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Crime and Criminology,9780199783182
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Crime and Criminology

by
Edition:
13th
ISBN13:

9780199783182

ISBN10:
0199783187
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/4/2011
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press

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Summary

With its unique blend of social science and legal research, the thirteenth edition ofCrime and Criminologyoffers students a broad context in which to study this dynamic subject, from its history and theories to its ongoing debates and discussions. In engaging, straightforward language, leading scholar and author Sue Titus Reid provides students with a solid understanding of the integral relationship between the law and theories of criminal behavior. The first criminology textbook to be published in a thirteenth edition, this popular and time-tested volume is an essential resource for students and scholars of this ever-changing--and always fascinating--topic. FEATURES OF THIS EDITION * Covers manynew issuesincluding the impact of terrorism and the economic downturn on the criminal justice system, victims with disabilities, healthcare and Medicare fraud, and the decriminalization of marijuana for personal use * Updates andexpands coverageof rehabilitation and deterrence, statutory rape, elder abuse, domestic violence, intimate partner violence, hate crimes, gun control, property crimes, and more * Presentsnew researchon families, twins, adoptees, and how brain function may be used to explain criminal behavior * Brings alldata up to date--including every statute, case, and theory * Integratesengaging pedagogythroughout (tables, figures, and graphs; chapter overviews, review questions, and activities; a glossary of key terms; "Media Focus" and "Global Focus" boxes highlighting timely issues; and two appendices) * Supplemented by anInstructor's Manualwith Test Bank and PowerPoint-based lecture slides on CD

Author Biography


Sue Titus Reid is Professor in the Askew School of Public Administration and Policy at Florida State University.

Table of Contents


Each Chapter begins with an Outline, a list of Key Terms, and an Introduction. Each Chapter closes with a Summary, Study Questions, Brief Essay Assignments, Internet Activities, and Notes
Focus Boxes
Preface
PART I: INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF CRIME AND CRIMINOLOGY
CHAPTER 1: CRIME, CRIMINAL LAW, AND CRIMINOLOGY
The Concept of Crime
An Act or Omission
The Intent Requirement and Its Exceptions
Violation of the Elements of Criminal Law
Without Justification or Defense
Felony or Misdemeanor
The Judge or Jury as Final Decision Maker
The Concept of Law
Law as Social Control
The Extent of Criminal Law
Criminal Law and Sex Crimes
Legalizing Marijuana for Medicinal Purposes
Criminology and the Study of Crime
CHAPTER 2: THE MEASUREMENT OF CRIME AND ITS IMPACT
Sources of Crime Data
The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
Self Report Data (SRD)
The National Youth Survey (NYS)
The Crime Classification System (CCS)
The National Criminal History Improvement Program (NCHIP)
Crime in the United States: An Overview
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Data
Uniform Crime Report (UCR) Data
Characteristics of Offenders
Age
Race and Ethnicity
Gender
Characteristics of Crime Victims
Age
Race and Ethnicity
Gender
Disabilities
Criminal Justice Systems and Crime Victims
Analysis of Crime Data Collection
Research in Criminology
Basing Policy Decisions on Research
The Search for Explanations
Selection of a Research Method
Errors in Interpreting Data
PART II: EXPLANATIONS OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR
CHAPTER 3: EARLY EXPLANATIONS OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR AND THEIR MODERN COUNTERPARTS
The Historical Background of Punishment and Criminal Law
The Classical Beginnings
Cesare Beccaria
Jeremy Bentham
Other Influential Scholars
The Neoclassical School
The Positivist School
Cesare Lombroso
Raffaele Garofalo
Enrico Ferri
Contributions of the Positivist School
The Classical and Positivist Schools Compared
Punishment Philosophies
Incapacitation
Retribution
Just Deserts
Rehabilitation
The Rehabilitative Ideal
A Return to Rehabilitation?
Deterrence
Deterrence of Types of Crime and Types of People
Perceived Deterrence
Empirical Evidence Regarding Deterrence
Deterrence and Rational Choice Theories
Policy Implications of Deterrence Theory
Punishment: An Analysis
CHAPTER 4: BIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR
Biological Factors and Crime
Lombroso and the Positivists
Physique and Crime
Genetic Factors
Family Studies
Studies of Twins
Adoption Studies
Genetics and Behavior: A Modern View
Obstetric Factors
Neurological Factors
Neuroendocrinology
Neurochemistry
Autonomic Nervous System Studies
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Psychological Theories of Criminal Behavior
Mental Illness: A Brief Look
Psychiatric Approach
Personality Theory
Intelligence and Crime
Cognitive Development Theory
Behavior Theory
Learning Theory
Implications of Biological and Psychological Theories
CHAPTER 5: SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR I: THE SOCIAL-STRUCTURAL APPROACH
Ecological Theories
The Chicago School and Its Impact
Contemporary Research on Urban Crime and Delinquency
Anomie/Strain Theories
The Classic Anomie Approach
Durkheim's Contributions
Merton's Contributions
Contemporary Approaches
Messner and Rosenfeld: Institutional Anomie Theory (IAT)
Agnew: General Strain Theory (GST)
Cullen's Social Support Explanation
Cultural Transmission Theories and Their Forerunners
The Study of Gangs
The Earlier Works
Data on Gangs
Current Research and Policies
Race and Ethnicity
Female Gangs
The Prevention of Gangs
The Lower-Class Boy and Middle-Class Measuring Rod
Neutralization and Drift
Differential Opportunity
Education and Delinquency
The Lower-Class Boy and Lower-Class Culture
Evaluation of Cultural Transmission Theories
Crime and the Family
Family Social Structures
Family Power Relationships: Power-Control Theory
The Routine Activity Approach
The Conflict Perspective
Background of the Modern Conflict Approach
Culture and Group Conflict
Power and Conflict
Critical Criminology
Instrumental Marxism
Structural Marxism
Integrated Structural-Marxist Theory
Peacemaking
Left Realist Theories
Postmodernism
Evaluation of Critical Criminology
Social-Structural Theories and Female Criminality
Women's Liberation Theory
Opportunity Theory
Economic Marginalization Hypothesis
Power-Control Theory
Critique of Women's Liberation Theory
Strain Theory
Critical Theory
Feminist Theory
CHAPTER 6: SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR II: THE SOCIAL-PROCESS APPROACH
Learning Theory
Tarde's Imitation Theory
The Modern Media and Imitation
Social Learning Theory
Sutherland's Differential Association Theory
Akers's Social Learning Theory
Control Theory
Reiss and Nye's Control Theory
Reckless's Containment Theory
Hirschi's Bonding Theory
Gottfredson and Hirschi's Self-Control Theory
Labeling Theory
The Emergence and Development of Labeling Theory
The Effects of Labeling
Empirical Research
Recent Refinements of Labeling Theory
Braithwaite's Restorative Justice
Matsueda's Reflective Appraisal
Sampson and Laub's Cumulative Disadvantages
Evaluation of Labeling Theory
Integrated Theories
Akers: Conceptual Absorption
Developmental and Life-Course Theories
Sampson and Laub: Age-Graded Theory
Moffitt: Developmental Theory
Cullen and Colvin: Social Support or Coercion
Thornberry: Interactional Theory
Krohn: Network Analysis
Kaplan: Self-Derogation
Tittle: Control Balance
Elliott, Ageton, and Canter: Integrated Strain/Control
Robinson: Integrated Systems Theory of Antisocial Behavior
Agnew: General Theory
Farrington: Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential
Bernard and Snipes: The Theory Integration Approach
Conclusion to Integrated Theories
Conclusion to Criminal Behavior Theories
Policy Implications of Criminal Behavior Theories
PART III: TYPES OF CRIME
CHAPTER 7: VIOLENT CRIMES
The Study of Types of Crime
Serious Violent Crimes: An Overview
Serious Violent Crimes: The Specific Offenses
Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter
Data
Research on Murder
Forcible Rape
Data
Research on Rape
Robbery
Data
Research on Robbery
Aggravated Assault
Explanations of Violent Crime
Other Violent Crimes
Domestic Violence
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)
--- Data
--- Explanations
--- Legal Reactions
Child Abuse
--- Statutory Rape
--- Incest
--- Explanations and Effects of Child Abuse
Elder Abuse
Kidnapping
Hate Crimes
Stalking
Terrorism
Definitional Issues
The Categories of Terrorism
Terrorism Victims
The Control of Terrorism: Federal Initiatives
The Fear of Crime
Guns and Violent Crime
Gun Control Legislation
The Effects of Gun Control on Violence
The Media, Pornography, and Violent Crime
Legal Issues and Pornography
Virtual Child Pornography
CHAPTER 8: PROPERTY CRIMES
Serious Property Crimes
Burglary
Common Law History
Data
Analysis of Burglary
Larceny-Theft
Common Law History
Data
Focus on Shoplifting
Motor Vehicle Theft
Carjacking: Property or Violent Crime?
Analysis of Motor Vehicle Theft
Arson
Data
Analysis of Arson
Lesser Property Crimes: A Sample
Forgery, Counterfeiting, and Fraud
Stolen Property: Buying, Receiving, Possessing
Embezzlement
Identity Theft
Computer Crimes
Types of Computer Crimes
Controlling Computer Crimes
Legal Issues and Computer Crimes
Professional and Career Criminals
Professional Criminal Behavior: The Early Approach
Contemporary Conceptualizations of Professional Thieves
Career Criminals: The Modern Approach
Wolfgang's Studies of Delinquency Cohorts
Rand Studies of Career Criminals
The BJS Report
The NIJ Overview of Repeat Offenders
The Young Criminal Years of the Violent Few
Recent Research
Sentencing Repeat Offenders: The U.S. Supreme Court Rules
CHAPTER 9: BUSINESS- AND GOVERNMENT-RELATED CRIMES
Business-Related Crimes: An Overview
Definitional Problems
Extent
Prosecution
Impact on Society
A Sociological Analysis
Basis of Legal Liability
Types of Business-Related Crimes
Conspiracy
Avoidance or Evasion of Taxes
Bribery and Extortion
Embezzlement
Securities and Investment Crimes
Insider Trading
Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act
Antitrust Violations
Environmental Crime
Products Liability and Crime
Workplace Violations
Mail and Wire Fraud
Financial Institution Fraud
Mortgage Fraud
Health Care Fraud
Government-Related Crimes
Obstruction of Justice
Political Crimes and Official Misuse of Power
Civil Rights Violations
Domestic Civil Rights Historically
Terrorism and Civil Rights
Controlling Business- and Government-Related Crimes
CHAPTER 10: DRUG ABUSE, DRUG TRAFFICKING, AND ORGANIZED CRIME
Drug Abuse
Data
The Impact of Drug Abuse
Effects on the Abuser
Fetal Abuse
Drugs and the Community
Campus and Intimate Partner Violence
Economic Cost
Criminal Activity
Prison and Jail Overcrowding
Influence on Criminal Justice System Personnel
The Debate over Drug Laws
The Federal Approach
--- The War on Drugs
--- Analysis of the War
--- Sentencing Practices
State Approaches
The Legalization Debate
--- Decriminalization of Marijuana Possession for Personal Use
--- Decriminalization of Marijuana for Medicinal Purposes
The Treatment Approach
--- Statutory Changes in Drug Treatment
--- Drug Courts and Education
--- Drug Testing
Drug Trafficking
Drug Trafficking Dynamics
Selected Drug Cartels
The Medellin Cartel
The Cali Cartel
Mexican Drug Cartels
The Control of Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking
Organized Crime
The Concept of Organized Crime
The History and Organization of Organized Crime
Organized Crime and Legitimate Business
Health Care
The Food Industry
The Construction Industry
The Cartage Industry
The Control of Organized Crime
Statutory Measures
Prosecutions and Trials
PART IV: CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEMS
CHAPTER 11: U.S. CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEMS
Concepts of U.S. Criminal Justice
The Philosophy of the Adversary System
Due Process
Equal Protection
The Reality of the Adversary System
Other Special Characteristics of U.S. Criminal Justice Systems
The Systems Effect
Discretion
The Stages in U.S. Criminal Justice Systems
Investigation Prior to Arrest
Arrest
Booking
Initial Appearance
Preliminary Hearing
Information
Indictment
Arraignment
Reduction of the Charge
Trial
Sentencing
Appeals and Remedies
Incarceration
Release
Selected Constitutional Rights of Defendants
The Right to Be Free from Unreasonable Searches and Seizures
Vehicle Searches
--- Person Searches
Home Searches
The Right Not to Testify Against Oneself
The Right to Counsel
The Right to Trial by Jury
Victims' Rights
Defendants' Rights Versus Victims' Rights
U.S. Criminal Justice Systems: An Assessment
Race and Ethnicity
Socioeconomic Status
Gender
The U.S. Criminal Justice Systems and Terrorism
CHAPTER 12: POLICE
The Emergence of Formal Policing
Public Policing in the United States
Rural, County, Municipal, and State Policing
Policing at the Federal Level
Security at U.S. Borders
Campus and Other Security Areas
International Policing
Private Security
Police Personnel
Qualifications for Policing
Police Recruitment and Training
Female and Minority Officers
The Nature of Policing
Police Functions
Law Enforcement
Order Maintenance
Service-Related Duties
Policing Models
Professional Model
Community-Oriented Policing
Time Allocation
Conflicting Expectations
Police Stress
The Police Subculture
AIDS and Law Enforcement
Police Decision Making
The Right to Stop and Question
The Right to Search a Home
The Sociology of Arrest
Racial Profiling: Myth or Reality?
The Use of Force
Vehicle Pursuits
Police Intervention in Domestic Violence Cases
Police Misconduct
New York City Police Department (NYPD)
Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD)
Atlanta Police Department (APD)
Analysis of Corruption
The Control of Policing
Police Professionalism and Departmental Control
Community Control
Control Through the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ)
Control Through the Courts
The Exclusionary Rule
Criminal and Civil Liability
Terrorism and Policing
CHAPTER 13: COURT SYSTEMS
Court Systems: An Overview
Dual Court Systems
Trial and Appellate Courts
Focus on Specialized Courts
Juvenile Courts
Domestic Violence Courts
Drug Courts
Mental Health Courts
The Role of Lawyers in Criminal Court Systems
Prosecution
Defense
Pretrial Processes
Pretrial Release
The Bail System
Plea Bargaining
The Trial of a Criminal Case
The Right to a Speedy Trial
The Trial Decision: Judge or Jury
Sentencing
The Sentencing Process
Sentencing Issues
Sentence Disparity
Three Strikes and You're Out
Crack/Powder Cocaine Sentencing Reform
Race and Ethnicity Discrimination
Gender Discrimination
Control of Sentence Disparity
Sentencing Guidelines: An Overview
Federal Guidelines
U.S. Supreme Court and Sentencing Guidelines
Capital Punishment
Data and Cost
Legal Death Penalty Issues
Deterrence and Capital Punishment
Juveniles and Capital Punishment
The Future of Capital Punishment
Appeals and Other Legal Challenges
Courts and Congestion
Courts and Violence
PART V: SOCIAL REACTION TO CRIME: CORRECTIONS
CHAPTER 14: THE CONFINEMENT OF OFFENDERS
The Emergence of Prisons for Punishment
U.S. Contributions to the Emergence of Prisons
The Pennsylvania and Auburn Systems
Prison Expansion
The Reformatory Era
The Modern Era of American Prisons: An Overview
Institutions for the Confinement of Adult Offenders
Correctional Populations
Overcrowding
California and New York Correctional Systems
Analysis of Overcrowding
Jails
Prisons
Prison Security Levels
Focus on Supermax Prisons
State and Federal Prisons
Private Jails and Prisons
The Inmate's World
Prisonization
Prisonization Models
Prisonization and Violence
Female Inmates
Elderly, Physically, and Mentally Challenged Inmates
Juveniles in Corrections
Prison and Jail Violence
Self Violence
Sexual Violence
Riots
Escape
Control Within Prisons: The Role of Correctional Officers
Inmates' Legal Rights: An Overview
Historical Overview
Physical Restraint and Discipline
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
General Health Issues
Analysis of Inmates' Legal Rights
CHAPTER 15: CORRECTIONS IN THE COMMUNITY
Diversion
Community Corrections: An Attempt at Reintegration
Community Work Service, Fines, and Restitution
Halfway Houses
Shock Incarceration and Boot Camps
Day Reporting Centers
House Arrest
Electronic Monitoring (EM) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
Probation
History
Data
The Probation Process
Probation Supervision and Conditions
Release from Incarceration
Reentry: The Challenge
Prerelease Programs: An Overview
The Hiring Crisis
Furlough and Work-Release Program
Parole
History
Data
The Parole System
The Future of Parole
Probation and Parole Revocation
Focus on Sex Offenders
Registration and Related Laws
Megan's Laws
Jessica's Laws
Analysis
Legal Challenges
Civil Commitment of Released Sex Offenders
The Future of Corrections
An Evaluation of Community Corrections
Focus on California
Focus on South Carolina
Juvenile Justice
Other Issues
Evidence-Based Practices
APPENDIX A: AMENDMENTS TO THE U.S. CONSTITUTION
APPENDIX B: HOW TO READ A COURT CITATION
Glossary
Case Index
Name Index
General Index
Credits


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