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With its unique blend of social science and legal research, the thirteenth edition ofCrime and Criminologyoffers students a broad context in which to study this dynamic subject, from its history and theories to its ongoing debates and discussions. In engaging, straightforward language, leading scholar and author Sue Titus Reid provides students with a solid understanding of the integral relationship between the law and theories of criminal behavior. The first criminology textbook to be published in a thirteenth edition, this popular and time-tested volume is an essential resource for students and scholars of this ever-changing--and always fascinating--topic. FEATURES OF THIS EDITION * Covers manynew issuesincluding the impact of terrorism and the economic downturn on the criminal justice system, victims with disabilities, healthcare and Medicare fraud, and the decriminalization of marijuana for personal use * Updates andexpands coverageof rehabilitation and deterrence, statutory rape, elder abuse, domestic violence, intimate partner violence, hate crimes, gun control, property crimes, and more * Presentsnew researchon families, twins, adoptees, and how brain function may be used to explain criminal behavior * Brings alldata up to date--including every statute, case, and theory * Integratesengaging pedagogythroughout (tables, figures, and graphs; chapter overviews, review questions, and activities; a glossary of key terms; "Media Focus" and "Global Focus" boxes highlighting timely issues; and two appendices) * Supplemented by anInstructor's Manualwith Test Bank and PowerPoint-based lecture slides on CD
Sue Titus Reid is Professor in the Askew School of Public Administration and Policy at Florida State University.
Table of Contents
Each Chapter begins with an Outline, a list of Key Terms, and an Introduction. Each Chapter closes with a Summary, Study Questions, Brief Essay Assignments, Internet Activities, and Notes Focus Boxes Preface PART I: INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF CRIME AND CRIMINOLOGY CHAPTER 1: CRIME, CRIMINAL LAW, AND CRIMINOLOGY The Concept of Crime An Act or Omission The Intent Requirement and Its Exceptions Violation of the Elements of Criminal Law Without Justification or Defense Felony or Misdemeanor The Judge or Jury as Final Decision Maker The Concept of Law Law as Social Control The Extent of Criminal Law Criminal Law and Sex Crimes Legalizing Marijuana for Medicinal Purposes Criminology and the Study of Crime CHAPTER 2: THE MEASUREMENT OF CRIME AND ITS IMPACT Sources of Crime Data The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Self Report Data (SRD) The National Youth Survey (NYS) The Crime Classification System (CCS) The National Criminal History Improvement Program (NCHIP) Crime in the United States: An Overview National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Data Uniform Crime Report (UCR) Data Characteristics of Offenders Age Race and Ethnicity Gender Characteristics of Crime Victims Age Race and Ethnicity Gender Disabilities Criminal Justice Systems and Crime Victims Analysis of Crime Data Collection Research in Criminology Basing Policy Decisions on Research The Search for Explanations Selection of a Research Method Errors in Interpreting Data PART II: EXPLANATIONS OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR CHAPTER 3: EARLY EXPLANATIONS OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR AND THEIR MODERN COUNTERPARTS The Historical Background of Punishment and Criminal Law The Classical Beginnings Cesare Beccaria Jeremy Bentham Other Influential Scholars The Neoclassical School The Positivist School Cesare Lombroso Raffaele Garofalo Enrico Ferri Contributions of the Positivist School The Classical and Positivist Schools Compared Punishment Philosophies Incapacitation Retribution Just Deserts Rehabilitation The Rehabilitative Ideal A Return to Rehabilitation? Deterrence Deterrence of Types of Crime and Types of People Perceived Deterrence Empirical Evidence Regarding Deterrence Deterrence and Rational Choice Theories Policy Implications of Deterrence Theory Punishment: An Analysis CHAPTER 4: BIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR Biological Factors and Crime Lombroso and the Positivists Physique and Crime Genetic Factors Family Studies Studies of Twins Adoption Studies Genetics and Behavior: A Modern View Obstetric Factors Neurological Factors Neuroendocrinology Neurochemistry Autonomic Nervous System Studies Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Psychological Theories of Criminal Behavior Mental Illness: A Brief Look Psychiatric Approach Personality Theory Intelligence and Crime Cognitive Development Theory Behavior Theory Learning Theory Implications of Biological and Psychological Theories CHAPTER 5: SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR I: THE SOCIAL-STRUCTURAL APPROACH Ecological Theories The Chicago School and Its Impact Contemporary Research on Urban Crime and Delinquency Anomie/Strain Theories The Classic Anomie Approach Durkheim's Contributions Merton's Contributions Contemporary Approaches Messner and Rosenfeld: Institutional Anomie Theory (IAT) Agnew: General Strain Theory (GST) Cullen's Social Support Explanation Cultural Transmission Theories and Their Forerunners The Study of Gangs The Earlier Works Data on Gangs Current Research and Policies Race and Ethnicity Female Gangs The Prevention of Gangs The Lower-Class Boy and Middle-Class Measuring Rod Neutralization and Drift Differential Opportunity Education and Delinquency The Lower-Class Boy and Lower-Class Culture Evaluation of Cultural Transmission Theories Crime and the Family Family Social Structures Family Power Relationships: Power-Control Theory The Routine Activity Approach The Conflict Perspective Background of the Modern Conflict Approach Culture and Group Conflict Power and Conflict Critical Criminology Instrumental Marxism Structural Marxism Integrated Structural-Marxist Theory Peacemaking Left Realist Theories Postmodernism Evaluation of Critical Criminology Social-Structural Theories and Female Criminality Women's Liberation Theory Opportunity Theory Economic Marginalization Hypothesis Power-Control Theory Critique of Women's Liberation Theory Strain Theory Critical Theory Feminist Theory CHAPTER 6: SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR II: THE SOCIAL-PROCESS APPROACH Learning Theory Tarde's Imitation Theory The Modern Media and Imitation Social Learning Theory Sutherland's Differential Association Theory Akers's Social Learning Theory Control Theory Reiss and Nye's Control Theory Reckless's Containment Theory Hirschi's Bonding Theory Gottfredson and Hirschi's Self-Control Theory Labeling Theory The Emergence and Development of Labeling Theory The Effects of Labeling Empirical Research Recent Refinements of Labeling Theory Braithwaite's Restorative Justice Matsueda's Reflective Appraisal Sampson and Laub's Cumulative Disadvantages Evaluation of Labeling Theory Integrated Theories Akers: Conceptual Absorption Developmental and Life-Course Theories Sampson and Laub: Age-Graded Theory Moffitt: Developmental Theory Cullen and Colvin: Social Support or Coercion Thornberry: Interactional Theory Krohn: Network Analysis Kaplan: Self-Derogation Tittle: Control Balance Elliott, Ageton, and Canter: Integrated Strain/Control Robinson: Integrated Systems Theory of Antisocial Behavior Agnew: General Theory Farrington: Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential Bernard and Snipes: The Theory Integration Approach Conclusion to Integrated Theories Conclusion to Criminal Behavior Theories Policy Implications of Criminal Behavior Theories PART III: TYPES OF CRIME CHAPTER 7: VIOLENT CRIMES The Study of Types of Crime Serious Violent Crimes: An Overview Serious Violent Crimes: The Specific Offenses Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter Data Research on Murder Forcible Rape Data Research on Rape Robbery Data Research on Robbery Aggravated Assault Explanations of Violent Crime Other Violent Crimes Domestic Violence Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) --- Data --- Explanations --- Legal Reactions Child Abuse --- Statutory Rape --- Incest --- Explanations and Effects of Child Abuse Elder Abuse Kidnapping Hate Crimes Stalking Terrorism Definitional Issues The Categories of Terrorism Terrorism Victims The Control of Terrorism: Federal Initiatives The Fear of Crime Guns and Violent Crime Gun Control Legislation The Effects of Gun Control on Violence The Media, Pornography, and Violent Crime Legal Issues and Pornography Virtual Child Pornography CHAPTER 8: PROPERTY CRIMES Serious Property Crimes Burglary Common Law History Data Analysis of Burglary Larceny-Theft Common Law History Data Focus on Shoplifting Motor Vehicle Theft Carjacking: Property or Violent Crime? Analysis of Motor Vehicle Theft Arson Data Analysis of Arson Lesser Property Crimes: A Sample Forgery, Counterfeiting, and Fraud Stolen Property: Buying, Receiving, Possessing Embezzlement Identity Theft Computer Crimes Types of Computer Crimes Controlling Computer Crimes Legal Issues and Computer Crimes Professional and Career Criminals Professional Criminal Behavior: The Early Approach Contemporary Conceptualizations of Professional Thieves Career Criminals: The Modern Approach Wolfgang's Studies of Delinquency Cohorts Rand Studies of Career Criminals The BJS Report The NIJ Overview of Repeat Offenders The Young Criminal Years of the Violent Few Recent Research Sentencing Repeat Offenders: The U.S. Supreme Court Rules CHAPTER 9: BUSINESS- AND GOVERNMENT-RELATED CRIMES Business-Related Crimes: An Overview Definitional Problems Extent Prosecution Impact on Society A Sociological Analysis Basis of Legal Liability Types of Business-Related Crimes Conspiracy Avoidance or Evasion of Taxes Bribery and Extortion Embezzlement Securities and Investment Crimes Insider Trading Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act Antitrust Violations Environmental Crime Products Liability and Crime Workplace Violations Mail and Wire Fraud Financial Institution Fraud Mortgage Fraud Health Care Fraud Government-Related Crimes Obstruction of Justice Political Crimes and Official Misuse of Power Civil Rights Violations Domestic Civil Rights Historically Terrorism and Civil Rights Controlling Business- and Government-Related Crimes CHAPTER 10: DRUG ABUSE, DRUG TRAFFICKING, AND ORGANIZED CRIME Drug Abuse Data The Impact of Drug Abuse Effects on the Abuser Fetal Abuse Drugs and the Community Campus and Intimate Partner Violence Economic Cost Criminal Activity Prison and Jail Overcrowding Influence on Criminal Justice System Personnel The Debate over Drug Laws The Federal Approach --- The War on Drugs --- Analysis of the War --- Sentencing Practices State Approaches The Legalization Debate --- Decriminalization of Marijuana Possession for Personal Use --- Decriminalization of Marijuana for Medicinal Purposes The Treatment Approach --- Statutory Changes in Drug Treatment --- Drug Courts and Education --- Drug Testing Drug Trafficking Drug Trafficking Dynamics Selected Drug Cartels The Medellin Cartel The Cali Cartel Mexican Drug Cartels The Control of Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking Organized Crime The Concept of Organized Crime The History and Organization of Organized Crime Organized Crime and Legitimate Business Health Care The Food Industry The Construction Industry The Cartage Industry The Control of Organized Crime Statutory Measures Prosecutions and Trials PART IV: CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEMS CHAPTER 11: U.S. CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEMS Concepts of U.S. Criminal Justice The Philosophy of the Adversary System Due Process Equal Protection The Reality of the Adversary System Other Special Characteristics of U.S. Criminal Justice Systems The Systems Effect Discretion The Stages in U.S. Criminal Justice Systems Investigation Prior to Arrest Arrest Booking Initial Appearance Preliminary Hearing Information Indictment Arraignment Reduction of the Charge Trial Sentencing Appeals and Remedies Incarceration Release Selected Constitutional Rights of Defendants The Right to Be Free from Unreasonable Searches and Seizures Vehicle Searches --- Person Searches Home Searches The Right Not to Testify Against Oneself The Right to Counsel The Right to Trial by Jury Victims' Rights Defendants' Rights Versus Victims' Rights U.S. Criminal Justice Systems: An Assessment Race and Ethnicity Socioeconomic Status Gender The U.S. Criminal Justice Systems and Terrorism CHAPTER 12: POLICE The Emergence of Formal Policing Public Policing in the United States Rural, County, Municipal, and State Policing Policing at the Federal Level Security at U.S. Borders Campus and Other Security Areas International Policing Private Security Police Personnel Qualifications for Policing Police Recruitment and Training Female and Minority Officers The Nature of Policing Police Functions Law Enforcement Order Maintenance Service-Related Duties Policing Models Professional Model Community-Oriented Policing Time Allocation Conflicting Expectations Police Stress The Police Subculture AIDS and Law Enforcement Police Decision Making The Right to Stop and Question The Right to Search a Home The Sociology of Arrest Racial Profiling: Myth or Reality? The Use of Force Vehicle Pursuits Police Intervention in Domestic Violence Cases Police Misconduct New York City Police Department (NYPD) Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) Atlanta Police Department (APD) Analysis of Corruption The Control of Policing Police Professionalism and Departmental Control Community Control Control Through the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) Control Through the Courts The Exclusionary Rule Criminal and Civil Liability Terrorism and Policing CHAPTER 13: COURT SYSTEMS Court Systems: An Overview Dual Court Systems Trial and Appellate Courts Focus on Specialized Courts Juvenile Courts Domestic Violence Courts Drug Courts Mental Health Courts The Role of Lawyers in Criminal Court Systems Prosecution Defense Pretrial Processes Pretrial Release The Bail System Plea Bargaining The Trial of a Criminal Case The Right to a Speedy Trial The Trial Decision: Judge or Jury Sentencing The Sentencing Process Sentencing Issues Sentence Disparity Three Strikes and You're Out Crack/Powder Cocaine Sentencing Reform Race and Ethnicity Discrimination Gender Discrimination Control of Sentence Disparity Sentencing Guidelines: An Overview Federal Guidelines U.S. Supreme Court and Sentencing Guidelines Capital Punishment Data and Cost Legal Death Penalty Issues Deterrence and Capital Punishment Juveniles and Capital Punishment The Future of Capital Punishment Appeals and Other Legal Challenges Courts and Congestion Courts and Violence PART V: SOCIAL REACTION TO CRIME: CORRECTIONS CHAPTER 14: THE CONFINEMENT OF OFFENDERS The Emergence of Prisons for Punishment U.S. Contributions to the Emergence of Prisons The Pennsylvania and Auburn Systems Prison Expansion The Reformatory Era The Modern Era of American Prisons: An Overview Institutions for the Confinement of Adult Offenders Correctional Populations Overcrowding California and New York Correctional Systems Analysis of Overcrowding Jails Prisons Prison Security Levels Focus on Supermax Prisons State and Federal Prisons Private Jails and Prisons The Inmate's World Prisonization Prisonization Models Prisonization and Violence Female Inmates Elderly, Physically, and Mentally Challenged Inmates Juveniles in Corrections Prison and Jail Violence Self Violence Sexual Violence Riots Escape Control Within Prisons: The Role of Correctional Officers Inmates' Legal Rights: An Overview Historical Overview Physical Restraint and Discipline Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) General Health Issues Analysis of Inmates' Legal Rights CHAPTER 15: CORRECTIONS IN THE COMMUNITY Diversion Community Corrections: An Attempt at Reintegration Community Work Service, Fines, and Restitution Halfway Houses Shock Incarceration and Boot Camps Day Reporting Centers House Arrest Electronic Monitoring (EM) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Probation History Data The Probation Process Probation Supervision and Conditions Release from Incarceration Reentry: The Challenge Prerelease Programs: An Overview The Hiring Crisis Furlough and Work-Release Program Parole History Data The Parole System The Future of Parole Probation and Parole Revocation Focus on Sex Offenders Registration and Related Laws Megan's Laws Jessica's Laws Analysis Legal Challenges Civil Commitment of Released Sex Offenders The Future of Corrections An Evaluation of Community Corrections Focus on California Focus on South Carolina Juvenile Justice Other Issues Evidence-Based Practices APPENDIX A: AMENDMENTS TO THE U.S. CONSTITUTION APPENDIX B: HOW TO READ A COURT CITATION Glossary Case Index Name Index General Index Credits