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Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology,9780495006039
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Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780495006039

ISBN10:
0495006033
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
5/16/2006
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $87.00

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Summary

CRIME VICTIMS: AN INTRODUCTION TO VICTIMOLOGY is a innovative and comprehensive guide that offers balanced coverage on this controversial subject. A must-have for anyone interested in this field!

Table of Contents

1 What Is Victimology?
1(24)
The Plight of Crime Victims
1(1)
Studying Victimization Scientifically
2(1)
Why Objectivity is Necessary
3(5)
Victims or Offenders?
4(1)
Criminals as Victims
5(1)
Victims Versus "Good Guys"
6(2)
Victimology's Undeserved "Bad Reputation'
8(2)
Sources of Bias
10(2)
The Origins of Victimology
12(1)
Victimology Compared to Criminology
13(5)
Parallels Between Criminology and Victimology
13(2)
Differences and Boundaries
15(1)
The Interface with Other Disciplines
16(1)
Divisions within the Discipline
17(1)
Why Study Victimology?
18(1)
What Victimologists Do
18(4)
Step 1: Identify, Define, and Describe the Problem
18(1)
Step 2: Measure the True Dimensions of the Problem
19(2)
Step 3: Investigate How Victims Are Handled
21(1)
Step 4: Gather Evidence to Test Hypotheses
22(1)
Chapter Summary
22(1)
Key Terms
23(1)
Questions for Discussion and Debate
23(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
23(1)
Suggested Research Projects
24(1)
2 The Rediscovery of Crime Victims
25(18)
The Discovery of Crime Victims
25(1)
The Decline of Crime Victims
25(2)
The Rediscovery of Crime Victims
27(6)
Social Movements: Taking Up the Victims' Cause
27(3)
Elected Officials: Enacting Legislation Named After Victims
30(1)
The News Media: Portraying the Victims' Plight
31(2)
Commercial Interests: Selling Products and Services to Victims
33(1)
Victimology Contributes to the Rediscovery Process
33(6)
Stage 1: Calling Attention to an Overlooked Problem
34(1)
Stage 2: Winning Victories, Implementing Reforms
35(2)
Stage 3: Emergence of an Opposition and Development of Resistance to Further Changes
37(1)
Stage 4: Research and Temporary Resolution of Disputes
38(1)
Rediscovering Additional Groups of Victims
39(1)
Chapter Summary
40(1)
Key Terms
41(1)
Questions for Discussion and Debate
42(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
42(1)
Suggested Research Projects
42(1)
3 Sources of Information about Crime Victims: The UCR and the NCVS
43(17)
Crime in the Streets: The Big Picture
43(5)
The Use and Abuse of Statistics
44(1)
Interpreting Statistics
45(3)
A Closer Look at the Two Official Sources of Victimization Data
48(7)
The Uniform Crime Report (UCR)
49(2)
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
51(3)
Comparing the UCR and the NCVS
54(1)
Using Data to Bring the Big Picture into Focus
55(3)
Chapter Summary
58(1)
Key Terms
58(1)
Questions for Discussion and Debate
59(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
59(1)
Suggested Research Projects
59(1)
4 Violent Crimes: Murders and Robberies
60(35)
Focusing on Murders
61(13)
Using the UCR to Analyze Murders
61(2)
Searching for Crime Waves: Detecting Trends in Interpersonal Violence
63(8)
Making International Comparisons
71(3)
Assessing Comparative Risks: Putting Crime into Perspective
74(1)
Focusing on Robberies
75(5)
Robbers and Their Victims
75(1)
Using the NCVS to Analyze Robberies
76(3)
Differential Risks of Being Robbed
79(1)
Projecting Cumulative Risks
80(3)
The Search for Risk Factors
83(10)
The Determinants of Differential Risks: Routine Activities and Lifestyles
84(2)
Reducing Risks: How Safe Is Safe Enough?
86(1)
Ambivalence about Risk Taking
87(1)
From Crime Prevention to Victimization Prevention
88(1)
Criminals as Victims
89(3)
Deterrence Theory as Applied to Victims
92(1)
Chapter Summary
93(1)
Key Terms
93(1)
Questions for Discussion and Debate
94(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
94(1)
Suggested Research Projects
94(1)
5 The Victims' Contribution to the Crime Problem
95(36)
The Question of Shared Responsibility
96(9)
The Controversy over Shared Responsibility
97(3)
Victim Facilitation, Precipitation, and Provocation
100(3)
The Frequency of Shared Responsibility in Violent Crimes
103(1)
Recognizing Complete Innocence and Full Responsibility
104(1)
Victim Blaming Versus Victim Defending
105(2)
Victim Facilitation and Auto Theft: Is It the Careless Who Wind Up Carless?
107(9)
Stealing Cars for Fun and Profit
107(3)
Which Motorists Should Be Most Concerned When Parking Their Cars?
110(6)
Victim Facilitation and Identity Theft: Which Precautions Are Reasonable?
116(8)
The Nature of the Problem
116(2)
Differential Risks of Becoming a Victim of Identity Theft
118(1)
Losses and Suffering
119(1)
Laws and Law Enforcement
120(1)
Blaming Victims for Ignoring Risk-Reduction Strategies
121(3)
Victim Defending: Facilitation Is Not the Heart of the Problem
124(1)
Transcending Victim Blaming and Victim Defending
124(2)
The Legal Importance of Determining Responsibility
126(3)
Chapter Summary
129(1)
Key Terms
129(1)
Questions for Discussion and Debate
130(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
130(1)
Suggested Research Topics
130(1)
6 Victims and the Criminal Justice System: Cooperation and Conflict; Part One: The Police
131(23)
Victims Versus the Criminal Justice System
132(1)
What Do Victims Want: Punishment? Treatment? or Restitution?
132(3)
Victims and the Police
135(17)
Reporting Incidents
136(3)
Responding Quickly
139(1)
Handling Victims with Care
140(1)
Challenging the Victim's Version of Events
141(3)
Investigating Complaints and Solving Crimes
144(4)
Arresting Suspects and Seizing Evidence
148(1)
Recovering Stolen Property
149(2)
Measuring Progress toward a Victim-Oriented Police Department
151(1)
Chapter Summary
152(1)
Key Terms
152(1)
Questions for Discussion and Debate
152(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
153(1)
Suggested Research Projects
153(1)
7 Victims and the Criminal Justice System: Cooperation and Conflict; Part Two: Prosecutors, Defense Attorneys Judges, and Corrections Officials
154(25)
Victims and Prosecutors
155(8)
Assisting Victims and Other Witnesses for the State
156(1)
Protecting Victims Who Serve as Witnesses for the Prosecution
157(3)
Dismissing Charges and Rejecting Cases
160(1)
Negotiating Pleas
161(2)
Victims and Defense Attorneys
163(3)
Postponing Hearings
163(1)
Cross-Examining Witnesses during Trials
164(2)
Victims and Judges
166(6)
Granting Bail
166(1)
Sentencing Offenders
166(3)
Appealing to the Supreme Court
169(3)
Victims and Corrections Officials
172(2)
Keeping Track of Offenders and Receiving Reimbursement from Them
172(1)
Influencing Parole Board Decisions
172(2)
And Justice for All?
174(2)
Recognizing "Second-Class" Treatment
174(2)
Chapter Summary
176(1)
Key Terms
177(1)
Questions for Discussion and Debate
177(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
177(1)
Suggested Research Projects
178(1)
8 Children as Victims
179(33)
The Ongoing Debate Between Maximalists and Minimalists
180(1)
Missing Children
180(10)
The Absence of Data Heightens Fears about the Problem
181(3)
Estimates of the Incidence and Seriousness of the Problem
184(1)
Hunting for Children Who Have Vanished
185(3)
The Possibility of the Stockholm Syndrome
188(1)
Protecting Children
189(1)
Physically and Sexually Abused Children
190(12)
The Rediscovery of Child Abuse
190(1)
How Children Suffer
191(2)
Estimates of the Incidence, Prevalence, and Seriousness of Child Abuse
193(3)
More Controversies Surrounding Childhood Sexual Abuse
196(6)
Abused Children and Legal Proceedings
202(5)
Taking the Best Interests of the Child into Account
203(1)
The Credibility of Children as Witnesses
204(1)
Devising Child-Friendly Practices
205(2)
Proactive Versus Reactive Strategies
207(1)
Additional Forms of Exploitation and Mistreatment of Young People
208(1)
Sibling Abuse
208(1)
Abuse of Adolescents by Parents
208(1)
Statutory Rape of Minors
209(1)
Chapter Summary
209(1)
Key Terms
210(1)
Questions for Discussion and Debate
210(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
210(1)
Suggested Research Projects
211(1)
9 Victims of Violence by Lovers and Family Members
212(29)
Violence Between Intimates
212(1)
The Rediscovery of Wife Beating
213(13)
Blaming Her for His Violent Outbursts
214(2)
Estimates of the Incidence, Prevalence, and Seriousness of Spouse Abuse
216(4)
Aiding Victims Who Feel Trapped
220(2)
Battered Women and the Criminal Justice System: Violence Is Violence, or Is It?
222(4)
The Rediscovery of Battered Husbands
226(1)
Victim Provocation and Murder: When is the Slaying of a Wife Beater Justified?
227(6)
The Extent of Intimate Partner Homicides
228(2)
Arguments Stressing That the Brutal Man Did Not Deserve to Die
230(1)
Arguments Emphasizing That the Brutal Man Provoked the Lethal Response
231(2)
The Rediscovery of Other Victims of Beatings
233(4)
Young Women Battered during Courtship
234(1)
Abuse of Parents by Adolescents
235(1)
Elder Abuse
235(1)
Battering within Same-Sex Relationships
236(1)
Preventing Battering
237(1)
Chapter Summary
238(1)
Key Terms
239(1)
Questions for Discussion and Debate
239(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
239(1)
Suggested Research Projects
240(1)
10 Victims of Rapes and Other Sexual Assaults 241(34)
The Rediscovery of the Plight of Rape Victims
242(1)
"Real Rapes" Compared with "Date Rapes"
243(2)
Victim Precipitation and Rape: Did She Somehow Single Herself Out for Trouble?
245(4)
Victim-Blaming Views
246(2)
Victim-Defending Perspectives
248(1)
The Consequences of Being Sexually Assaulted
249(1)
Estimates of the Incidence, Prevalence, and Seriousness of Rape
250(3)
Differential Risks of Being Sexually Assaulted and Raped
253(2)
How the Criminal Justice System Handles Rape Victims
255(13)
The Controversy over Unfounded Accusations
255(7)
The Accuser versus the Accused
262(1)
Unwanted Publicity and Negative Media Portrayals
263(1)
Rape Shield Laws
264(1)
Force and Resistance
265(1)
Corroboration
266(1)
Arrest, Prosecution, and Adjudication
267(1)
Crisis Centers: Providing Emergency Assistance
268(1)
The Rediscovery of More Rape Victims
269(2)
Wives Raped by their Husbands
269(1)
Sexually Assaulted Males
270(1)
Preventing Rape
271(2)
Chapter Summary
273(1)
Key Terms
273(1)
Questions for Discussion and Debate
273(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
274(1)
Suggested Research Projects
274(1)
11 Additional Groups of Victims with Special Problems 275(33)
Victims of Crimes Committed at School
276(9)
Threats Facing College Students
276(7)
Threats Facing Middle School and High School Students
283(2)
Victims of Workplace Violence
285(3)
Slayings at Work
286(2)
Individuals Menaced by Stalkers
288(3)
Stalking: A New Word for an Old Problem
288(2)
Cyberstalking: A New Word for a New Problem
290(1)
Law Enforcement Officers Injured and Killed in the Line of Duty
291(4)
Who, Where, When, and Why
292(2)
Showing Solidarity
294(1)
Targets of Hate Crimes
295(5)
Rediscovering a Very Old Problem
295(1)
Measuring the Scope of the Problem
296(3)
Criminal Justice System Reforms
299(1)
Casualties of Terrorism
300(6)
Monitoring the Scope of the Problem
301(2)
Assistance and Recovery
303(3)
Chapter Summary
306(1)
Key Terms
306(1)
Questions for Discussion and Debate
306(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
306(1)
Suggested Research Projects
307(1)
12 Repaying Victims 308(32)
The Costs of Crime
308(1)
Gaining Restitution from Offenders
309(10)
Back to Basics
309(1)
The Rise, Fall, and Rediscovery of Restitution
310(2)
Divergent Goals, Clashing Philosophies
312(2)
Opportunities to Make Restitution
314(2)
Obstacles Undermining Restitution
316(1)
Evaluating Restitution Programs
317(2)
Winning Judgments in Civil Court
319(7)
The Revival of Interest in Civil Lawsuits
319(1)
The Litigation Process
319(1)
Possibilities and Pitfalls
320(2)
Collecting Damages from Third Parties
322(4)
Collecting Insurance Reimbursements
326(2)
Private Crime Insurance
326(1)
Patterns of Loss, Recovery, and Reimbursement
326(1)
Federal Crime Insurance
327(1)
Recovering Losses through Victim Compensation Programs
328(7)
The History of Victim Compensation by Governments
328(1)
The Debate over Compensation in the United States
329(2)
How Programs Operate: Similarities and Differences
331(2)
Monitoring and Evaluating Compensation Programs
333(2)
Confiscating Profits from Notorious Criminals
335(2)
Writing and Rewriting the Law
336(1)
Chapter Summary
337(1)
Key Terms
338(1)
Questions for Discussion and Debate
338(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
338(1)
Suggested Research Projects
339(1)
13 Victims in the Twenty-First Century: Alternative Directions 340(35)
Toward Greater Formal Legal Rights within the Criminal Justice System
341(11)
Rights Gained at the Expense of Offenders
343(3)
Rights Gained at the Expense of the System
346(1)
Rights Gained at the Expense of Either Offenders, the System, or Both
346(6)
Toward Retaliatory Justice
352(10)
Vigilantism's Frontier Origins
352(2)
Vigilantism versus Legitimate Use of Force in Self-Defense
354(1)
Would Victims Be Better Off if They Were Armed?
355(4)
The Dangers of a Drift Back toward Retaliatory Violence
359(3)
Toward Restorative Justice
362(10)
The Peacemaking Process
363(1)
A Brief History of Restorative Justice
364(2)
How Reconciliation Programs Work
366(3)
Evaluating Efforts at Reconciliation
369(1)
Pros and Cons from the Victim's Point of View
370(1)
The Future of Restorative Justice
371(1)
Chapter Summary
372(1)
Key Terms
373(1)
Questions for Discussion and Debate
373(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
373(1)
Suggested Research Projects
374(1)
GLOSSARY 375(10)
REFERENCES 385(46)
NAME INDEX 431(9)
SUBJECT INDEX 440


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