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Criminal Justice in America (with CD-ROM and InfoTrac),9780534629649
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Criminal Justice in America (with CD-ROM and InfoTrac)

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780534629649

ISBN10:
0534629644
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/26/2004
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 4th edition with a publication date of 2/26/2004.
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  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.
  • The Used copy of this book is not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included.

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Summary

Part One: CRIME AND THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM. 1. The Criminal Justice System. 2. Crime and Justice in America. 3. Criminal Justice and the Rule of Law. Part Two: POLICE. 4. Police. 5. Police Officers and Law Enforcement Operations. 6. Police and Constitutional Law. 7. Policing: Issues and Trends. Part Three: COURTS. 8. Courts and Adjudication. 9. Pretrial Procedures, Plea-Bargaining, and the Criminal Trial. 10. Punishment and Sentencing. Part Four: CORRECTIONS. 11. Corrections. 12. Community Corrections: Probation and Intermediate Sanctions. 13. Incarceration and Prison Society. 14. Reentry to the Community. Part Five: THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM. 15. Juvenile Justice.

Table of Contents

Part 1 Crime and the Criminal Justice System
The Criminal Justice System
1(28)
The Goals of Criminal Justice
2(2)
Doing Justice
2(1)
Controlling Crime
3(1)
Preventing Crime
3(1)
Technology Issues in Criminal Justice: Backscatter X-Ray
4(1)
Criminal Justice in a Federal System
4(3)
Two Justice Systems
4(1)
Expansion of Federal Involvement
5(2)
Criminal Justice as a Social System
7(1)
Characteristics of the Criminal Justice System
8(1)
Discretion
8(1)
Ideas in Practice
9(1)
Resource Dependence
9(1)
Sequential Tasks
9(1)
Filtering
9(1)
Operations of Criminal Justice Agencies
9(3)
Police
10(1)
Courts
11(1)
Corrections
11(1)
Work Perspective: Drug Court Substance Abuse Counselor
12(1)
The Flow of Decision Making in the Criminal Justice System
12(10)
Steps in the Decision-Making Process
14(2)
The Criminal Justice Wedding Cake
16(1)
Crime Control versus Due Process
17(1)
The State of Michigan versus Christopher Jones
18(4)
Crime and Justice in a Multicultural Society
22(7)
Disparities and Discrimination
22(1)
Explaining Disparities
23(2)
Close-Up: Racial Profiling
25(1)
A Question of Ethics
26(1)
Summary
27(1)
Questions for Review
27(1)
Key Terms
27(1)
For Further Reading
27(1)
Going Online
28(1)
Checkpoint Answers
28(1)
Crime and Justice in America
29(27)
Defining Crime
30(1)
Types of Crime
30(6)
Visible Crime
31(1)
Occupational Crime
31(1)
Organized Crime
31(1)
Crimes without Victims
32(1)
Work Perspective: Police Officer
33(1)
Political Crime
33(1)
Technology Issues in Criminal Justice: Carnivore
34(1)
Cybercrime
34(1)
Close-Up: Hate Crimes: A New Category of Personal Violence
35(1)
How Much Crime Is There?
36(4)
The Uniform Crime Reports
36(1)
The National Crime Victimization Surveys
37(1)
Trends in Crime
38(2)
Crime Victimization
40(5)
Who is Victimized?
40(1)
The Policy Debate: Have Tough Crime-Control Policies Caused a Decline in Crime?
41(2)
A Question of Ethics
43(1)
Acquaintances and Strangers
43(1)
The Impact of Crime
43(1)
The Experience of Victims within the Criminal Justice System
44(1)
The Role of Victims in Crime
45(1)
Causes of Crime
45(11)
Classical and Positivist Theories
46(1)
Biological Explanations
47(1)
Psychological Explanations
48(1)
Sociological Explanations
49(2)
Ideas in Practice
51(1)
Women and Crime
51(1)
Assessing Theories of Criminality
52(1)
Summary
53(1)
Questions for Review
54(1)
Key Terms
54(1)
For Further Reading
54(1)
Going Online
55(1)
Checkpoint Answers
55(1)
Criminal Justice and the Rule of Law
56(24)
Foundations of Criminal Law
57(1)
Substantive Criminal Law
58(8)
Seven Principles of Criminal Law
58(2)
Elements of a Crime
60(1)
Statutory Definitions of Crimes
60(1)
Responsibility for Criminal Acts
61(1)
Ideas in Practice
62(3)
Close-Up: The Insanity Defense and Its Aftermath
65(1)
Procedural Criminal Law
66(10)
The Bill of Rights
67(1)
The Fourteenth Amendment and Due Process
67(1)
The Due Process Revolution
68(1)
The Fourth Amendment: Protection against Unreasonable Searches and Seizures
68(1)
Work Perspective: Case Investigator
69(2)
The Fifth Amendment: Protection against Self-Incrimination and Double Jeopardy
71(1)
Technology Issues in Criminal Justice: Detecting Guilt
72(1)
The Sixth Amendment: The Right to Counsel and a Fair Trial
73(1)
The Eighth Amendment: Protection against Excessive Bail, Excessive Fines, and Cruel and Unusual Punishment
74(1)
A Question of Ethics
75(1)
Constitutional Rights and Criminal Justice Professionals
76(4)
Summary
77(1)
Questions for Review
77(1)
Key Terms and Cases
78(1)
For Further Reading
78(1)
Going Online
78(1)
Checkpoint Answers
78(1)
Inside the Criminal Justice System and Beyond: One Man's Journey---My Affair with Heroin
79(1)
Part 2 Police
Police
80(24)
The Development of Police in the United States
81(6)
The English Roots of the American Police
81(2)
Policing in the United States
83(4)
Law Enforcement Agencies
87(4)
Federal Agencies
88(1)
Work Perspective: Special Agent
89(1)
State Agencies
90(1)
County Agencies
90(1)
Native American Tribal Police
91(1)
Municipal Agencies
91(1)
Police Functions
91(2)
Ideas in Practice
92(1)
Order Maintenance
92(1)
Law Enforcement
92(1)
Service
93(1)
Implementing the Mandate
93(1)
Police Policy
93(2)
Close-Up: High-Speed Pursuit
94(1)
A Question of Ethics
95(1)
Police Actions
95(4)
Technology Issues in Criminal Justice: Computers in Patrol Cars
96(1)
Encounters between Police and Citizens
96(1)
Police Discretion
97(1)
Domestic Violence
97(2)
Police and the Community
99(5)
Special Populations
99(1)
Policing in a Multicultural Society
99(1)
Community Crime Prevention
100(1)
Summary
101(1)
Questions for Review
102(1)
Key Terms
102(1)
For Further Reading
102(1)
Going Online
102(1)
Checkpoint Answers
102(2)
Police Officers and Law Enforcement Operations
104(22)
Who Are the Police?
105(3)
Recruitment
105(1)
The Changing Profile of the Police
106(2)
Training
108(1)
The Police Subculture
108(4)
The Working Personality
109(1)
Police Morality
110(1)
Police Isolation
110(1)
Job Stress
111(1)
Organization of the Police
112(2)
Bureaucratic Elements
112(1)
Operational Units
113(1)
The Police Bureaucracy and the Criminal Justice System
114(1)
Police Response and Action
114(3)
Organizational Response
115(1)
Close-Up: Holding the 911 Line
116(1)
Ideas in Practice
116(1)
Productivity
116(1)
Delivery of Police Services
117(9)
Patrol Functions
117(2)
Investigation
119(1)
Work Perspective: Detective
120(2)
Technology Issues in Criminal Justice: National DNA Database
122(1)
Special Operations
122(1)
A Question of Ethics
123(1)
Summary
124(1)
Questions for Review
124(1)
Key Terms
124(1)
For Further Reading
125(1)
Going Online
125(1)
Checkpoint Answers
125(1)
Police and Constitutional Law
126(20)
Legal Limitations on Police Investigations
127(3)
Search and Seizure Concepts
127(1)
The Concept of Arrest
128(1)
Work Perspective: Assistant County Prosecutor
129(1)
Warrants and Probable Cause
129(1)
Plain View Doctrine
130(2)
Open Fields Doctrine
130(1)
Technology Issues in Criminal Justice: Monitoring Computer Keystrokes
131(1)
Plain Feel and Other Senses
131(1)
Warrantless Searches
132(6)
Special Needs beyond the Normal Purposes of Law Enforcement
132(1)
Close-Up: State Supreme Courts and Constitutional Rights
133(1)
Stop and Frisk on the Streets
133(1)
Ideas in Practice
134(1)
Search Incident to a Lawful Arrest
134(1)
Exigent Circumstances
135(1)
Consent
135(1)
Automobile Searches
136(2)
Questioning Suspects
138(3)
Miranda Rules
138(1)
Close-Up: Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966)
139(1)
The Consequences of Miranda
140(1)
A Question of Ethics
141(1)
The Exclusionary Rule
141(5)
Application of the Exclusionary Rule to the States
141(1)
Exceptions to the Exclusionary Rule
142(2)
Summary
144(1)
Questions for Review
144(1)
Key Terms and Cases
144(1)
For Further Reading
144(1)
Going Online
145(1)
Checkpoint Answers
145(1)
Policing: Issues and Trends
146(24)
Issues in Patrolling
147(6)
Assignment of Patrol Personnel
147(2)
Ideas in Practice
149(2)
The Policy Debate: Should the Police Aggressively Enforce Public Order Laws?
151(2)
The Future of Patrol
153(1)
Policing and New Technology
153(2)
Investigative Tools
154(1)
Weapons Technology
154(1)
Technology Issues in Criminal Justice: Nonlethal Weapons
155(1)
Police Abuse of Power
155(4)
Use of Force
155(2)
Corruption
157(1)
A Question of Ethics
158(1)
Civic Accountability
159(2)
Internal Affairs Units
159(1)
Civilian Review Boards
160(1)
Standards and Accreditation
160(1)
Civil Liability Suits
161(1)
Security Management and Private Policing
161(9)
Work Perspective: Investigator
162(1)
Functions of Security Management and Private Policing
162(2)
Private Employment of Public Police
164(1)
The Public--Private Interface
164(1)
Recruitment and Training
165(1)
Summary
166(1)
Questions for Review
166(1)
Key Terms and Cases
166(1)
For Further Reading
166(1)
Going Online
167(1)
Checkpoint Answers
167(1)
Inside the Criminal Justice System and Beyond: One Man's Journey---Stepping into a New World: Arrested, Booked, Charged, Jailed, and Investigated
168(2)
Part 3 Courts
Courts and Adjudication
170(25)
The Structure of American Courts
171(2)
Technology Issues in Criminal Justice: The Electronic Courtroom
173(1)
To Be a Judge
173(5)
Who Becomes a Judge?
174(1)
Functions of the Judge
174(1)
How to Become a Judge
175(1)
Close-Up: Improper Judicial Behavior
176(1)
Ideas in Practice
177(1)
The Prosecutorial System
178(6)
Politics and Prosecution
178(1)
The Prosecutor's Influence
179(1)
The Prosecutor's Roles
179(1)
Discretion of the Prosecutor
180(1)
A Question of Ethics
181(1)
Key Relationships of the Prosecutor
181(1)
Decision-Making Policies
182(1)
Close-Up: Community Prosecution
183(1)
The Defense Attorney: Image and Reality
184(7)
The Role of the Defense Attorney
184(1)
Realities of the Defense Attorney's Job
185(1)
The Environment of Criminal Practice
186(1)
Work Perspective: Federal Public Defender
187(1)
Counsel for Indigents
187(3)
A Question of Ethics
190(1)
The Courtroom: How It Functions
191(4)
Summary
193(1)
Questions for Review
193(1)
Key Terms
193(1)
For Further Reading
194(1)
Going Online
194(1)
Checkpoint Answers
194(1)
Pretrial Procedures, Plea Bargaining, and the Criminal Trial
195(26)
From Arrest to Trial or Plea
196(2)
Bail: Pretrial Release
198(4)
Ideas in Practice
199(1)
The Reality of the Bail System
199(1)
Bail Bondsmen
199(1)
Setting Bail
200(1)
Reforming the Bail System
201(1)
Pretrial Detention
202(2)
Close-Up: Preventive Detention: Two Sides of an Issue
203(1)
Plea Bargaining
204(5)
Exchange Relationships in Plea Bargaining
205(1)
Tactics of Prosecutor and Defense
205(1)
Close-Up: Banning Plea Bargaining in Tennessee
206(1)
Pleas without Bargaining
207(1)
Legal Issues in Plea Bargaining
207(1)
A Question of Ethics
208(1)
Criticisms of Plea Bargaining
208(1)
Trial: The Exceptional Case
209(7)
Jury Trial
209(1)
The Trial Process
210(3)
Technology Issues in Criminal Justice: Computer Simulations in the Courtroom
213(2)
Work Perspective: U.S. District Judge
215(1)
Evaluating the Jury System
215(1)
Appeals
216(5)
Habeas Corpus
217(1)
Evaluating the Appellate Process
217(1)
Summary
218(1)
Questions for Review
219(1)
Key Terms and Cases
219(1)
For Further Reading
219(1)
Going Online
219(1)
Checkpoint Answers
220(1)
Punishment and Sentencing
221(27)
The Goals of Punishment
222(4)
Retribution---Deserved Punishment
222(1)
Deterrence
223(1)
Incapacitation
224(1)
Rehabilitation
225(1)
A New Approach to Punishment: Restorative Justice
225(1)
Close-Up: Restorative Justice in Vermont
226(1)
Forms of the Criminal Sanction
226(10)
Incarceration
227(2)
Intermediate Sanctions
229(1)
Probation
229(2)
Death
231(5)
The Sentencing Process
236(12)
The Administrative Context of the Courts
237(1)
The Policy Debate: Should the Death Penalty Be Abolished?
238(1)
Work Perspective: District Associate Judge
239(1)
Attitudes and Values of Judges
239(1)
Technology Issues in Criminal Justice: Sentencing by Computer
240(1)
Presentence Report
240(1)
Close-Up: Sample Presentence Report
241(1)
Sentencing Guidelines
241(1)
A Question of Ethics
242(1)
Ideas in Practice
242(1)
Who Gets the Harshest Punishment?
242(2)
Summary
244(1)
Questions for Review
244(1)
Key Terms and Cases
245(1)
For Further Reading
245(1)
Going Online
245(1)
Checkpoint Answers
245(1)
Inside the Criminal Justice System and Beyond: One Man's Journey---Prosecution, Adjudication, and Sentencing
246(2)
Part 4 Corrections
Corrections
248(28)
Development of Corrections
249(7)
Invention of the Penitentiary
249(1)
Reform in the United States
250(3)
Reformatory Movement
253(1)
Improving Prison Conditions for Women
254(1)
Rehabilitation Model
254(1)
Community Model
255(1)
Crime Control Model
256(1)
Organization of Corrections in the United States
256(6)
Federal Corrections System
256(1)
State Corrections Systems
257(1)
Private Prisons
258(1)
Technology Issues in Criminal Justice: Remote-Controlled Stun Belt
259(1)
Jails: Local Correctional Facilities
260(2)
Close-Up: Direct Supervision Jails
262(1)
The Law of Corrections
262(4)
Constitutional Rights of Prisoners
262(3)
Law and Community Corrections
265(1)
Law and Correctional Personnel
266(1)
Correctional Policy Trends
266(10)
Community Corrections
267(1)
The Policy Debate: Is There a Prison---Commercial Complex?
268(1)
Incarceration
269(2)
Close-Up: Connecticut: Trying to Build Its Way Out
271(2)
Summary
273(1)
Questions for Review
273(1)
Key Terms and Cases
273(1)
For Further Reading
274(1)
Going Online
274(1)
Checkpoint Answers
274(2)
Community Corrections: Probation and Intermediate Sanctions
276(16)
Community Corrections: Assumptions
277(1)
Probation: Correction without Incarceration
277(4)
Origins and Evolution of Probation
278(1)
Organization of Probation
279(1)
Probation Services
279(1)
Revocation and Termination of Probation
280(1)
A Question of Ethics
281(1)
Assessing Probation
281(1)
Intermediate Sanctions in the Community
281(9)
Intermediate Sanctions Administered Primarily by the Judiciary
282(2)
Work Perspective: Executive Director, STRIVE Program
284(1)
Intermediate Sanctions Administered in the Community
284(1)
Technology Issues in Criminal Justice: Stalker Trackers
285(2)
Intermediate Sanctions Administered in Institutions and the Community
287(1)
Close-Up: After Boot Camp, a Harder Discipline
288(1)
Implementing Intermediate Sanctions
289(1)
The Future of Community Corrections
290(2)
Summary
290(1)
Questions for Review
290(1)
Key Terms
291(1)
For Further Reading
291(1)
Going Online
291(1)
Checkpoint Answers
291(1)
Incarceration and Prison Society
292(28)
The Modern Prison: Legacy of the Past
293(1)
Goals of Incarceration
293(1)
Prison Organization
294(2)
Governing a Society of Captives
296(2)
The Defects of Total Power
296(1)
Rewards and Punishments
296(1)
A Question of Ethics
297(1)
Gaining Cooperation: Exchange Relationships
297(1)
Inmate Leadership
297(1)
The Challenge of Governing Prisons
298(1)
Correctional Officers: The Linchpin of Management
298(2)
The Officer's Role
298(1)
Work Perspective: Correctional Officer
299(1)
Use of Force
299(1)
Who Is in Prison?
300(4)
Close-Up: One Man's Walk through Atlanta's Jungle
301(1)
Elderly Prisoners
302(1)
Prisoners with HIV/AIDS
302(1)
Mentally III Prisoners
303(1)
Long-Term Prisoners
303(1)
The Convict World
304(3)
Adaptive Roles
305(1)
The Prison Economy
305(2)
Women in Prison
307(4)
The Subculture of Women's Prisons
308(1)
Male versus Female Subcultures
309(1)
Issues in the Incarceration of Women
310(1)
Prison Programs
311(3)
Classification of Prisoners
312(1)
Educational Programs
312(1)
Vocational Education
312(1)
Prison Industries
312(1)
Rehabilitative Programs
313(1)
Medical Services
313(1)
Violence in Prison
314(6)
Assaultive Behavior and Inmate Characteristics
314(1)
Prisoner--Prisoner Violence
315(1)
Prisoner--Officer Violence
316(1)
Officer--Prisoner Violence
316(1)
Decreasing Prison Violence
316(1)
Technology Issues in Criminal Justice: Scanning for Drugs
317(1)
Summary
318(1)
Questions for Review
318(1)
Key Terms
318(1)
For Further Reading
318(1)
Going Online
319(1)
Checkpoint Answers
319(1)
Reentry into the Community
320(18)
Prisoner Reentry
321(1)
Release and Supervision
322(1)
The Origins of Parole
322(1)
The Development of Parole in the United States
322(1)
Release Mechanisms
323(3)
Discretionary Release
323(1)
Mandatory Release
323(1)
A Question of Ethics
324(1)
Other Conditional Release
324(1)
Expiration Release
324(1)
Impact of Release Mechanisms
324(2)
Close-Up: A Roomful of Strangers
326(1)
Parole Supervision in the Community
326(7)
Technology Issues in Criminal Justice: Drug Testing
327(1)
Community Programs Following Release
327(1)
Close-Up: Returning to America
328(1)
Parole Officer: Cop or Social Worker?
329(1)
The Parole Bureaucracy
330(1)
Work Perspective: Parole Officer
331(1)
Adjustment to Life outside Prison
331(1)
Revocation of Parole
332(1)
The Future of Prisoner Reentry
333(5)
Summary
333(1)
Questions for Review
334(1)
Key Terms
334(1)
For Further Reading
334(1)
Going Online
334(1)
Checkpoint Answers
334(2)
Inside the Criminal Justice System and Beyond: One Man's Journey---Prison
336(2)
Part 5 The Juvenile Justice System
Juvenile Justice
338(23)
Youth Crime in the United States
339(1)
The Development of Juvenile Justice
340(6)
Technology Issues in Criminal Justice: The Impact of Entertainment Technology on Behavior
341(1)
The Puritan Period (1646--1824)
341(1)
The Refuge Period (1824--1899)
341(2)
The Juvenile Court Period (1899--1960)
343(1)
The Juvenile Rigid Period (1960--1980)
343(1)
The Crime Control Period (1980--Present)
343(3)
The Juvenile Justice System
346(1)
Age of Clients
346(1)
Categories of Cases
346(1)
The Juvenile Justice Process
347(9)
Police Interface
348(1)
Intake Screening at the Court
349(1)
Pretrial Procedures
349(1)
Transfer to Adult Court
350(1)
Adjudication
350(1)
The Policy Debate: Should Juvenile Offenders Be Tried As Adults?
351(1)
Disposition
352(1)
Corrections
353(1)
Work Perspective: Juvenile Probation Officer
354(1)
A Question of Ethics
355(1)
Close-Up: Fernando, 16, Finds a Sanctuary in Crime
356(1)
Problems and Perspectives
356(5)
Summary
358(1)
Questions for Review
358(1)
Key Terms and Cases
358(1)
For Further Reading
358(1)
Going Online
359(1)
Checkpoint Answers
359(1)
Inside the Criminal Justice System and Beyond: One Man's Journey: Reflections
360(1)
Appendix: Constitution of the United States: Criminal Justice Amendments 361(1)
References 362(12)
Glossary 374(7)
Name Index 381(4)
Subject Index 385(12)
Photo Credits 397


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