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Criminal Justice : A Brief Introduction,9780130887290

Criminal Justice : A Brief Introduction

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780130887290

ISBN10:
0130887293
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
5/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $47.93
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Summary

"Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction" uses real-life stories throughout that are designed to capture and sustain the attention of its readers, helping them achieve a meaningful and comprehensive understanding of its concepts. It explores how the criminal justice system balances individual rights (freedom) with the need for public order (safety). It explores the new environment of the ongoing threat of domestic terrorism; with its updated research and statistics, this edition is "the" most timely and relevant resource available. Real-life examples of current issues and topics in the criminal justice system round out comprehensive coverage of criminology, multiculturalism, crime reporting, criminal law, policing, adjudication and the court system, and the corrections system. With its comprehensive appendices and online resource guide, this book is an excellent reference for those involved in the criminal justice system.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Instructions for Accessing the Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction World Wide Web Site xix
Acknowledgments xxi
About the Author xxiii
PART 1 CRIME IN AMERICA 1(122)
What is Criminal Justice?
3(28)
Justice and Criminal Justice
4(9)
The Focus of This Book: Individual Rights and Public Order
6(5)
Perspectives on Criminal Justice and the Theme of This Book
11(1)
Social Justice
12(1)
American Criminal Justice: The System
13(3)
The Consensus Model
13(1)
The Conflict Model
14(1)
Theory into Practice: Is the Criminal Justice System Racist?
15(1)
American Criminal Justice: The Process
16(6)
Investigation and Arrest
18(1)
Booking
18(1)
First Appearance
18(1)
Preliminary Hearing
19(1)
Information or Indictment
20(1)
Arraignment
20(1)
Trial
20(1)
Sentencing
21(1)
Corrections
22(1)
Probation and Parole
22(1)
Due Process and Individual Rights
22(2)
The Role of the Courts in Defining Rights
23(1)
Crime Control through Due Process
24(1)
Criminal Justice and Criminology
24(3)
Twenty-First Century Criminal Justice: Research and Professionalism
26(1)
APB News! Genetic Crime: Body Parts, Cloned Children for Sale
27(1)
Summary
27(2)
Careers in Justice: Working for the FBI
28(1)
Discussion Questions
29(1)
Web Quest!
29(1)
Library Extras!
29(1)
References
30(1)
The Crime Picture
31(47)
Introduction: Sources of Data
32(3)
Crime Data and Social Policy
33(1)
Collecting Crime Data
34(1)
The Uniform Crime Reports
35(21)
Development of the UCR Program
35(1)
Historical Trends
35(2)
UCR Terminology
37(3)
Part I Offenses
40(2)
APB News! One in Five Women Faces Rape
42(3)
Theory into Practice: Guns, Crime, and Gun Control
45(5)
Part II Offenses
50(1)
NIBRS: The NEW UCR
51(1)
Hate Crimes
52(3)
Theory into Practice: Hate Crimes
55(1)
The National Crime Victimization Survey
56(2)
Problems with the NCVS
57(1)
Comparisons of the UCR and NCVS
57(1)
Emerging Patterns of Criminal Activity
58(14)
The Fear of Crime
59(1)
Women and Crime
60(2)
Twenty-First Century Criminal Justice: Gender Issues I: The Growing Recognition of Women's Rights and Gender-Based Violence
62(2)
The Economic Cost of Crime
64(1)
Theory into Practice: Media Impact on the Public's Fear of Crime
65(1)
Drugs and Crime
66(1)
Twenty-First Century Criminal Justice: Gender Issues II: The Growing Recognition of Women's Rights and Gender-Based Violence
67(1)
The Elderly and Crime
68(1)
Careers in Justice: Working for the Drug Enforcement Administration
69(1)
Organized Crime
70(2)
Careers in Justice: Working as a Deputy U.S. Marshal
72(1)
Summary
72(1)
Discussion Questions
73(1)
Web Quest!
73(1)
Library Extras!
74(1)
References
74(4)
Criminal Law
78(45)
Sources of Modern Criminal Law
79(1)
The Nature of Law
79(1)
The Rule of Law
80(1)
Types of Law
80(9)
Theory into Practice: What Does Law Do? The Functions of Law
81(1)
Criminal Law
81(1)
Civil Law
82(3)
APB News! Class-Action Suit to Target N.J. Police
85(1)
Administrative Law
86(1)
Case Law
87(1)
Careers in Justice: Working for the U.S. Park Police
88(1)
Procedural Law
88(1)
General Categories of Crime
89(2)
Felonies
89(1)
Misdemeanors
89(1)
Offenses
90(1)
Treason
90(1)
Inchoate Offenses
91(1)
General Features of Crime
91(5)
The Criminal Act (Actus Reus)
91(1)
A Guilty Mind (Mens Rea)
92(2)
Concurrence
94(1)
Causation
94(1)
Harm
95(1)
Legality
95(1)
Punishment
96(1)
Necessary Attendant Circumstances
96(1)
Elements of a Specific Criminal Offense
96(4)
The Example of Murder
98(1)
The Corpus Delicti of a Crime
99(1)
Types of Defenses to a Criminal Charge
100(18)
Alibi
100(1)
Justifications
101(2)
Excuses
103(8)
Procedural Defenses
111(3)
Innovative Defenses
114(4)
Summary
118(1)
Discussion Questions
118(1)
Web Quest!
119(1)
Library Extras!
119(1)
References
119(4)
PART 2 POLICING 123(114)
Police Management
125(25)
Contemporary Policing: The Administrative Perspective
126(10)
Styles of Policing
126(1)
Police--Community Relations
126(10)
Scientific Police Management
136(5)
APB News! Study: Blacks Distrust Police
137(1)
Exemplary Projects
138(1)
The Kansas City Experiment
138(2)
Recent Studies
140(1)
Contemporary Policing: The Individual Officer
141(5)
Twenty-First Century Criminal Justice: Cybercops
143(1)
Careers in Justice: Working for the U.S. Secret Service
144(2)
Summary
146(1)
Discussion Questions
146(1)
Web Quest!
146(1)
Library Extras!
147(1)
References
147(3)
Policing: Legal Aspects
150(47)
The Abuse of Police Power
151(4)
A Changing Legal Climate
154(1)
Individual Rights
155(1)
Due Process Requirements
155(1)
Search and Seizure
156(11)
The Exclusionary Rule
157(2)
The Warren Court Era (1953--1969)
159(2)
The Burger (1969--1986) and Rehnquist (1986--Present) Courts
161(6)
Arrest
167(9)
Searches Incident to Arrest
167(1)
Twenty-First Century Criminal Justice: The Computer Errors Exception to the Exclusionary Rule
168(2)
Theory into Practice: Plain-View Requirements
170(1)
Emergency Searches of Persons
171(1)
Vehicle Searches
171(3)
Suspicionless Searches
174(1)
Twenty-First Century Criminal Justice: Search Warrants by Fax
175(1)
The Intelligence Function
176(16)
Informants
176(1)
Police Interrogation
177(2)
Theory into Practice: Individual Rights Versus Group Interests---The Fourth Amendment and Sobriety Checkpoints
179(1)
The Right to a Lawyer at Interrogation
180(1)
Suspect Rights: The Miranda Decision
180(3)
APB News! Few Silent on Decision to Revisit Miranda
183(2)
Theory into Practice: Adult Rights Warning
185(2)
Theory into Practice: The Miranda Triggers
187(1)
Gathering Special Kinds of Nontestimonial Evidence
187(1)
Twenty-First Century Criminal Justice: High-Technology Searches
188(2)
Electronic Eavesdropping
190(2)
Summary
192(1)
Discussion Questions
193(1)
Web Quest!
193(1)
Library Extras!
193(1)
References
194(3)
Issues in Policing
197(40)
Contemporary Policing: Issues and Challenges
198(20)
Police Personality and Culture
198(1)
Corruption
199(5)
The Dangers of Police Work
204(3)
Twenty-First Century Criminal Justice: ``Smart Guns'' and Line-Of-Duty Deaths
207(4)
Police Civil Liability
211(2)
Theory into Practice: An Example of Police Civil Liability---The Case of Bernard Mccummings
213(2)
Theory into Practice: Title 42, United States Code, Section 1983
215(3)
Theory into Practice: The FBI's Policy on the Use of Deadly Force
218(1)
Professionalism and Ethics
218(8)
Educational Requirements
220(1)
Theory into Practice: The Law Enforcement Code of Ethics
221(1)
Recruitment and Selection
221(4)
Twenty-First Century Criminal Justice: Police
225(1)
Private Protective Services
226(6)
The Development of Private Policing
227(1)
The Private System of Justice
228(1)
Careers in Justice: Working in Proprietary Nuclear Security
229(1)
The Professionalization of Private Security
230(1)
Integrating Public and Private Security
231(1)
Theory into Practice: Ethics in Private Security
232(1)
Summary
232(1)
Discussion Questions
232(1)
Web Quest!
233(1)
Library Extras!
233(1)
References
233(4)
PART 3 ADJUDICATION 237(121)
The Courts
239(28)
Introduction
240(1)
American Court History
240(15)
State Court Development
241(2)
State Court Systems Today
243(7)
The Rise of the Federal Courts
250(5)
Pretrial Activities
255(8)
First Appearance
255(4)
The Grand Jury
259(1)
The Preliminary Hearing
260(1)
Arraignment and the Plea
260(3)
Summary
263(1)
Discussion Questions
263(1)
Web Quest!
264(1)
Library Extras!
264(1)
References
264(3)
The Courtroom Work Group and the Criminal Trial
267(45)
Introduction
268(1)
The Courtroom Work Group: Professional Courtroom Actors
269(15)
The Judge
269(2)
The Prosecuting Attorney
271(2)
APB News! Prosecutor Becomes Abused Girl's Angel
273(2)
Defense Counsel
275(4)
Theory into Practice: Gideon V. Wainwright and Indigent Defense
279(1)
The Bailiff
280(1)
Local Court Administrators
281(1)
Theory into Practice: American Bar Association Standards of Professional Responsibility
282(1)
The Court Recorder
282(1)
Clerk of Court
282(1)
The Expert Witness
283(1)
Outsiders: Nonprofessional Courtroom Participants
284(5)
Lay Witnesses
284(1)
Jurors
285(1)
The Role of the Victim in a Criminal Trial
286(1)
The Role of the Defendant in a Criminal Trial
287(1)
The Press in the Courtroom
288(1)
The Criminal Trial
289(16)
Trial Initiation: The Speedy Trial Act
291(1)
Jury Selection
292(3)
Opening Statements
295(1)
Theory into Practice: Pre- and Posttrial Motions
296(1)
The Presentation of Evidence
297(1)
Theory into Practice: Peremptory Challenges and Race
298(1)
Theory into Practice: ``Pleading the Fifth''
299(3)
Closing Arguments
302(1)
The Judge's Charge to the Jury
303(1)
Jury Deliberations and the Verdict
303(2)
Improving the Adjudication Process
305(2)
Twenty-First Century Criminal Justice: Courtrooms of the Future
306(1)
Summary
307(1)
Discussion Questions
307(1)
Web Quest!
308(1)
Library Extras!
308(1)
References
308(4)
Sentencing
312(46)
Crime and Punishment: Introduction
313(1)
The Philosophy of Criminal Sentencing
314(5)
Retribution
315(1)
Incapacitation
316(1)
Deterrence
316(1)
Rehabilitation
317(1)
Restoration
317(2)
Indeterminate Sentencing
319(2)
Problems with the Indeterminate Model
320(1)
The Rise of Structured Sentencing
321(3)
Critiques of Structured Sentencing
323(1)
Theory into Practice: Aggravating and Mitigating Factors
323(1)
Mandatory Sentencing
324(2)
Truth in Sentencing
326(1)
Federal Sentencing Guidelines
327(2)
Federal Guideline Provisions
327(1)
Plea Bargaining under the Guidelines
328(1)
The Sentencing Environment
329(1)
The Presentence Investigation Report
329(3)
Theory into Practice: Three Strikes and You're Out: The Tough New Movement in Criminal Sentencing
331(1)
The Victim---Forgotten no Longer
332(5)
Victim Impact Statements
333(1)
Twenty-First Century Criminal Justice: Is a Victims' Rights Amendment at Hand?
334(3)
Traditional Sentencing Options
337(15)
Fines
338(2)
Death: The Ultimate Sanction
340(2)
APB News! I Watched a Murderer Die
342(10)
Summary
352(1)
Discussion Questions
353(1)
Web Quest!
353(1)
Library Extras!
353(1)
References
354(4)
PART 4 CORRECTIONS 358(111)
Probation, Parole, and Community Corrections
361(35)
Introduction to Community Corrections
362(1)
What is Probation?
363(2)
The Extent of Probation
364(1)
Probation Conditions
365(1)
What is Parole?
365(4)
The Extent of Parole
368(1)
Parole Conditions
369(1)
Federal Parole
369(1)
Probation and Parole: The Pluses and Minuses
369(4)
Advantages of Probation and Parole
369(3)
Disadvantages of Probation and Parole
372(1)
The Legal Environment
373(5)
APB News! The Bloody Saga of Leo Gonzales Wright
374(4)
The Federal Probation System
378(1)
Careers in Justice: Working for the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts
379(1)
The Job of a Probation/Parole Officer
379(2)
Difficulties with the Parole/Probation Officer Job
380(1)
Intermediate Sanctions
381(7)
Split Sentencing
382(1)
Shock Probation/Shock Parole
382(1)
Shock Incarceration
383(1)
Mixed Sentencing and Community Service
384(1)
Intensive Supervision
385(1)
Home Confinement and Electronic Monitoring
385(1)
Individualized Innovations
386(1)
Questions About Alternative Sanctions
387(1)
The Future of Probation and Parole
388(3)
Twenty-First Century Criminal Justice: Chemical Castration Becomes Law in California
389(1)
Twenty-First Century Criminal Justice: Probation Kiosks: High-Tech Supervision
390(1)
Summary
391(1)
Discussion Questions
392(1)
Web Quest!
392(1)
Library Extras!
392(1)
References
393(3)
Prisons and Jails
396(31)
Prisons Today
397(14)
The Philosophy of Imprisonment
398(1)
APB News! The 'Big House' of the Future
399(4)
Overcrowding
403(3)
Security Levels
406(1)
The Federal Prison System
407(2)
Recent Improvements
409(2)
Jails
Careers in Justice: Working with the Federal Bureau of Prisons
411(1)
Women and Jail
412(1)
Crowding in Jails
413(1)
Direct Supervision Jails
414(2)
Jails and the Future
416(2)
Private Prisons
418(4)
Twenty-First Century Criminal Justice: Jails and the Future
419(1)
Theory into Practice: American Jail Association Code of Ethics for Jail Officers
420(1)
Theory into Practice: The Debate Over Private Prisons---Some Questions which Remain
421(1)
Summary
422(1)
Discussion Questions
423(1)
Web Quest!
423(1)
Library Extras!
423(1)
References
423(4)
Prison Life
427(42)
Realities of Prison Life: The Male Inmate's World
428(7)
Research on Prison Life---Total Institutions
428(1)
Prison Subcultures
429(1)
The Functions of Prison Society
430(2)
Theory into Practice: Prison Argot---The Language of Confinement
432(1)
Prison Lifestyles and Inmate Types
433(2)
Realities of Prison Life: The Staff World
435(4)
Types of Correctional Officers
436(2)
The Professionalization of Correctional Officers
438(1)
Prison Riots
439(3)
Causes of Riots
439(1)
Theory into Practice: Code of Ethics---American Correctional Association Preamble
440(1)
Stages in Riots and Riot Control
441(1)
Realities of Prison Life: Women in Prison
442(5)
Social Structure in Women's Prisons
445(1)
Types of Female Inmates
445(1)
Theory into Practice: The Language of Women's Prisons
446(1)
Violence in Women's Prisons
446(1)
Prisoner Rights
447(10)
The Legal Basis of Prisoners' Rights
448(1)
Precedents in Inmate Rights
448(6)
A Return to the Hands-off Doctrine?
454(3)
Issues Facing Prisons Today
457(5)
AIDS
457(1)
Geriatric Offenders
458(1)
Mentally Ill Inmates
459(1)
APB News! Should Elderly Convicts be Kept in Prison?
460(2)
Summary
462(1)
Discussion Questions
463(1)
Web Quest!
463(1)
Library Extras!
463(1)
References
464(5)
Appendix: The Bill of Rights 469(2)
Index 471


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