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Criminal Investigation : The Art and the Science

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780130912886

ISBN10:
0130912883
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $83.00
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Summary

This dynamic book presents crime detection as a fascinating field relying heavily on the past experiences of investigators as well as recent practical and technological innovations. It explores the many external variables that can influence the investigator's success and the specific methods of crime detection and prosecution of law available in today's field. The Preliminary Investigation. Documenting the Crime Scene. Search and Seizure. Identification of Criminal Suspects. The Criminal Intelligence Function. Making an Arrest. Interview and Interrogation. Development and Management of Information. Wrongful Death. Robbery. Assault and Related Offenses. Sex Offenses. Child Abuse and Neglect. Burglary. Larceny<45>Theft. Motor Vehicle Theft. Arson and Bombings. Drug Offenses. White<45>Collar Crime. Preparation for Court. For anyone interested in criminal investigation.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Acknowledgments xix
About the Author xxi
PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION
Criminal Investigation: An Overview
1(20)
Introduction
2(1)
The Romance and Reality of Crime Solving
2(2)
Criminal Investigation and Our English Heritage
4(3)
The Bow Street Runners
5(1)
The London Metropolitan Police
6(1)
The Creation of Scotland Yard
6(1)
Criminal Investigation in America
7(3)
The Pinkerton National Detective Agency
8(1)
Prohibition
9(1)
The Creation of the FBI
10(1)
The Increase of Science in Crime Detection
10(1)
Criminal Investigation Research
11(3)
The RAND Corporation Study
11(2)
The PERF Study
13(1)
The Objectives of Criminal Investigation
14(1)
The Emergence of the Police Specialist
15(1)
Types of Investigations
15(1)
Modes of Investigation
16(1)
The Role of the Criminal Investigator
16(3)
Characteristics of the Investigator
17(1)
Gathering Information
17(1)
Field Operations
17(1)
Arrests
18(1)
Patrol Investigations
19(1)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
19(1)
Discussion Questions
19(1)
Class Project
20(1)
The Preliminary Investigation
21(17)
Introduction
22(1)
Performing the Preliminary Investigation
22(1)
The Role of Evidence at the Crime Scene
23(2)
Types of Evidence
24(1)
The First Officer's Responsibilities
25(5)
Arrival at the Scene
26(1)
Identification and Separation of Witnesses
27(1)
Determining the Size of the Crime Scene
27(1)
Entry into the Crime Scene
28(1)
When a Suspect is Still on the Scene
28(1)
Broadcasting a Flash Description
29(1)
Managing Emergency Situations
30(1)
Securing the Scene
30(1)
Handling Special Situations at the Scene
31(3)
Dead Body
31(1)
Hanging Victim
31(1)
Firearms
31(1)
The Illicit Drug Laboratory
32(2)
Contacting the Medical Examiner
34(1)
Conducting a Neighborhood Canvass
35(1)
Performing the Follow-Up Investigation
36(1)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
36(1)
Discussion Questions
36(1)
Class Project
37(1)
PART 2 THE INVESTIGATIVE PROCESS
Documenting the Crime Scene
38(29)
Introduction
39(1)
Field Notes and Reports
39(5)
The Role of Field Notes
39(2)
When to Take Notes
41(1)
What to Write Down
41(2)
Developing a Note-Taking System
43(1)
Field Interview Cards
44(1)
Putting Field Notes to Work
44(1)
Storage of Field Notes
44(1)
Using a Tape Recorder
44(1)
Using Field Notes in the Courtroom
44(1)
Writing the Official Police Report
45(3)
Factuality
46(1)
Thoroughness
46(1)
Getting to the Point
47(1)
Word Choice
47(1)
The Structure of the Report
48(3)
The Initial Complaint
48(2)
Supplemental Reports
50(1)
Photographing the Crime Scene
51(4)
What to Photograph
51(2)
Other Hints
53(2)
Admissibility of Photographic Evidence
55(2)
Identification of Photographs
57(1)
Surveillance Photographs
58(1)
Videotaping the Crime Scene
59(1)
The Crime Scene Sketch
60(5)
Reasons to Sketch
61(1)
Putting it Together
61(1)
Measurement
61(1)
Rough and Finished Sketches
62(1)
Choosing the Best Method
63(2)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
65(1)
Discussion Questions
66(1)
Class Project
66(1)
Search and Seizure
67(41)
Introduction
68(1)
Due Process and the Constitution
68(1)
Legal Guidelines for Searches
69(3)
The Probable Cause Requirement
69(1)
The Exclusionary Rule
70(1)
The Fruit of the Poisoned Tree Doctrine
71(1)
Search Incident to Lawful Arrest
71(1)
Exceptions to the Exclusionary Rule
72(3)
The Good Faith Exception
73(1)
The Inevitable Discovery Doctrine
74(1)
The Computer Errors Exception
75(1)
Searches with a Warrant
75(6)
Advantages of Searching with a Search Warrant
75(1)
Structuring the Warrant
76(1)
The Affidavit
76(2)
The Search Warrant
78(1)
The Search Warrant Return
78(1)
Execution of the Warrant
78(3)
Warrantless Searches
81(12)
Search by Consent
81(3)
Emergency Searches
84(3)
Searches Incident to Arrest
87(1)
Stop-and-Frisk Searches
88(1)
Plain-View Searches
88(2)
Automobile Searches
90(2)
Open-Field Searches
92(1)
Beginning the Search
93(2)
Search Patterns
93(2)
Searching the Scene
95(1)
Rules for Collecting Evidence
96(1)
Gathering and Preserving Evidence
96(3)
The Chain of Custody
98(1)
Marking the Evidence
98(1)
Special Cases in Evidence Handling
99(7)
Infected Evidence
99(3)
Firearms
102(1)
Bullets, Cartridges, and Empty Cases
103(1)
Stains
103(1)
Glass
103(1)
Impressions
104(1)
Drugs
105(1)
Plant Material
105(1)
Powdered Material
105(1)
Liquid Material
105(1)
Tablets or Capsules
106(1)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
106(1)
Important Cases to Remember
106(1)
Discussion Questions
107(1)
Class Project
107(1)
Identification of Criminal Suspects
108(38)
Introduction
109(1)
The Role of the Crime Laboratory
109(1)
Specialized Laboratory Equipment
110(1)
Fingerprinting
111(1)
The History of Fingerprinting
111(7)
Types of Prints
114(1)
Types of Patterns
114(3)
Searching for Prints
117(1)
Developing Latent Fingerprints
118(8)
Powders
118(1)
Iodine
119(1)
Ninhydrin
120(1)
Silver Nitrate Solution
121(1)
Superglue Fuming
121(2)
Lasers
123(1)
Preservation of Fingerprints
124(1)
Prints from Gloves
125(1)
Computerized Fingerprints: The AFIS System
126(1)
How AFIS Works
126(1)
The Genetic Fingerprint: DNA
126(5)
What is DNA?
127(1)
DNA's History
128(3)
Analyzing DNA
131(5)
Admissibility of DNA as Evidence
133(2)
Other Uses of DNA
135(1)
Handwriting Analysis
136(3)
Collection of Exemplars
137(1)
The Writing Medium
138(1)
The Writing Area
139(1)
Criminal Composites
139(1)
Personality Profiling
140(2)
Police Lineups
142(2)
The Photo Lineup
143(1)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
144(1)
Discussion Questions
144(1)
Class Project
144(2)
The Criminal Intelligence Function
146(15)
Introduction
147(1)
Overt and Covert Intelligence Collection
147(1)
Criminal Intelligence and Criminal Investigation
147(3)
Defining Criminal Intelligence
148(2)
Types of Intelligence
150(1)
Procedures for Intelligence Gathering
150(4)
Target Selection
150(2)
Data Collection
152(1)
Data Collation and Analysis
153(1)
Dissemination
153(1)
Analyzing the Information
154(4)
Link Analysis
154(2)
Flowcharting
156(2)
The RISS Projects
158(1)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
159(1)
Discussion Questions
159(1)
Class Project
160(1)
Making an Arrest
161(18)
Introduction
162(1)
Defining Arrest
162(4)
What Is an Arrest?
162(1)
The Legal Arrest
162(2)
Detention versus Arrest
164(1)
Investigatory Stops
165(1)
When Is a Person under Arrest?
166(2)
Use of Force
168(6)
Defining Use of Force
171(1)
Understanding Reasonableness
172(1)
Levels of Force
172(2)
Deadly Force
174(2)
The Fleeing-Felon Rule
174(1)
The Deadly Force Triangle
175(1)
Off-Duty Arrests
176(1)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
177(1)
Discussion Questions
177(1)
Class Project
177(2)
Interviews and Interrogations
179(30)
Introduction
180(1)
Interview versus Interrogation
180(1)
The Interview Process
181(4)
Interviewing Witnesses, Citizens, and Victims
181(3)
Interviewing Confidential Informants
184(1)
The Suspect Interrogation Process
185(1)
Goals of the Interrogation
185(1)
Legal Requirements of the Interrogation
185(1)
Safeguarding against Police Misconduct
186(5)
Coercion and Duress
186(1)
Unreasonable Delay in Arraignments
186(1)
The Suspect's Right to Legal Counsel
187(4)
Preparation for the Interrogation
191(1)
The Interrogation Setting
191(1)
The Interrogation Procedure
192(4)
Interrogation Styles
192(2)
Verbal Symptoms of Deception
194(2)
Why Suspects Cooperate and Confess
196(1)
Searching for Information
197(1)
Closing the Communication Gap
197(1)
Admissions versus Confessions
197(1)
Written Statements
197(2)
Structuring the Written Statement
199(1)
Tape-Recorded Statements
199(2)
The Recording Procedure
199(2)
Videotaped Confessions
201(1)
Recap Bias
201(1)
Framing the Tapes
202(1)
Use of the Polygraph
202(4)
Accuracy of the Polygraph
203(1)
Administration of the Polygraph Exam
204(2)
Admissibility of Polygraph Results
206(1)
Voice Stress Analyzer
206(1)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
207(1)
Discussion Questions
207(1)
Class Project
208(1)
Development and Management of Informants
209(14)
Introduction
210(2)
Who Are Informants?
212(2)
Utilizing the Informant
213(1)
Informant Motivations
214(2)
Documenting Your Source
216(2)
Maintaining Control of the Informant
218(1)
Protecting the Informant's Identity
218(1)
Legal Considerations
219(1)
Federal Protection of the Informant
220(1)
Other Problems with Informants
220(1)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
221(1)
Discussion Questions
222(1)
Class Project
222(1)
PART 3 INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE
Wrongful Death
223(32)
Introduction
224(1)
Murder
224(2)
Modes of Death
226(1)
Legal Characteristics of Homicide
227(2)
Elements of Homicide
228(1)
The Preliminary Investigation
229(1)
Protecting the Crime Scene
230(1)
Taking Notes at the Scene
230(1)
Identifying the Victim
230(7)
The Deceased Victim
235(1)
The Victim Who Is Still Alive
236(1)
Obtaining a Dying Declaration
236(1)
Estimating the Time of Death
237(2)
Changes in the Body
237(2)
Insects
239(1)
Animals
239(1)
Bodies Found in Water
239(1)
Gunshot Wounds as Evidence
239(6)
Entrance Wounds
242(1)
Exit Wounds
243(1)
Smudging
243(1)
Tattooing
243(1)
Defense Wounds
243(1)
Shotgun Wounds
244(1)
Pitfalls in Homicide Investigations
245(1)
Serial, Mass, and Sensational Murders
246(1)
National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime
247(1)
VI-CAP
247(1)
Autoerotic Death
247(2)
Suicide
249(4)
Evidence of Suicide
250(1)
The Suicide Note
250(1)
Reconstructing the Death
251(1)
Instruments of the Killing
251(2)
Motives for Suicide
253(1)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
253(1)
Discussion Questions
253(1)
Class Projects
254(1)
Robbery
255(17)
Introduction
256(1)
Robbery Offenses
256(3)
Understanding Robbery
257(1)
Defining Robbery
258(1)
Consequences of Robbery
258(1)
Elements of Robbery
259(1)
Types of Robbery
259(6)
Commercial Robberies: Stores and Banks
260(2)
Street Robberies
262(1)
Residential Robberies
263(1)
School Robberies
263(1)
Vehicle Robberies
264(1)
Types of Robbers
264(1)
The First Officer on the Scene
265(1)
The Preliminary Investigation
266(1)
The Neighborhood Canvass
267(1)
The Robber's Method of Operation
268(1)
Physical Evidence
269(1)
The Role of Witnesses
270(1)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
270(1)
Discussion Questions
270(1)
Class Project
271(1)
Assault and Related Offenses
272(20)
Introduction
273(1)
Legal Classifications of Assault
273(3)
Simple Assault
273(1)
Aggravated Assault
274(2)
Self-Defense
276(1)
The Preliminary Investigation
276(2)
Documenting the Elements of Assault
277(1)
Protecting the Crime Scene
277(1)
Initial Questioning
277(1)
Searching the Crime Scene
278(1)
Domestic Violence
278(4)
The Investigative Response to Domestic Violence
279(2)
Legal Approaches to Domestic Violence
281(1)
Elder Abuse
282(2)
Stalking
284(5)
Who Stalks Whom?
285(1)
Forms of Stalking
286(2)
Occurrence of Stalking
288(1)
The Investigative Response to Stalking
288(1)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
289(1)
Discussion Questions
289(1)
Class Project
290(2)
Sex Offenses
292(24)
Introduction
293(1)
The Role of the Sex-Crime Investigator
293(1)
Nuisance Sex Offenses
294(3)
Exhibitionism
294(1)
Voyerurism: The Peeping Tom
295(1)
Pyromania: The Fire-Starter
295(1)
Fetishism
296(1)
The Obscene Phone Caller
296(1)
Forcible Rape
297(4)
Legal Aspects of Rape
300(1)
Date Rape
301(1)
The Initial Interview of the Rape Victim
301(1)
The Follow-Up Interview of the Rape Victim
302(2)
Evidence in Rape Cases
304(4)
The Rape Evidence Kit
306(1)
The Medical Examination
307(1)
Profiling the Rapist
308(5)
The Power-Reassurance (Manhood) Rapist
309(1)
The Power-Assertive Rapist
310(1)
The Anger-Retaliatory Rapist
310(1)
The Anger-Excitation Rapist
311(1)
The Rapist's Approach
312(1)
Methods of Control
313(1)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
313(1)
Discussion Questions
313(1)
Class Projects
314(2)
Child Abuse and Neglect
316(25)
Introduction
317(1)
Assaults against Children
317(4)
Battered Child Syndrome
318(1)
Recognizing Abuse
319(1)
Taking the Initial Report
320(1)
The Initial Police Response to Child Abuse
320(1)
Steps in Investigating Battered Child Syndrome
321(3)
Interviews with Medical Personnel
321(1)
Other Important Source of Information
322(1)
Consultation with Experts
322(1)
Interviews with Caretakers
323(1)
The Crime Scene Investigation
323(1)
Investigator Guidelines for Child Homicide
324(4)
Shaken Baby Syndrome
325(1)
Munchhausen Syndrome by Proxy
326(1)
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
327(1)
Conclusion
328(1)
Sexual Abuse of Children
328(6)
The Preliminary Investigation
330(1)
Interviewing the Child Victim
331(3)
Closing the Interview
334(1)
Children as Witnesses
334(2)
The Child Molester
336(1)
Investigating the Molester
337(2)
Premeditation and Intent
338(1)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
339(1)
Discussion Questions
339(1)
Class Project
339(2)
PART 4 PROPERTY CRIMES
Burglary
341(15)
Introduction
342(1)
Burglary Offenses
342(4)
Burglary versus Robbery
344(1)
Why Criminals Burglarize
344(1)
Elements of the Crime of Burglary
345(1)
How a Thief Works
345(1)
Types of Burglaries
346(1)
ATM Burglaries
346(1)
Types of Burglars
346(1)
The Amateur Burglar
347(1)
The Professional Burglar
347(1)
The Preliminary Investigation
347(4)
Indications of Burglary
348(1)
Approach with Caution!
348(1)
Physical Evidence
349(1)
Possession of Burglary Tools
349(2)
Safe Burglaries
351(1)
Tracing Stolen Property
352(2)
The Fence
352(1)
Proving the Receipt of Stolen Property
352(1)
Circumstantial Evidence
353(1)
Burglary Prevention through Proactive Patrol
354(1)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
354(1)
Discussion Questions
354(1)
Class Project
355(1)
Larceny-Theft
356(17)
Introduction
357(1)
Larceny-Theft Offenses
358(2)
Forgery and Fraud
360(3)
Check Fraud
360(1)
Investigating Check Forgery
361(2)
Embezzlement
363(4)
Investigating Embezzlement
365(1)
Categories of Embezzlement
365(2)
Credit Card Fraud
367(2)
Obtaining Cards
368(1)
Using Stolen Cards
368(1)
Investigating Credit Card Theft
368(1)
Shoplifting
369(2)
Investigating Shoplifting
370(1)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
371(1)
Discussion Questions
371(1)
Class Project
372(1)
Motor Vehicle Theft
373(23)
Introduction
374(1)
Motor Vehicle Theft Offenses
374(4)
Motivations for Motor Vehicle Theft
378(3)
Joyriding
378(1)
Theft for Resale
379(1)
Transportation for Other Crimes
380(1)
Stripping and Chop-Chop Operations
380(1)
The Preliminary Investigation
381(2)
The Investigative Traffic Stop
382(1)
The Vehicle Identification Number
383(1)
History of the VIN
383(1)
How the VIN Works
383(1)
The Altered VIN
384(1)
Disguising the Stolen Vehicle
384(1)
The Salvage Switch Method
384(1)
The Modified VIN Technique
384(1)
The Bogus VIN
385(1)
The Rip-Off
385(1)
Tools of the Trade
386(1)
Recognizing the Stolen Vehicle
386(2)
The Usefulness of Alarms
388(1)
Carjacking
389(1)
Theft of Off-Road Machinery
390(1)
Motor Vehicle Fraud
391(1)
Method of Fraud
391(1)
Stolen Motorcycles
392(2)
The Motorcycle VIN
393(1)
Methods of Motorcycle Theft
394(1)
The NATB
394(1)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
394(1)
Discussion Questions
394(1)
Class Project
395(1)
Arson and Bombings
396(32)
Introduction
397(1)
Arson Offenses
397(2)
Elements of Arson
399(1)
Legal Categories
399(1)
The Police and Fire Alliance
399(1)
Arson Investigative Techniques
400(1)
The Preliminary Investigation of Arson
400(8)
Identify the Point of Origin
404(1)
Search for Flammable Liquids
404(1)
Observe the Span of the Fire
404(1)
Photograph the Scene
404(1)
Identify Plants or Trailers
405(1)
Question Witnesses
405(1)
Observe Alligatoring
405(1)
Other Clues
406(2)
Motivations of the Arsonist
408(3)
Arson for Profit
408(1)
Arson for Revenge
409(1)
Arson for Vandalism
410(1)
Arson for Crime Concealment
410(1)
Pyromania
411(1)
Serial Fire-Setters
411(1)
Profiling the Fire-Starter
412(1)
The Role of the Insurance Industry
413(1)
Prosecution of Arson Cases
414(1)
Bombing Incidents
415(1)
The World Trade Center Bombing
415(1)
The Unabomber
416(1)
The Extent of the Bombing Problem
416(3)
What is a Bomb?
416(2)
Teen Bombings
418(1)
Investigating the Bomb Threat
419(3)
The Written Bomb Threat
420(1)
Booby Traps
420(1)
Safety Precautions
421(1)
Bomb-Search Techniques
422(3)
First Room-Searching Sweep
423(1)
Second Room-Searching Sweep
424(1)
Third Room-Searching Sweep
424(1)
Fourth Room-Searching Sweep
424(1)
When a Bomb Is Found
425(1)
Handling the Media
425(1)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
425(1)
Discussion Questions
425(1)
Class Project
426(2)
PART 5 VICE CRIMES AND RELATED OFFENSES
Drug Offenses
428(38)
Introduction
429(1)
Principal Drugs of Abuse
430(11)
Characteristics of Drugs
430(1)
Cannabis
431(2)
Narcotics
433(2)
Stimulants
435(2)
Hallucinogens
437(1)
Depressants
438(3)
Designer Drugs
441(1)
The General Structure of Drug Laws
441(2)
The 1970 Controlled Substances Act
443(1)
Initiating Drug Cases
443(2)
Confidential Informants
445(1)
Case Planning
445(2)
Undercover Operations
447(6)
Undercover Investigative Techniques
450(1)
Drug-Buy Operations
450(1)
Entrapment
451(2)
Investigation of an Illegal Drug Laboratory
453(1)
The Drug Raid
454(5)
Purpose of the Raid
454(1)
Team Personnel
455(2)
Preraid Planning
457(1)
Raid Execution
458(1)
Pharmaceutical Diversion
459(2)
Diversion by Legal Restraints
459(1)
Diversion by Street Criminals
460(1)
Extraordinary Drug Enforcement Techniques
461(3)
Drug Courier Profiling
461(1)
Asset Forfeiture
462(2)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
464(1)
Discussion Questions
464(1)
Class Project
465(1)
White-Collar Crime
466(32)
Introduction
467(1)
Defining White-Collar Crime
468(1)
Corporate Crime
469(1)
Money Laundering
470(7)
The History of Money Laundering
470(1)
Combatting the Money-Laundering Problem
471(1)
Techniques of Money Laundering
472(5)
Confidence Games
477(6)
The Pigeon Drop
477(1)
The Bank Examiner Scheme
477(1)
The Pyramid ``Get Rich Quick'' Scheme
478(3)
Travel Scams
481(1)
Home Repair Gypsies
482(1)
Contest Cons
482(1)
The Magazine Subscription Scam
482(1)
Computer Crime
483(13)
Defining Computer Crime
485(1)
The Nature of the Crime
485(1)
Computer Crime Investigations
486(1)
Classification of Computer Crimes
487(1)
Typical Forms of Computer Crimes
487(4)
Automatic Teller Machine Frauds
491(1)
The Preliminary Investigation of Computer Crimes
492(1)
Evidence Considerations
492(3)
Profile of the Computer Criminal
495(1)
Interviewing the Computer Crime Suspect
495(1)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
496(1)
Discussion Questions
496(1)
Class Project
497(1)
PART 6 PROSECUTION
Preparation for Court
498(15)
Introduction
499(1)
Pretrial Procedures
499(3)
The Pretrial Conference
500(1)
Going to Court
501(1)
The Criminal Trial Process
502(4)
Selection of the Jury
503(1)
Opening Statements
503(1)
Direct Examination
503(1)
Cross-Examination
503(1)
Objections
504(1)
Closing Arguments
505(1)
Jury Instructions and the Verdict
506(1)
Witness Preparation
506(1)
The Investigator as a Professional Witness
507(4)
Preparing for Court
507(1)
Reviewing Evidence and Reports
508(1)
Credibility as a Witness
508(1)
Courtroom Demeanor
509(1)
Giving a Positive Impression
509(2)
The Role of the Expert Witness
511(1)
Do You Recognize These Terms?
512(1)
Discussion Questions
512(1)
Class Project
512(1)
Appendix A: Physical Evidence 513(18)
Appendix B: Cases 531(4)
Appendix C: Glossary 535(16)
Index 551


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