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Criminal Investigation

by ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780495093404

ISBN10:
0495093408
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
5/16/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $291.66

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This is the 8th edition with a publication date of 5/16/2006.
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Summary

Section One: INTRODUCTION. 1. Criminal Investigation: An Overview. Section Two: BASIC INVESTIGATIVE RESPONSIBILITIES. 2. Documenting the Crime Scene: Note Taking, Photography and Sketching. 3. Writing Reports. 4. Searches. 5. Forensics/Physical Evidence. 6. Obtaining Information. 7. Identifying and Arresting Suspects. Section Three: INVESTIGATING VIOLENT CRIMES. 8. Death Investigations. 9. Assault, Domestic Violence, Stalking and Elder Abuse. 10. Sex Offenses. 11. Crimes against Children. 12. Robbery. Section Four: INVESTIGATING CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY. 13. Burglary. 14. Larceny/Theft, Fraud, and White Collar Crime. 15. Motor Vehicle Theft. 16. Arson, Bombs, and Explosives. Section Five: OTHER CHALLENGES TO THE CRIMINAL INVESTIGATOR. 17. Computer Crime and Its Evolution to Cybercrime. 18. A Dual Threat: Drug-Related Crime and Organized Crime.19. Criminal Activities of Gangs, Hate Groups and Cults. 20. Terrorism and Homeland Security. 21. Preparing for and Presenting Cases in Court.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
2(30)
Criminal Investigation: An Overview
4(28)
Criminal Investigation Definitions
6(2)
Other Terms Defined
7(1)
Goals of Criminal Investigations
8(1)
Basic Functions
8(1)
Characteristics of an Effective Investigator
9(3)
Intellectual Characteristics
9(2)
Psychological Characteristics
11(1)
Physical Characteristics
12(1)
An Overview of the Investigative Process
12(1)
The Preliminary Investigation: Basic Considerations
13(5)
The Initial Response
13(1)
The Point of Arrival
14(1)
Setting Priorities
14(1)
Handling Emergency Situations
14(2)
Protecting the Crime Scene
16(1)
Conducting the Preliminary Investigation
16(2)
Crime Scene Investigators
18(1)
The Follow-Up Investigation
19(1)
Computer-Aided Investigation
19(2)
Crime Analysis, Mapping, and Geographical Information Systems
20(1)
Data Mining
21(1)
Problem-Oriented Policing
21(1)
Investigative Productivity
21(1)
The Investigative Function: The Responsibility of All Police Personnel
22(1)
Interrelationships with Others--Community Policing
23(3)
Uniformed Patrol
23(1)
Dispatchers
23(1)
Prosecutor's Staff
23(1)
Defense Counsel
24(1)
Physicians, Coroners, and Medical Examiners
24(1)
Forensic Crime Laboratories
24(1)
Citizens
25(1)
Witnesses
25(1)
Victims
25(1)
Witnesses, Victims, and the Media
26(1)
Major-Case Task Forces
26(1)
Federal Law Enforcement Resources
27(1)
Avoiding Civil Liability
27(2)
Summary
29(1)
Checklist
29(1)
Discussion Questions
30(1)
Media Explorations
30(1)
Internet
30(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
30(1)
References
31(1)
Cases Cited
31(1)
SECTION 2 BASIC INVESTIGATIVE RESPONSIBILITIES
32(196)
Documenting the Crime Scene: Note Taking, Photographing, and Sketching
34(32)
Field Notes: The Basics
36(3)
When to Take Notes
36(1)
What to Record
37(1)
Where to Record Notes
38(1)
How to Take Notes
38(1)
Characteristics of Effective Notes
39(1)
Filing Notes
40(1)
Admissibility of Notes in Court
40(1)
Investigative Photography: An Overview
40(2)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Photographs
41(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Video
41(1)
Basic Photographic Equipment
42(2)
Training in and Using Investigative Photography
44(2)
Digital Cameras
44(1)
What to Photograph or Videotape
45(1)
Errors to Avoid
46(1)
Types of Investigative Photography
46(3)
Surveillance Photography
46(1)
Aerial Photography
47(1)
Night Photography
47(1)
Laboratory Photography
47(1)
Mug Shots
48(1)
Lineup Photographs
49(1)
Identifying, Filing, and Maintaining Security of Evidence
49(1)
Identifying
49(1)
Filing
49(1)
Maintaining Security
49(1)
Admissibility of Photographs in Court
50(1)
Authenticating Digital Images
50(1)
Crime Scene Sketches: An Overview
50(1)
The Rough Sketch
51(1)
Sketching Materials
51(1)
Steps in Sketching the Crime Scene
51(6)
Step One: Observe and Plan
51(1)
Step Two: Measure and Outline the Area
52(2)
Step Three: Plot Objects and Evidence
54(1)
Step Four: Take Notes
55(2)
Step Five: Identify the Scene
57(1)
Step Six: Reassess the Sketch
57(1)
File the Sketch
57(1)
The Finished Scale Drawing
58(1)
Computer-Assisted Drawing
58(4)
Admissibility of Sketches and Drawings in Court
62(1)
Summary
63(1)
Checklists
63(1)
Discussion Questions
64(1)
Media Explorations
65(1)
Internet
65(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
65(1)
References
65(1)
Writing Effective Reports
66(22)
The Importance of Reports
68(1)
Uses of Reports
69(2)
The Audience
71(1)
Common Problems with Many Police Reports
71(1)
The Well-Written Report: From Start to Finish
71(10)
Organizing Information
71(1)
Structuring the Narrative
72(1)
Characteristics of Effective Reports: Content and Form
72(9)
Taping and Dictating Reports
81(1)
Computerized Report Writing
82(1)
Evaluating Your Report
82(1)
Citizen Online Report Writing
82(1)
The Final Report
83(1)
A Final Note on the Importance of Well-Written Reports
83(3)
Summary
86(1)
Checklist
86(1)
Discussion Questions
86(1)
Media Explorations
86(1)
Internet
86(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
86(1)
References
87(1)
Searches
88(24)
Legal Searches and the Fourth Amendment
90(6)
Search with a Warrant
90(2)
Search with Consent
92(1)
Patdown or Frisk during a ``Stop''
93(1)
Search Following an Arrest
94(1)
Search in an Emergency Situation
94(1)
Warrantless Searches of Vehicles
94(2)
Basic Limitation on Searches
96(1)
The Exclusionary Rule
96(2)
The Crime Scene Search
98(1)
Organizing the Crime Scene Search
98(1)
Physical Evidence
98(1)
Search Patterns
99(3)
Exterior Searches
99(1)
Interior Searches
99(2)
General Guidelines
101(1)
Plain-View Evidence
101(1)
Plain Feel/Touch
102(1)
Other Types of Investigatory Searches
102(4)
Building Searches
102(1)
Trash or Garbage Can Searches
103(1)
Vehicle Searches
103(1)
Suspect Searches
104(1)
Dead Body Searches
105(1)
Underwater Searches
106(1)
Use of Dogs in a Search
106(2)
Summary
108(1)
Checklist
108(1)
Discussion Questions
108(1)
Media Explorations
109(1)
Internet
109(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
109(1)
References
109(1)
Cases Cited
110(2)
Forensics/Physical Evidence
112(46)
Definitions
114(1)
Investigative Equipment
115(3)
Selecting Equipment
116(1)
Equipment Containers
116(1)
Transporting Equipment
117(1)
Training in Equipment Use
117(1)
Crime Scene Integrity and Contamination of Evidence
118(1)
Processing Evidence: From Discovery to Disposal
119(7)
Discovering or Recognizing Evidence
119(1)
Collecting, Marking, and Identifying Evidence
120(1)
Packaging and Preserving Evidence
121(1)
Transporting Evidence
122(1)
Protecting and Storing Evidence
122(3)
Exhibiting Evidence in Court
125(1)
Final Disposition of Evidence
125(1)
Frequently Examined Evidence
126(26)
Fingerprints
126(6)
Voiceprints
132(1)
Language Analysis
132(1)
Human DNA Profiling
133(4)
Blood and Other Body Fluids
137(1)
Scent
138(2)
Hair and Fibers
140(1)
Shoe and Tire Impressions
141(1)
Bite Marks
142(1)
Tools and Tool Marks
143(1)
Firearms and Ammunition
144(3)
Glass
147(1)
Soils and Minerals
147(1)
Safe Insulation
148(1)
Ropes, Strings, and Tapes
149(1)
Drugs
149(1)
Bioterror Agents
149(1)
Documents
150(1)
Laundry and Dry-Cleaning Marks
150(1)
Paint
151(1)
Skeletal Remains
151(1)
Wood
151(1)
Other Types of Evidence
151(1)
Evidence Handling and Infectious Disease
152(2)
Summary
154(1)
Checklist
155(1)
Discussion Questions
155(1)
Media Explorations
156(1)
Internet
156(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
156(1)
References
156(1)
Cases Cited
157(1)
Obtaining Information
158(32)
Sources of Information
160(2)
Reports, Records, and Databases
160(1)
The Internet
161(1)
Complainants, Witnesses, Victims, and Informants
161(1)
Suspects
162(1)
Interviewing and Interrogating
162(4)
Characteristics of an Effective Interviewer/Interrogator
162(2)
Enhancing Communication
164(1)
Effective Questioning Techniques
165(1)
The Interview
166(3)
Advance Planning
166(1)
Selecting the Time and Place
166(1)
Beginning the Interview
167(1)
Establishing Rapport
167(1)
Networking an Interview
167(1)
Avoiding Contaminating the Interview
168(1)
Statements
168(1)
Closing the Interview
169(1)
The Interrogation
169(10)
The Miranda Warning
170(3)
The ``Question First'' or ``Beachheading'' Technique
173(1)
The Interplay of the Fourth and Fifth Amendments
173(1)
Foreign Nationals, the Vienna Convention Treaty, and Diplomatic Immunity
174(1)
Selecting the Time and Place
174(1)
Starting the Interrogation
175(1)
Establishing Rapport
175(1)
Approaches to Interrogation
176(1)
Using Persuasion during Interrogation
176(1)
Ethics and the Use of Deception
177(1)
Third-Degree Tactics
177(1)
Recording Interrogations
178(1)
Admissions and Confessions
178(1)
Questioning Children and Juveniles
179(2)
Evaluating and Corroborating Information
181(2)
Breaking a ``Pat'' Story
181(1)
Detecting Deception
181(2)
Scientific Aids to Obtaining and Evaluating Information
183(2)
The Polygraph and Voice Stress Tests
183(1)
Hypnosis and Truth Serums
184(1)
Use of Psychics and Profilers
185(1)
Sharing Information
185(2)
Summary
187(1)
Checklist
187(1)
Discussion Questions
188(1)
Media Explorations
188(1)
Internet
188(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
188(1)
References
188(1)
Cases Cited
189(1)
Identifying and Arresting Suspects
190(38)
Identifying Suspects at the Scene
192(8)
Identification by Driver's License
192(1)
Mobile Identification Technology
192(1)
Field Identification/Show-Up Identification
192(1)
Developing a Suspect
193(1)
Victims and Witnesses
193(1)
Mug Shots
194(1)
Composite Drawings and Sketches
194(1)
Developing a Suspect through Modus Operandi Information
195(1)
Psychological or Criminal Profiling and Geographic Profiling
196(1)
Racial Profiling
197(1)
Tracking
198(1)
Other Identification Aids
198(1)
Information in Police Files and Files of Other Agencies
199(1)
Informants
200(1)
Locating Suspects
200(1)
Identifying Suspects
201(4)
Photographic Identification
201(1)
Lineup Identification
202(2)
Establishing the Reliability of an Identification
204(1)
Biometric Identification
205(1)
Surveillance, Undercover Assignments, and Raids: The Last Resort
205(1)
Surveillance
205(6)
The Surveillant
206(1)
The Subject
206(1)
Types of Surveillance
206(2)
Avoiding Detection
208(1)
Surveillance Equipment
208(1)
Aerial Surveillance
209(1)
Visual/Video Surveillance
209(1)
Audio or Electronic Surveillance
210(1)
Surveillance and the Constitution
211(1)
Undercover Assignments
211(1)
Raids
212(2)
Planning a Raid
213(1)
Executing a Raid
213(1)
SWAT Teams
214(1)
Legal Arrests
214(3)
Off-Duty Arrests
217(1)
Avoiding Civil Liability When Making Arrests
217(6)
False Arrest
217(1)
Use of Force
217(2)
Less-Lethal Weapons
219(1)
Use of Deadly Force
220(2)
Use of Force Reports
222(1)
Summary
223(1)
Checklists
223(1)
Discussion Questions
224(1)
Media Explorations
225(1)
Internet
225(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
225(1)
References
225(2)
Cases Cited
227(1)
SECTION 3 INVESTIGATING VIOLENT CRIMES
228(144)
Death Investigations
232(36)
Classification of Deaths
234(2)
Natural Causes
234(1)
Accidental Deaths
234(1)
Suicide
235(1)
Homicide
235(1)
Elements of the Crime
236(1)
Challenges in Investigation
237(1)
Equivocal Death
238(1)
Suicide
239(1)
Suicide by Police
239(1)
Suicide of Police Officers
240(1)
Preliminary Investigation of Homicide
240(2)
Determining That Death Has Occurred
241(1)
The Focus of the Homicide Investigation
241(1)
Discovering and Identifying the Victim
242(1)
Estimating the Time of Death
243(4)
Recent Death
244(1)
Death That Occurred One Half Hour to Four Days Prior
244(2)
Many Days after Death
246(1)
Effects of Water
247(1)
Factors Suggesting a Change in the Victim's Routine
247(1)
The Medical Examination
247(2)
Exhuming a Body for Medical Examination
248(1)
Unnatural Causes of Death and Method Used
249(6)
Gunshot Wounds
249(1)
Stabbing and Cutting Wounds
250(1)
Blows from Blunt Objects
251(1)
Asphyxia
251(1)
Other Types of Autoerotic Death
252(1)
Poisoning
253(1)
Burning
253(1)
Explosions, Electrocution, and Lightning
253(1)
Drug-Related Deaths
254(1)
Vehicular Deaths
255(1)
The Homicide Victim
255(1)
Domestic-Violence Homicide
256(1)
Law Enforcement Officers Killed
256(1)
Witnesses
256(1)
Suspects
256(4)
Mass Murderers
257(1)
Serial Killers
257(3)
Lust Murderers
260(1)
Lethal Predators
260(1)
Cold Cases
260(1)
Death Notification
261(1)
Strategies for Reducing Homicide
262(2)
Summary
264(1)
Checklist
265(1)
Application
265(1)
Discussion Questions
265(1)
Media Explorations
266(1)
Internet
266(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
266(1)
References
266(1)
Case Cited
267(1)
Assault, Domestic Violence, Stalking, and Elder Abuse
268(26)
Assault: An Overview
270(1)
Classification
270(1)
Legal Force
270(1)
Elements of the Crime
271(1)
Simple Assault
271(1)
Aggravated Assault
271(1)
Attempted Assault
271(1)
Special Challenges in Investigation
272(1)
The Preliminary Investigation
272(2)
Proving the Elements of Assault
273(1)
Evidence in Assault Investigations
273(1)
Investigating Domestic Violence
274(9)
History of Domestic Violence: From Male Privilege to Criminal Act
274(1)
The Cycle of Violence
274(1)
Prevalence of Domestic Violence and Its Victims
275(2)
Predictors and Precipitators of Domestic Violence
277(1)
The Police Response
278(3)
Effectiveness of Various Interventions
281(1)
Restraining Orders
282(1)
Legislation
282(1)
Avoiding Lawsuits
283(1)
Investigating Stalking
283(3)
Types of Stalking
283(1)
Legislation and Department Policies
284(1)
The Police Response
284(2)
Investigating Elder Abuse
286(4)
Prevalence and Nature of Elder Abuse
286(2)
Indicators of Elder Abuse
288(1)
The Police Response
288(1)
Reducing Elder Abuse
289(1)
Summary
290(1)
Checklist
290(1)
Application
290(1)
Discussion Questions
291(1)
Media Explorations
291(1)
Internet
291(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
291(1)
References
291(2)
Cases Cited
293(1)
Sex Offenses
294(22)
Investigating Obscene Telephone Calls
296(1)
Investigating Human Trafficking
296(1)
Classification of Sex Offenses
297(1)
Other Sex Offense Terminology
298(1)
Rape/Sexual Assault
298(2)
Elements of the Crime of Rape
299(1)
Sex Offenders
300(1)
Information to Obtain
300(1)
Challenges to Investigation
300(2)
Blind Reporting
301(1)
The Police Response
302(3)
Physical Evidence
303(1)
Anchorage's Antirape Unit
304(1)
Investigating Date Rape
304(1)
The Victim's Medical Examination
305(1)
Interviewing the Victim
306(2)
Establishing the Behavioral Profile in Sex Offense Cases
307(1)
Ending the Victim Interview
308(1)
Follow-Up Investigation
308(1)
Interviewing Witnesses
308(1)
Taking a Suspect into Custody and Interrogation
308(1)
Coordination with Other Agencies
309(1)
Prosecution of Rape and Statutory Charges
309(1)
False Reports
310(1)
Civil Commitment of Sex Offenders after Sentences Served
310(1)
Sex Offender Registry and Notification
310(3)
Summary
313(1)
Checklist
313(1)
Application
313(1)
Discussion Questions
314(1)
Media Explorations
314(1)
Internet
314(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
314(1)
References
314(1)
Cases Cited
315(1)
Crimes against Children and Youths
316(36)
Classification
318(1)
Other Terminology
319(1)
The Extent of the Problem
320(1)
The Effects of Child Abuse
321(1)
The Cycle of Abuse
321(1)
Challenges to Investigation
321(2)
Protecting the Child
322(1)
Difficulty in Interviewing Children
322(1)
Credibility Concerns
322(1)
The Need to Involve Other Agencies: The Multidisciplinary Team Approach
323(1)
The Initial Report
323(1)
The Police Response
324(1)
Interviewing Abused Children
324(2)
Sample Protocol
326(1)
Evidence
327(1)
Indicators of Child Neglect and Abuse
327(1)
The Suspect
328(3)
The Parent as Suspect
328(3)
Sex Crimes by Other Children
331(1)
The Nonparent Suspect
331(1)
The Pedophile
331(2)
Child Sexual Abuse Rings
332(1)
Cults
332(1)
Victimology
332(1)
Offender Reactions
332(1)
Child Pornography and Sexual Exploitation
333(2)
Models to Combat Child Sexual Exploitation
334(1)
Federal Agencies Working against Child Pornography
334(1)
International Initiatives
335(1)
Internet Sex Crimes against Children
335(3)
Investigating Cybersex Offenders
336(2)
Prostitution of Juveniles
338(1)
Missing Children: Runaway or Abducted?
339(5)
Runaway Children
340(1)
Abducted Children
340(1)
Investigating a Missing Child Report
341(1)
Additional Resources Available
342(1)
Child Abduction Homicides
343(1)
Mass Murders in Our Schools
344(2)
Children as Witnesses in Court
346(1)
Preventing Crimes against Children
346(2)
Summary
348(1)
Checklist
348(1)
Application
348(1)
Discussion Questions
349(1)
Media Explorations
350(1)
Internet
350(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
350(1)
References
350(1)
Cases Cited
351(1)
Robbery
352(20)
Robbery: An Overview
354(2)
Classification
356(3)
Residential Robberies
356(1)
Commercial Robberies
356(1)
Street Robberies
357(1)
Vehicle-Driver Robberies
358(1)
Carjacking
358(1)
Elements of the Crime: Robbery
359(1)
Wrongful Taking of Personal Property
359(1)
From the Person or in the Presence of the Person
359(1)
Against the Person's Will by Use of Force or Threat of Force
360(1)
Special Challenges in Investigation
360(3)
Hostage Situations
361(2)
The Preliminary Investigation
363(1)
Proving the Elements of the Offense
363(1)
The Elements of Robbery
363(1)
The Complete Investigation
364(3)
Identifying the Suspect
365(1)
Establishing the Modus Operandi
366(1)
Physical Evidence
367(1)
Mapping Robbery
367(1)
False Robbery Reports
367(1)
Summary
368(1)
Checklist
368(1)
Application
368(2)
Discussion Questions
370(1)
Media Explorations
370(1)
Internet
370(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
370(1)
References
371(1)
SECTION 4 INVESTIGATING CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY
372(102)
Burglary
374(18)
Burglary versus Robbery
376(1)
Classification
376(2)
Residential Burglaries
377(1)
Commercial Burglaries
378(1)
Elements of the Crime: Burglary
378(1)
Entering a Structure
378(1)
Without the Consent of the Person in Possession
378(1)
With Intent to Commit a Crime
379(1)
Additional Elements
379(1)
Establishing the Severity of the Burglary
379(1)
Elements of the Crime: Possession of Burglary Tools
379(1)
The Burglar
380(1)
Responding to a Burglary Call
380(1)
False Burglar Alarms
380(1)
The Preliminary Investigation
381(1)
Preliminary Investigation of Residential Burglaries
381(1)
Preliminary Investigation of Commercial Burglaries
382(1)
Fake Burglaries
382(1)
Determining Entry into Structures
382(1)
Determining Entry into Safes and Vaults
383(1)
Obtaining Physical Evidence
384(2)
Modus Operandi Factors
386(1)
Effective Case Management
386(1)
Recovering Stolen Property
387(1)
The Offense of Receiving Stolen Goods
387(1)
Sting Operations
388(1)
Preventing Burglary
388(1)
Summary
389(1)
Checklist
389(1)
Application
389(1)
Discussion Questions
390(1)
Media Explorations
390(1)
Internet
390(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
390(1)
References
390(2)
Larceny/Theft, Fraud, and White-Collar Crime
392(34)
Larceny/Theft: An Overview
394(1)
Elements of the Crime
394(1)
Classification of Larceny/Theft
395(1)
Found Property
396(1)
The Preliminary Investigation
396(1)
Types of Larceny/Theft
396(9)
Pickpockets and Purse Snatchers
396(1)
Retail Shrinkage: Employee Theft, Shoplifting, and Vendor Theft/Fraud
397(3)
Bicycle Theft
400(1)
Mail Theft
401(1)
Jewelry Theft
401(1)
Art Theft
402(1)
Numismatic Theft: Coins, Metals, and Paper Money
402(1)
Agricultural Theft
402(2)
Fish and Wildlife Theft
404(1)
Cargo Theft
404(1)
Proving the Elements of the Crime
405(1)
Fraud
406(10)
Confidence Games
406(1)
Real Estate and Mortgage Fraud
407(1)
Insurance Fraud
407(1)
Health Care Fraud
408(1)
Telephone Fraud
408(1)
Mail Fraud
409(1)
Counterfeiting
409(1)
Check Fraud
410(1)
Debit and Credit Card Fraud
411(1)
Identify Fraud/Theft
412(4)
White-Collar Crime
416(6)
Corporate Fraud
417(1)
Money Laundering
418(1)
Embezzlement
419(1)
Environmental Crime
420(2)
Summary
422(1)
Checklist
422(1)
Application
423(1)
Discussion Questions
423(1)
Media Explorations
423(1)
Internet
423(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
424(1)
References
424(2)
Motor Vehicle Theft
426(24)
Motor Vehicle Identification
428(1)
Classification of Motor Vehicle Theft
429(2)
Joyriding
429(1)
Transportation
429(1)
Commission of Another Crime
430(1)
Stripping for Parts and Accessories
430(1)
Reselling
431(1)
Elements of the Crime
431(1)
Unauthorized Use of a Motor Vehicle
431(1)
Motor Vehicle Embezzlement
432(1)
Interstate Transportation
432(1)
The Preliminary Investigation
433(1)
Common Tools and Methods
434(1)
Insurance Fraud
434(1)
Vehicle Cloning
434(1)
Cooperating Agencies in Motor Vehicle Theft
434(1)
The FBI
435(1)
The National Insurance Crime Bureau
435(1)
Recognizing a Stolen Motor Vehicle or an Unauthorized Driver
435(1)
Recovering an Abandoned or Stolen Motor Vehicle
436(1)
Combating Motor Vehicle Theft
437(3)
Routine Activities and Motor Vehicle Theft
438(1)
Border-Area Auto Theft
439(1)
Theft of Patrol Cars
439(1)
Preventing Auto Theft
440(1)
Thefts of Trucks, Construction Vehicles, Aircraft, and Other Motorized Vehicles
440(7)
Trucks and Trailers
440(1)
Construction Vehicles and Equipment
441(1)
Recreational Vehicles
442(1)
Motorized Boats and Jet Skis
442(3)
Snowmobiles
445(1)
Motorcycles, Motor Scooters, and Mopeds
445(1)
Aircraft
445(2)
Summary
447(1)
Checklist
447(1)
Application
448(1)
Discussion Questions
448(1)
Media Explorations
448(1)
Internet
448(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
448(1)
References
449(1)
Arson, Bombs, and Explosives
450(24)
Classification of Fires
452(1)
Elements of the Crime
452(1)
Willful, Malicious Burning of a Building or Property
453(1)
Of Another or of One's Own to Defraud
453(1)
Causing to be Burned, or Aiding, Counseling, or Procuring the Burning
453(1)
Classification of Arson
453(1)
Aggravated and Simple Arson
453(1)
Attempted Arson
453(1)
Setting Negligent Fires
454(1)
The Model Arson Law
454(1)
The Arsonist
454(1)
Juvenile Firesetting
454(1)
Motivation
454(1)
Police and Fire Department Cooperation
455(1)
Fire Department Expertise
456(1)
Police Department Expertise
456(1)
Coordinating Efforts
456(1)
Other Sources of Assistance in Investigating Arson
456(2)
The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives
457(1)
News Media
457(1)
Insurance Companies
457(1)
Arson Task Forces
457(1)
Special Challenges in Investigation
458(1)
Responding to the Scene
458(1)
The Preliminary Investigation
458(5)
The Fire Triangle
459(1)
Arson Indicators
459(2)
Summary of Arson Indicators
461(1)
Photographing and Videotaping an Arson Fire
462(1)
Physical Evidence
462(1)
Using K-9s in Arson Investigations
463(1)
Evidence on a Suspect, at a Residence, or in a Vehicle
463(1)
Observing Unusual Circumstances
463(1)
Interviewing the Victim, Witnesses, and Firefighters
463(1)
Search Warrants and Fire Investigations
463(1)
Investigating Vehicle Arson
464(1)
Prosecuting Arsonists
464(1)
Preventing Arson
465(1)
Investigating Bombings and Explosions
465(1)
Responding to a Bomb Threat
466(2)
Using Technology in Detecting Explosives
467(1)
Using K-9s in Detecting Explosives
467(1)
Using Robots
467(1)
Investigating Bomb Explosions
468(2)
Raising Awareness
468(1)
Importance of the Team Approach
468(2)
Summary
470(1)
Checklist
470(1)
Application
471(1)
Discussion Questions
472(1)
Media Explorations
472(1)
Internet
472(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
472(1)
References
472(1)
Cases Cited
473(1)
SECTION 5 OTHER CHALLENGES TO THE CRIMINAL INVESTIGATOR
474(171)
Computer Crime and Its Evolution Into Cybercrime
476(36)
The Scope and Cost of the Problem
479(2)
Terminology and Definitions
481(2)
The Net versus the Web
482(1)
Live Chat and Internet Messaging
483(1)
Classification and Types of Computer Crimes
483(4)
The Computer as Target
484(1)
The Computer as Tool
485(2)
Special Challenges in Investigation
487(1)
Search Warrents
488(1)
Investigative Tools and Equipment
488(1)
The Preliminary Investigation
488(10)
Securing and Evaluating the Scene
489(1)
Recognizing Evidence--Traditional and Digital
490(2)
Documenting Digital Evidence
492(2)
Collecting Physical and Digital Evidence
494(3)
Packaging, Transporting, and Storing Digital and Other Computer Crime Evidence
497(1)
Forensic Examination of Computer Evidence
498(1)
Data Analysis and Recovery
498(1)
Legal Considerations in Collecting and Analyzing Computer Evidence
499(1)
Follow-Up Investigation
500(3)
Developing Suspects
500(3)
Undercover Investigation and Surveillance
503(1)
Legislation
503(1)
Security of the Police Department's Computers
504(1)
The Investigative Team
504(1)
Resources Available
505(1)
Preventing Computer Crime
506(2)
Summary
508(1)
Checklist
508(1)
Application
509(1)
Discussion Questions
509(1)
Media Explorations
509(1)
Internet
509(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
510(1)
References
510(2)
A Dual Threat: Drug-Related Crime and Organized Crime
512(38)
Seriousness and Extent of the Drug Problem
514(1)
Legal Definitions and Problems
514(1)
Identification and Classification of Controlled Drugs
515(9)
Powder Cocaine and Crack
515(2)
Heroin
517(1)
Marijuana
518(1)
Methamphetamine
518(2)
Club Drugs
520(1)
Prescription Drugs
520(1)
Inhalants
521(1)
Khat
521(1)
Over-the-Counter (OTC) Drugs
521(1)
Other Narcotics and Drugs
521(3)
Investigating Illegal Possession or Use of Controlled Substances
524(2)
Recognizing the Drug Addict: Drug-Recognition Experts
524(1)
Physical Evidence of Possession or Use of Controlled Substances
524(1)
In-Custody Deaths
525(1)
Investigating Illegal Sale and Distribution of Controlled Substances
526(4)
On Sight Arrests
527(1)
Surveillance
528(1)
Undercover Assignments
528(2)
Narcotics Raids
530(1)
Drug Paraphernalia Stores
530(1)
Online Drug Dealers
530(1)
Clandestine Drug Laboratories
530(4)
Identifying a Clandestine Lab
532(1)
Entering a Clandestine Drug Lab
533(1)
Cleanup of Clandestine Drug Labs
534(1)
Indoor Marijuana Growing Operations
534(1)
Investigative Aids
534(1)
Agency Cooperation
535(1)
Drug Asset Forfeitures
535(1)
Preventing Problems with Illegal Drugs: Community Partnerships
536(1)
Organized Crime: An Overview
536(2)
Characteristics of Organized Crime
537(1)
Applicable Laws against Organized Crime
538(1)
Major Activities of Organized Crime
538(1)
Victimless Crimes
538(1)
Loan-Sharking
539(1)
Money Laundering and the Infiltration of Legitimate Business
539(1)
The Threat of Specific Organized Crime Groups
539(3)
Italian Organized Crime
539(1)
Asian Organized Crime
540(1)
Latino Organized Crime
540(1)
African Organized Crime
541(1)
Russian Organized Crime
542(1)
Organized Crime and Corruption
542(1)
The Police Response
542(1)
Agencies Cooperating in Investigating Organized Crime
543(1)
Methods to Combat Organized Crime
544(1)
Investigative Aids
544(1)
Asset Forfeiture
545(1)
The Decline of Organized Crime?
545(1)
Summary
546(1)
Checklists
546(1)
Application
547(1)
Discussion Questions
548(1)
Media Explorations
548(1)
Internet
548(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
548(1)
References
548(1)
Case Cited
549(1)
Criminal Activities of Gangs and Other Dangerous Groups
550(32)
The Threat of Gangs: An Overview
552(1)
Gangs Defined
552(1)
Extent of Gangs
553(1)
Gang Migration
553(1)
Why People Join Gangs
553(1)
Types of Gangs
554(1)
Girl Gangs
554(1)
Ethnic Gangs
554(1)
Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs
555(1)
Prison Gangs
555(1)
Gangs, Organized Crime, and Terrorism
555(1)
Gang Culture, Membership, and Organization
555(1)
Turf and Graffiti
556(1)
Symbols
556(1)
Gang Activities
556(2)
Gangs and Drugs
557(1)
Recognizing a Gang Problem
558(1)
Warning Signs of a Gang Problem
559(1)
Identifying Gang Members
559(1)
Records to Keep
560(1)
Investigating Illegal Gang Activity
560(2)
Reading and Responding to Graffiti
562(1)
Challenges in Investigating Illegal Gang Activities
562(1)
Approaches to the Gang Problem
562(2)
Suppression
563(1)
Gang Units
563(1)
Gang Impact Teams
564(1)
Civil Gang Injunctions and Ordinances
564(1)
Collaborative Efforts
564(1)
Gangs and Community Policing
564(1)
Prosecuting Gang-Related Crimes
564(1)
Federal Efforts to Combat the Gang Problem
565(1)
Bias/Hate Crime: An Overview
566(1)
Motivation for Hate Crime
566(1)
Hate Groups
567(1)
The Police Response
568(2)
Investigating Hate Crimes on the Internet
570(1)
Reporting Bias/Hate Crimes
570(1)
Efforts to Combat Bias/Hate Crimes
570(1)
Legislation
570(1)
Ritualistic Crime: An Overview
571(1)
Terminology and Symbols of Cults
572(1)
Symbols
572(1)
The Nature of Ritualistic Crimes
573(1)
Who Commits Ritualistic Crime?
574(1)
Investigating Ritualistic Crimes
574(3)
Signs of Cult-Related Activity
574(1)
Ritualistic Crimes
575(1)
Investigating Animal Deaths
575(1)
Investigating Homicides
576(1)
Investigating Satanic Serial Killings
576(1)
Investigating Youth Suicides
576(1)
Special Challenges in Ritualistic Crime Investigations
577(1)
Summary
578(1)
Checklist
578(1)
Application
579(1)
Discussion Questions
579(1)
Media Explorations
579(1)
Internet
579(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
580(1)
References
580(1)
Case Cited
581(1)
Terrorism and Homeland Security
582(30)
Terrorism: An Overview
585(1)
Terrorism Defined
585(1)
Motivations for Terrorism
585(1)
Classification of Terrorist Acts
585(3)
Domestic Terrorism
585(1)
International Terrorism
586(2)
The Dual Threat
588(1)
Terrorist Groups in the United States
588(1)
White Supremacists
588(1)
Black Supremacists
588(1)
The Militia Movement
588(1)
Other Right-Wing Extremists
588(1)
Left-Wing Extremists
589(1)
Pro-Life Extremists
589(1)
Animal Rights Extremists
589(1)
Environmental Extremists
589(1)
Terrorists as Criminals
590(1)
Methods Used by Terrorists
590(4)
Explosives and Bombs
590(2)
Weapons of Mass Destruction
592(1)
Technological Terrorism
593(1)
Finding Terrorism
594(1)
Money Laundering
594(1)
The Federal Response to Terrorism
594(3)
The Department of Homeland Security
594(1)
The USA Patriot Act
595(2)
Controversy over the USA Patriot Act
597(1)
Hometown Security and Homeland Security
597(1)
Investigating Possible Terrorist Activities
598(2)
The Link between Terrorism and White-Collar Crime
599(1)
The Typical Stages in a Terrorist Attack
599(1)
Information Gathering and Intelligence Sharing
600(1)
The National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan
601(1)
Crucial Collaborations and Partnerships
601(1)
Initiatives to Assist in the Fight against Terrorism
601(2)
Increased Border Security
602(1)
Community Vulnerability Assessment Methodology
602(1)
The National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism
602(1)
The Center for Food Protection and Defense
602(1)
The National Incident Management System
603(1)
Joint Terrorism Task Forces
603(1)
The Role of the Media in the War on Terrorism
603(1)
Concerns Related to the War on Terrorism
603(2)
Concern for Civil Rights
604(1)
Retaliation or Discrimination against People of Middle Eastern Descent
604(1)
Community Policing and Homeland Security
605(2)
Being Proactive
605(2)
Summary
607(1)
Checklist
607(1)
Application
607(1)
Discussion Questions
608(1)
Media Explorations
608(1)
Internet
608(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
608(1)
References
608(3)
Cases Cited
611(1)
Useful Resources
611(1)
Preparing for and Presenting Cases in Court
612(33)
The Final Report
614(1)
The Complaint
614(1)
The Preliminary Investigation Report
614(1)
Follow-Up Reports
614(1)
Statements, Admissions, and Confessions
614(1)
Laboratory Reports
615(1)
The Role of the Prosecutor
615(1)
Nonprosecution
615(1)
Preparing a Case for Prosecution
616(3)
Review and Evaluate Evidence
616(2)
Review Reports
618(1)
Prepare Witnesses
618(1)
Pretrial Conference
618(1)
Final Preparations
619(1)
The Trial
619(1)
The American Adversary System
620(1)
Sequence of a Criminal Trial
620(1)
While Waiting to Testify
621(1)
Testifying under Direct Examination
621(3)
Nonverbal Factors
623(1)
Strategies for Excelling as a Witness
624(2)
Expert Testimony
624(2)
Testifying under Cross-Examination
626(3)
Handling Objections
628(1)
Concluding Your Testimony
629(1)
Advice on Testifying from a Seasoned, ``Officer of the Year'' Investigator
629(3)
Summary
632(1)
Checklist
632(1)
Discussion Questions
633(1)
Media Explorations
633(1)
Internet
633(1)
Crime and Evidence in Action
633(1)
References
633(1)
Cases Cited
634(1)
APPENDIXES
Appendix A: Sudden In-Custody Death: An Investigator's Checklist
635(4)
Appendix B: Death Scene Checklist
639(4)
Appendix C: Bias Offense Report
643(2)
Glossary 645(14)
Credits 659(2)
Author Index 661(4)
Subject Index 665


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