(1)
Case Study: Helping Children Verbalize Needs
348(2)
Theoretical and Research Base: Guidance in Early Childhood Settings
350(4)
Constructivism
350(1)
Humanism
351(1)
Behavirorism and Social-Learning Theory
351(1)
An Eclectic Approach
352(2)
Your Role in Guiding Creative Behavior
354(4)
Styles of Adult-Child Interactions
356(2)
Developmentally Appropriate Guidance
358(6)
Fostering Prosocial Behavior
358(6)
Understanding Children's Conflicts
364(4)
Causes of Conflict
364(1)
Types of Conflicts in the Creative Classroom
365(1)
Helping Children Resolve Conflicts
365(3)
Strategies of Guiding Creative Expression
368(5)
Problem-Solving Groups
368(2)
Investigative Play
370(1)
Project Work
371(2)
Communicating with Families about Creative Expression
373(6)
Empowering Families in Partnership
373(2)
Obstacles to Communication
375(1)
Strategies for Communicating with Families
376(3)
Practical Applications for Your Classroom
379(10)
Experiences to Support Cultural and Ethnic Diversity
379(2)
Experiences to Support Inclusion
381(1)
Adaptations for Individual Learners
382(7)
Assessing Creative Expression and Play
389(46)
Teachers' Reflections on Assessment
390(1)
Case Study: Assessment Issues
391(1)
Theoretical and Research Base: What Is Performance Assessment?
392(6)
Purposes of Assessing Divergent Thinking
393(3)
Difficulties with Assessment
396(2)
Criteria for Assessment
398(5)
Assessing Creative Processes
400(2)
Assessing Creative Products
402(1)
Assessing Multiple Intelligence
403(1)
Appropriate Assessment of Young Children's Creative Expression and Play
403(10)
Observing Children's Creative Expression and Play
404(1)
Types of Observation
405(6)
Portfolio Assessment
411(2)
Teachers' Roles and Responsibilities
413(12)
Matching Observation Techniques to Purposes
419(1)
Providing Flexible Groups
419(1)
Noting Patterns
419(1)
Asking Good Questions
420(2)
Developing New Teaching Strategies
422(1)
Teacher and Learner Self-Evaluation
423(2)
Practical Applications for Your Classroom
425(10)
Experiences to Support Cultural and Ethnic Diversity
426(1)
Experiences to Support Inclusion
426(1)
Adaptations for Individual Learners
427(1)
Conclusion
428(7)
Creative Expression and Play in the Third Millennium
435(42)
Teachers' Reflections on Creativity
436(1)
Case Study: Jamal
437(4)
Theoretical and Research Base: The Human Brain
441(7)
How Basic Is Creative Thinking?
446(1)
Educational Reform
447(1)
Teachers' Roles and Responsibilities
448(11)
The Realities of Teaching
448(2)
Redefining the Teacher's Role
450(1)
Teachers as Mediators of Learning
451(2)
Teachers' Own Creativity and Teacher Empowerment
453(4)
Creative Teaching in the Future
457(2)
An Agenda for the Future of Creative Expression and Play
459(2)
Practical Applications for Your Classroom
461(16)
Experiences to Support Cultural and Ethnic Diversity
462(3)
Experiences to Support Inclusion
465(1)
Adaptations for Individual Learners
465(12)
Appendix A: Dance Prop Box 477(3)
Appendix B: Published Rating Scales to Evaluate Preschool Settings 480(2)
Appendix C: Noncompetitive Games for Children 482(6)
Appendix D: Observations of Medical Play 488(4)
Appendix E: Case Study: Dittos and Elegant Costumes 492(3)
Appendix F: Resources for Play Materials 495(2)
Glossary 497(4)
Index 501

Excerpts

Preface As everyone knows, young children have active imaginations and are naturally playful. Ideally, all of the programs that are designed for young children, infancy through age eight, would capitalize on these remarkable assets of the early childhood years. The early childhood educator's knowledge of child development; repertoire of instructional strategies; and personal/professional beliefs, values, and attitudes have major ramifications for young children's creative expression and play If adults who work with young children are too controlling, creativity is undermined and play virtually disappears from early childhood settings. If the adults are too laissez-faire, play behaviors and modes of creative expression get stalled at less mature levels. In the third edition ofCreative Expression and Play in Early Childhood,we try to show novice and experienced early childhood teachers and caregivers the roles, responsibilities, and strategies that lead to a more child-centered, play-based curriculum--one that nurtures children's creative expression in all of its forms. Background This book is an outgrowth of our combined nearly 50 years of teaching college courses on children's creativity and play to early childhood and elementary students at various stages in their careers--students seeking initial licensure or certification, whether they are enrolled in a community college, four-year teacher-preparation program, or fifth-year Professional Development School (PDS)--as well as practitioners who are seeking continuing certification or a master's degree in the field of early childhood. As is the case with many textbooks, we wrote this book because it was the one we wished we had when we first began teaching an early childhood course on children's play and creativity. We discovered that we were both searching for a text that would integrate creative expression and play into the total preschool-primary grades curriculum, a text that would treat play and creativity as fundamental to developmentally appropriate practice. Our overarching goal in writing this book is to further the professional development of preservice and inservice teachers. We seek to prepare professionals who not onlyknow aboutchildren's play and creative expression, but who alsoknow howto provide these experiences andknow whychildren's creative expression and play are so important. With the third edition, our goal remains the same. It has been gratifying to see the book that we conceptualized received enthusiastically by our colleagues in the early childhood profession and to see the book endure for a third rebirth. It has been a privilege as well as a labor of love to be able to revisit our work, to linger over its language, and to craft it into an even better book. We must confess to some reluctance when our editor, Ann Davis, first suggested that it was time to begin thinking about a third edition. The first edition was published in 1993, and the ink seemed barely dry when we began discussions for the second edition in 1994. Likewise, the second edition was published in 1997, and beginning the work of revising it in 1998 seemed premature, at best. Yet, as we began to draft the revision plan, we were reminded of what a dynamic field early childhood education is. So much had happened that there really was more to say, and we felt that we could say it better and more clearly than previously. We now appreciate Ann's wisdom in nudging us into the second, and now the third, edition ofCreative Expression-and Play in Early Childhood. Need We are aware that many publications exist that use the wordcreativeorplayin their titles. It distresses us that some of these "creative activities" books make minimal contributions toteachers'creative growth, much lesschildren's.Instead, they are compilations of "cute" ideas designed to "keep


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