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Criminal Justice : Mainstream and Crosscurrents,9780131122550
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Criminal Justice : Mainstream and Crosscurrents

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780131122550

ISBN10:
013112255X
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2010
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $116.80

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Summary

Building upon John Fullerrs"s experience as a criminal justice practitioner, scholar and teacher,Criminal Justice: Mainstream & Crosscurrentsencourages readers to think critically about the goals and processes of the criminal justice system and introduces them to important ethical dilemmas faced by criminal justice professionals. This highly readable, interesting, contemporary book offers a comprehensive introduction to criminal justice supported with empirical work. Itrs"s narrative style explains legal concepts in a clear and comprehensible manner without losing the reader in legal jargon.Features a full chapter on crime theory-highlighting the various sociological, psychological and biological theories of crime causation. A unique chapter on emerging trends in criminal justice (Chapter 16) considers contemporary topics like restorative justice and peacemaking criminology.For criminal justice practitioners.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Acknowledgments xxiii
About the Author xxv
Part One Crime: Problems, Measurement, Theories, and Law
1(142)
The Problem of Social Control
3(38)
What Is Crime?
4(4)
Social Control
8(2)
Crime in the United States
9(1)
Crosscurrents: Tweety Bird Is a Thug: Zero Tolerance and the School
10(3)
Crosscurrents: American Kids Are All Right
13(2)
News Flash: White Collar Crime
15(1)
The Criminal Justice System
15(6)
Levels of Government
15(3)
Criminal Justice Process
18(3)
News Flash: Secret Service Finds Children
21(2)
Case in Point: Mapp v. Ohio
23(1)
Case in Point: Escobedo v. Illinois
24(3)
Focus on Ethics: A Balance of Interests
27(5)
Problem with the System Metaphor
30(2)
Focus on Ethics: A Kid in Trouble
32(2)
It All Begins with the Family
32(2)
Crosscurrents: Pass or Fail
34(2)
System of Last Resort
35(1)
Summary
36(1)
Key Terms
37(1)
Review Questions
37(1)
Suggested Further Reading
38(1)
Endnotes
38(3)
The Nature and Measurement of Crime
41(34)
Categories of Crime and Criminals
42(6)
Crimes against the Person
42(3)
Crimes against Property
45(3)
Crimes against the Public Order
48(1)
Measurement of Crime
48(2)
Focus on Ethics: To Report or Not to Report
50(4)
Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
52(2)
New Flash: Lies, Damn Lies, and Statistics
54(6)
National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)
56(2)
Victimization Surveys
58(2)
Crosscurrents: Some Problems with Victimization Surveys
60(3)
Self-Report Studies
62(1)
Focus on Ethics: Crime Wave
63(2)
Fear of Crime
65(1)
Crosscurrents: Elderly Crime Victims
66(1)
Focus on Ethics: If It Bleeds, It Leads
67(1)
News Flash: Fear
68(1)
Summary
69(1)
Key Terms
70(1)
Review Questions
71(1)
Suggested Further Reading
71(1)
Endnotes
71(4)
Theories of Crime
75(32)
Demonology
76(1)
Classical School of Criminology
77(4)
Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794)
77(3)
Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)
80(1)
Positivist School of Criminology
81(1)
Biological Theories of Crime
81(1)
Crosscurrents: Charles Whitman, The Texas Tower Sniper
82(2)
Crosscurrents: The Skull of the Marquis de Sade
84(1)
Focus on Ethics: Physical Graffiti
85(2)
Crosscurrents: The Jukes and Richard Dugdale
87(2)
Case in Point: Robinson v. California
89(2)
Psychological Theories of Crime
89(2)
News Flash: Lies, Lies, Lies
91(3)
Sociological Theories of Crime
91(3)
Focus on Ethics: With Friends Like These
94(4)
Critical Sociological Theories of Crime
98(1)
Case in Point: Gideon v. Wainwrigh!
98(2)
News Flash: Crime and the Economy
100(2)
Summary
102(1)
Key Terms
103(1)
Review Questions
103(1)
Suggested Further Reading
103(1)
Endnotes
104(3)
Criminal Law
107(36)
Focus on Ethics: Changing the Substantive Law
108(2)
Development of Criminal Law
110(4)
Code of Hammurabi
110(1)
The Magna Carta
111(1)
Common Law
111(3)
Sources of Law
114(3)
Constitutions
114(1)
Statutes
114(1)
Administrative Rules
114(3)
Types of Law
117(4)
Criminal Law
117(1)
Criminal versus Civil Law
118(2)
Substantive Law
120(1)
News Flash: Rodney King and Double Jeopardy
121(1)
Crosscurrents: Liable, but Not Guilty
122(1)
Procedural Law
122(1)
Case Law
123(1)
Types of Crime
123(3)
Felonies
123(1)
Misdemeanors
124(2)
Inchoate Offenses
126(1)
Features of Crime
126(2)
Actus Reus
126(1)
Mens Rea
127(1)
Concurrence
127(1)
Strict Liability
127(1)
Criminal Responsibility and Criminal Defense
128(1)
Case in Point: Durham v. United States
129(6)
News Flash: No Pass for Murder
135(1)
Focus on Ethics: A Change of Heart
136(1)
Crosscurrents: Why the ``Twinkle Defense'' Gets a Bad Rap
137(2)
Case In Point: People v. Aphaylath
139(1)
Summary
139(1)
Key Terms
140(1)
Review Questions
140(1)
Suggested Further Reading
141(1)
Endnotes
141(2)
Part Two Enforcing the Law
143(106)
History and Organization of Law Enforcement
145(34)
A Brief History of the Police
146(6)
Police in Ancient Times
146(1)
Policing in Early England
146(3)
Policing in the United States
149(3)
Focus on Ethics: Righteous Vengeance?
152(2)
Introduction of Police Professionalism
153(1)
Crosscurrents: Frontier Justice
154(2)
Case in Point: Miranda v. Arizona
156(1)
Reference: Analyzing the Police
157(1)
Modern Police Organization
158(5)
Problem of Jurisdiction
162(1)
Levels of Law Enforcement
163(1)
Federal Level
163(1)
Reference: Partial List of Federal Police Agencies
164(2)
Case in Point: Weeks v. United States
166(4)
State Level
167(2)
Local Level
169(1)
Innovations in Policing
170(1)
Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment
170(1)
News Flash: Candid Cop Cameras
171(3)
Rand Study of Detectives
172(1)
Dare Program
173(1)
Reference: Why Detectives Don't Wear Uniforms
174(1)
Focus on Ethics: Do You Dare Dump Dare?
174(1)
Summary
175(1)
Key Terms
176(1)
Review Questions
176(1)
Suggested Further Reading
176(1)
Endnotes
176(3)
Controlling the Police
179(34)
News Flash: Police Indiscretion
180(1)
Police Discretion
180(2)
Focus on Ethics: It's Only Marijuana
182(1)
Expectations of Law Enforcement
183(1)
Crosscurrents: Life in a Police State
184(2)
Quasi-Military Nature of Police Organizations
186(1)
Variety of Policing Styles
187(2)
Watchman Style
188(1)
Legalistic Style
188(1)
Service Style
188(1)
News Flash: Seized Assets
189(1)
Police Subculture and Police Corruption
189(5)
Police Corruption
192(1)
Knapp Commission
192(2)
Procedural Laws and Policing
194(1)
Crosscurrents: ``We Don't Need No Stinking Fourth Amendment''
195(1)
Procedural Laws and Policing: The Fourth Amendment
196(1)
Search
196(1)
Case in Point: Illinois v. Gates
197(2)
Case in Point: Terry v. Ohio
199(4)
Special-Needs Searches
200(2)
Seizures
202(1)
Stop and Frisk
202(1)
Case in Point: Florida v. Bostick
203(1)
Focus on Ethics: Improbable Cause
204(2)
Arrests
204(1)
Interrogation, Confessions, and the Exclusionary Rule
205(1)
News Flash: Watch Your Car
206(1)
Summary
207(1)
Key Terms
208(1)
Review Questions
208(1)
Suggested Further Reading
209(1)
Endnotes
209(4)
Issues in Policing
213(36)
Police Use of Force
214(2)
Case in Point: Tennessee v. Garner
216(4)
Police as Soldiers
216(2)
Police Use of Force and Swat Teams
218(1)
Proactive Policing and Force
219(1)
News Flash: Ruby Ridge, Idaho
220(1)
News Flash: Waco, Texas
221(1)
Gender and Race
222(1)
Women as Police Officers
222(1)
Crosscurrents: Proactive Police and Surveillance
223(3)
Minorities as Police
225(1)
Crosscurrents: Israel Brooks, Jr
226(1)
News Flash: A New Face on Racial Profiling
227(1)
Challenges to Traditional Policing
227(6)
Community Policing
228(2)
Problem-Oriented Policing
230(2)
Zero-Tolerance Policing
232(1)
News Flash: Computers Add New Twist to Police Learning Curve
233(3)
Broken Windows and Police Problems
234(2)
Case in Point: Chimel v. California
236(1)
Police Stress and Burnout
236(2)
Police and Alcohol
237(1)
Crosscurrents: Suicide by Cop
238(2)
Family Problems and the Police
239(1)
Focus on Ethics: My Best Cop, But . . .
240(1)
Police and Suicide
240(1)
Crosscurrents: Police Stress
241(1)
Dealing with the Stress of Policing
241(1)
Crosscurrents: A Closer Look at Police Suicide
242(1)
Focus on Ethics: To Trust a Partner
243(1)
Summary
244(1)
Key Terms
244(1)
Review Questions
245(1)
Suggested Further Reading
245(1)
Endnotes
245(4)
Part Three Role of the Courts
249(104)
History and Organization of Courts
251(32)
Courts in History
254(1)
Before There Were Courts: The Blood Feud
254(1)
Focus on Ethics: Modern Day Blood Feud
255(1)
Courts in England
256(1)
Crosscurrents: The Hatfields and the McCoys
256(2)
Trial by Compurgation
257(1)
Trial by Ordeal
257(1)
Trial by Battle
258(1)
Development of the Jury
258(1)
Grand Jury
258(1)
Crosscurrents: The Leopard-Skin Chief
259(3)
Jury Trial
259(2)
The Magna Carta
261(1)
Court of the Star Chamber
261(1)
Courts in Colonial America
262(2)
Slavery and the Law
262(1)
Our Heritage of Due Process
263(1)
Case in Point: Duncan v. Louisiana
264(1)
Changing Nature of the Court
264(2)
News Flash: Capital Trials Are Costly
266(1)
Organization of the Courts
267(6)
Nature of Jurisdiction
267(2)
Structure of the Federal Courts
269(4)
Case in Point: Powell v. State of Alabama
273(1)
Focus on Ethics: Judicial Selection
274(1)
State Courts
275(1)
Reference: State Attorneys General
275(2)
News Flash: So Help Me Who?
277(1)
Summary
278(1)
Crosscurrents: Notes of a Court TV Junkie
279(1)
Key Terms
279(1)
Review Questions
279(1)
Suggested Further Reading
280(1)
Endnotes
280(3)
Working in the Courtroom
283(38)
The Courtroom Work Group
284(2)
The Participants
284(2)
Crosscurrents: Bounty Hunters: A Step Ahead of the Law
286(3)
Prosecutor
288(1)
Crosscurrents: How Much Justice Can You Afford?
289(1)
Reference: American Bar Association
290(2)
Reference: Oath of Attorney
292(1)
News Flash: Whose Side Are You On?
293(1)
Case in Point: Argersinger v. Hamlin
294(4)
Defense Attorney
297(1)
Focus on Ethics: Difficult Decisions for the Defense
298(1)
Case in Point: United States v. Leon
299(2)
Crosscurrents: Cooling the Mark in the Criminal Court
301(1)
News Flash: It's a Tough Job, but Someone Has to Do It
302(3)
Judge
304(1)
Reference: American Bar Association Guidelines for Reviewing Qualifications of Candidates for State Judicial Office
305(2)
Reference: Threats to Judicial Independence
307(4)
Defendants, Victims, and Witnesses
310(1)
Focus on Ethics: Where to Try a Sniper?
311(3)
Pretrial Release Decisions
314(1)
Summary
315(1)
Key Terms
316(1)
Review Questions
316(1)
Suggested Further Reading
317(1)
Endnotes
317(4)
The Disposition: Plea Bargaining, Trial, and Sentencing
321(32)
Plea Bargaining
322(1)
News Flash: Their Day in Court
323(4)
Other Benefits of Plea Bargaining
325(1)
Should Plea Bargaining Be Abolished?
326(1)
Focus on Ethics: Letting the Big Ones Get Away
327(1)
The Trial
327(2)
Pretrial Motions
328(1)
Crosscurrents: Evidence That Can't Be Used: The Exclusionary Rule
329(4)
Opening Arguments
329(1)
Presentation of Witnesses and Evidence
330(1)
The Case Goes to the Jury
331(2)
Case in Point: Batson v. Kentucky
333(2)
Evidence
334(1)
News Flash: Seeing Things
335(3)
The Defense Doesn't Rest
336(2)
Rights and Wrongs in the Courthouse
338(1)
``I Know My Rights''
338(1)
Focus on Ethics: Maximum Mel
339(1)
Case in Point: United States v. Salerno
340(1)
Victims' Rights
340(1)
Sentencing the Offender
341(1)
Case in Point: Furman v. Georgia
342(5)
Indeterminate Sentencing
342(2)
Determinate Sentencing
344(3)
Crosscurrents: Special Interest Laws
347(2)
Mandatory Minimum Sentences
348(1)
Case in Point: Gregg v. Georgia
349(1)
Summary
349(1)
Key Terms
350(1)
Review Questions
350(1)
Suggested Further Reading
351(1)
Endnotes
351(2)
Part Four From Penology to Corrections and Back
353(108)
History of Control
355(38)
Before There Were Prisons
356(3)
Corporal Punishment
356(3)
News Flash: Spare the Rod, Spoil the Child, Save the Inmate
359(2)
Economic Punishment
360(1)
Crosscurrents: Transportation to the Fatal Shore
361(1)
Prisons in America
362(1)
Control in the Colonies
362(1)
Focus on Ethics: Transportation in a Contemporary World
363(4)
Development of the Penitentiary: 1780--1860
364(2)
Age of Reform: 1860--1900
366(1)
Case in Point: Hope v. Pelzer
367(3)
Prison Labor and Public Works: 1900--1930
369(1)
News Flash: Federal Prison Industries
370(1)
Reference: Prison Labor Systems
371(4)
Age of Rehabilitation: 1930--1970
372(1)
Retributive Era: 1970s to the Present
373(2)
Capital Punishment
375(1)
Case in Point: Ford v. Wainwright
376(1)
Case in Point: Atkins v. Virginia
376(3)
Capital Punishment in Historical Perspective
377(1)
Arguments Supporting Capital Punishment
377(2)
Crosscurrents: Killing Them Softly
379(5)
Focus on Ethics: Capital Punishment: Some Immodest Proposals
384(1)
Arguments against Capital Punishment
384(1)
Reference: States/Jurisdictions without a Death Penalty
385(2)
Summary
387(1)
Key Terms
388(1)
Review Questions
388(1)
Suggested Further Reading
389(1)
Endnotes
389(4)
The Contemporary Prison
393(34)
Prison Life
394(3)
News Flash: Bad Food for Bad Behavior
397(4)
Inmate Subculture
398(2)
Prison Gangs
400(1)
Focus on Ethics: Conned by the Cons
401(5)
Pelican Bay State Prison
403(1)
Prison Riots and Violence
404(2)
Reference: The Demands Collected by the Inmates During the Attica Prison Riot
406(3)
Crosscurrents: Stanford Prison Experiment
409(2)
Working in the Prison
411(3)
Crosscurrents: Convict Criminology
414(1)
Courts and the Prison
415(1)
Case in Point: Cooper v. Pate
415(1)
News Flash: Mentally Ill Must Go to Prison for Treatment
416(1)
Eighth Amendment
416(1)
Case in Point: Wolff v. McDonnell
417(2)
Fourteenth Amendment: Due Process
417(1)
Fourteenth Amendment: Equal Protection
417(2)
Focus on Ethics: Keeping the Condemned Alive
419(1)
Private Prisons
419(1)
News Flash: Tough Alabama County Stresses Prisons
420(3)
Summary
423(1)
Key Terms
423(1)
Review Questions
423(1)
Suggested Further Reading
424(1)
Endnotes
424(3)
Corrections in the Community
427(34)
Community Corrections in Context
428(1)
Crosscurrents: Creative Sentencing as an Alternative to Prison
429(3)
Diversion
432(1)
Probation
433(4)
Probation Officers at Work
435(2)
Focus on Ethics: Studying for Your Drug Test
437(1)
Reference: Probationer Risk Assessment Instrument
438(3)
Case in Point: Mempa v. Rhay
441(1)
Focus on Ethics: Going Out on a Limb
442(1)
Parole
442(2)
When to Parole
444(1)
Case in Point: Morrissey v. Brewer
444(2)
Reference: Kentucky Parole Board: How the Parole Process Works
446(1)
Reference: Discretionary Parole
447(2)
Reentry and ``Making It''
447(2)
Crosscurrents: Suing the Parole Board
449(1)
Intermediate Sanctions
450(5)
Intensive Supervision Probation
450(1)
Drug Testing
450(1)
House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring
450(1)
Fines
451(1)
Boot Camp Prisons
452(2)
Shock Probation
454(1)
News Flash: Throwing Away the Key
455(1)
Jails
455(3)
Summary
458(1)
Key Terms
458(1)
Review Questions
458(1)
Suggested Further Reading
459(1)
Endnotes
459(2)
Part Five Problems in the Crosscurrents
461(106)
Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Justice
463(36)
Childhood and the Law
464(3)
Juveniles in the Early United States
466(1)
Reference: Juvenile Justice in the United States
467(3)
Houses of Refuge
468(1)
Juvenile Court
468(2)
Children and Society
470(1)
Case in Point: In re Winship
471(1)
Case in Point: In re Gault
471(5)
Types of Youths in the Juvenile Justice System
474(1)
Juvenile Crime in Context
475(1)
Focus on Ethics: Kids and Sex
476(2)
The Juvenile Justice System
478(5)
Entering the Juvenile Justice System
479(1)
Prehearing Detention
479(1)
Intake
479(2)
Determining Jurisdiction
481(1)
Adjudicatory Hearing
481(1)
Disposition
481(1)
Aftercare
482(1)
Problematic Issues in Juvenile Justice Today
483(1)
Chronic Offenders
483(1)
Focus on Ethics: Widening the Net of Social Control
484(2)
Youth Gangs
485(1)
Case in Point: Schall v. Martin
486(1)
Conditions of Youth Confinement
486(1)
Crosscurrents: Extreme Therapy
487(2)
Treating Children as Adults
488(1)
Case in Point: Kent v. United States
489(2)
Zero Tolerance
490(1)
Reference: Tried as an Adult
491(1)
News Flash: (Il)legal Fiction
492(1)
The Future of Juvenile Justice
492(1)
Summary
493(1)
Key Terms
494(1)
Review Questions
495(1)
Suggested Further Reading
495(1)
Endnotes
495(4)
Crime and Values: Drugs, Gambling, and Sex Work
499(38)
Drug Use and Abuse
500(4)
Drug Abuse
501(1)
A Short History of Drug Use and Drug Laws in the United States
501(2)
Drug Control Legislation
503(1)
Crosscurrents: Flight of the Green Fairy
504(4)
The War on Drugs
507(1)
Crosscurrents: A War on Many Fronts
508(5)
Drug Treatment
510(2)
The Decriminalization and Legalization Debate
512(1)
Focus on Ethics: Better, but Still Bad
513(3)
Case in Point: United States v. Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative et al.
516(2)
The Police and Drugs
517(1)
Gambling
518(4)
News Flash: Gambling in Your Pajamas
522(1)
Sex Work
523(1)
Prostitution
523(1)
Focus on Ethics: Rolling the Dice
524(2)
News Flash: Police Target ``House of Ill-Repute''
526(2)
Case in Point: Nye County v. Plankinton
528(2)
Strippers and Exotic Dancers
528(1)
Pornography
528(2)
Crosscurrents: Legitimizing Sex Work
530(1)
Case in Point: Miller v. California
531(1)
Summary
532(1)
Key Terms
533(1)
Review Questions
533(1)
Suggested Further Reading
533(1)
Endnotes
533(4)
Present and Emerging Trends: The Future of Criminal Justice
537(30)
War and Peace in the Criminal Justice System
538(2)
The Wars on Crime and Drugs
538(2)
Focus on Ethics: Could You Be a Terrorist?
540(7)
The War on Terrorism
540(7)
Crosscurrents: Free Mike Hawash?
547(2)
Reference: Department of Homeland Security
549(3)
Peacemaking Criminology and Restorative Justice
552(2)
Religious and Humanist Tradition
553(1)
News Flash: No Atheists in This Prison
554(4)
Feminist Tradition
554(1)
Critical Traditions
554(2)
The Peacemaking Pyramid
556(2)
Focus on Ethics: How Much Could You Forgive?
558(2)
Restorative Justice
559(1)
News Flash: Forgiveness
560(2)
Crosscurrents: The Downside of Restorative Justice
562(1)
Summary
563(1)
Key Terms
563(1)
Review Questions
564(1)
Suggested Further Reading
564(1)
Endnotes
564(3)
Glossary 567(8)
Glosario de espanol 575(10)
Case Index 585(2)
Subject Index 587


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