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"THE BEST TEXT CURRENTLY AVAILABLE." --Gary W. Potter, Eastern Kentucky University
Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents uses a distinctive crosscurrents theme to teach students about the complexities of the criminal justice system--and help them think critically about critical issues.
Completely revised and updated, the third edition offers:
THE LATEST, MOST CUTTING-EDGE INFORMATION
"An exceptional update. The examples are relevant and current; they vibrantly exemplify the issues and challenges facing our criminal justice system today."--Rachel L. Rayburn, Indiana University--Purdue University Fort Wayne
BROAD, COMPREHENSIVE COVERAGE OF THE FIELD
"John Randolph Fuller covers a broad gamut of topics and provides enough color and depth that students are both educated and engaged in the class material."--Brian Lawton, George Mason University
"Fresh and insightful. Some of the topics addressed aren't usually seen in other texts of this kind--read it and you will be surprised."--Deborah Woodward Rhyne, University of Central Florida
A UNIQUE APPROACH
"This text presents a balanced perspective that facilitates students' development of critical analysis skills."--Brian W. Donavant, University of Tennessee at Martin
"Engaging and thought provoking. This book helps students develop critical-thinking skills, and gives them a chance to explore the reasons behind how the criminal justice system was created and many of its challenges from the past to present."--Robert J. Durán, New Mexico State University
CLEAR AND COMPELLING WRITING
"Easy to read and understand, yet comprehensive and detailed."--Serguei Cheloukhine, John Jay College of Criminal Justice
"Clear and concise. Fuller does an excellent job of presenting complex issues and ideas in an accessible manner."--Christopher Salvatore, Montclair State University
John Randolph Fuller is Professor of Criminology at the University of West Georgia.
Table of Contents
**Each chapter begins with Learning Objectives; Chapters 3-16 conclude with a summary, "Focus on Ethics" sections, review questions, and key terms.** PART I: CRIME: PROBLEMS, MEASUREMENT, THEORIES, AND LAW CHAPTER 1: CRIME AND THE PROBLEM OF SOCIAL CONTROL Crime, Social Control, and Social Justice What Is Crime Levels of Government Local-level Criminal Justice State-level Criminal Justice Federal-level Criminal Justice The Criminal Justice Process Crime as a Social Responsibility The Family Religion Schools The Media The Institution of Last Resort Individual vs. Societal Responsibility for Crime The Approach of this Text CHAPTER 2: THE NATURE AND MEASUREMENT OF CRIME The Nature and Measurement of Crime Types of Crime Street Crime Corporate Crime and White-collar Crime Offenses and Offenders Violent Crime Property Crime Public-order Crime Measurement of Crime Uniform Crime Reports National Incident-based Reporting System National Crime Victimization Survey Self-report Studies Perception of Crime CHAPTER 3: THEORIES OF CRIME Theories of Crime Demonology The Classical School of Criminology Cesare Beccaria Jeremy Bentham The Positivist School of Criminology Biological Theories of Crime Phrenology and Other Outdated Ideas Biochemistry Biosocial Criminology Psychological Theories of Crime Psychoanalytic Theory Behaviorism Observational Learning Cognitive Psychological Theory Psychopathy Sociological Theories of Crime The Chicago School Differential Association Theory Strain Theory Social Control Theory Neutralization Theory Labeling Theory Critical Sociological Theories of Crime Marxism Gender and Justice Critical Race Theory Integrated Theories of Crime Integrated Theory of Delinquent Behavior Interactional Theory of Delinquency Control Balance Theory Life-course and Developmental Theories Moffitt's Pathway Theory Laub and Sampson's Persistent-Offending and Desistance-from-Crime Theory CHAPTER 4: CRIMINAL LAW Criminal Law The Development of Criminal Law Early Legal Codes The Magna Carta Common Law Sources of Law Constitutions Statutes Case Law Administrative Rules and Executive Orders Types of Law Criminal Law Civil Law Substantive Law Procedural Law Types of Crime Felonies Misdemeanors Inchoate Offenses Features of Crime Actus Reus Mens Rea Concurrence Strict Liability Criminal Responsibility and Criminal Defense My Client Did Not Do It My Client Did It, but My Client Is Not Responsible My Client Did It but Has a Good Excuse My Client Did It but Should Be Acquitted Because the Police or the Prosecutor Cheated My Client Did It but Was Influence by Outside Forces PART II: ENFORCING THE LAW CHAPTER 5: THE HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION OF LAW ENFORCEMENT The History and Organization of Law Enforcement A Brief History of the Police Police in Ancient Times Policing in Early England The Gin Effect Rise of Organized Policing Policing in the United States The 19th Century The New York City Influence London and New York The Chicago Influence Vigilante Policing Introduction of Police Professionalism The Wickersham Commission and August Vollmer Other Reformers The End of the 20th Century Modern Police Organization Levels of Law Enforcement Federal Level The Federal Bureau of Investigation The Secret Service State Level Local Level Sheriff's Offices Requirements to Become a Police Officer Innovations in Policing Innovations from Social and Technological Changes Homeland Security Technological Change: Less-Than-Lethal Weapons Technological Change: Information Technology Innovations from Research Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment RAND Study of Detectives Innovations from New Ideas DARE Project Ceasefire CHAPTER 6: POLICING AND THE LAW Policing and the Law What We Expect of the Police How the Police Work Watchman Style Legalistic Style Service Style The Quasi-Military Nature of Police Organizations What the Police Do Patrol Investigation Traffic Enforcement Peacemaking and Order Maintenance The Rules the Police Follow Patrol Investigation Traffic Enforcement Peacemaking and Order Maintenance The Rules the Police Follow Police Discretion The Fourth Amendment Search Special-needs Searches Seizures Stop-and-frisk Arrests Interrogations and Confessions CHAPTER 7: ISSUES IN POLICING Issues in Policing Challenges to Traditional Policing Community Policing Problem-oriented Policing Zero-tolerance policing Sex and Race Women as Police Officers Minorities as Police Use of Force SWAT Teams Ruby Ridge, Idaho Waco, Texas Plainfield, New Hampshire Proactive Policing and Force Stress and Burnout Police and Alcohol Family Problems and the Police Police and Suicide Dealing with the Stress of Policing Police Subculture and Corruption PART III: THE ROLE OF THE COURTS CHAPTER 8: THE HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION OF COURTS The History and Organization of Courts Courts in History Before Courts: The Blood Feud Courts in England Trial by Compurgation Trial by Ordeal Trial by Battle Development of the Jury Grand Jury The Jury Trial The Magna Carta Court of the Star Chamber Courts in Colonial North America The Changing Nature of the Court Organization of Modern U.S. Courts Nature of Jurisdiction Subject-Matter Jurisdiction Geographic Jurisdiction Hierarchical Jurisdiction The Structure of the Federal Courts U.S. Magistrate Courts U.S. District Courts U.S. Court of Appeals U.S. Supreme Court Specialized Federal Courts The Structure of State Courts Juvenile Courts State Trial Courts State Intermediate Courts of Appeals State Supreme Courts Local Courts and Community Courts CHAPTER 9: WORKING IN THE COURTROOM Working in the Courtroom The Participants Law Enforcement Court Support Staff Corrections The Public The Prosecutor The Prosecutor at Work Prosecution at the Federal Level Prosecution in State Courts The Defense Attorney The Defense Attorney and the Courtroom Work Group The Best Defense: Private Attorney or Public Defender? The Judge Judicial Selection: Executive Appointments Judicial Selection: Election of Judges Judicial Selection: Merit Selection Defendants, Victims, and Witnesses Defendants Victims Witnesses Victim-witnesses Programs Pretrial Release Decisions CHAPTER 10: THE DISPOSITION: PLEA BARGAINING, TRIAL, AND SENTENCING The Disposition: Plea Bargaining, Trial, and Sentencing Other Benefits of Plea Bargaining Should Plea Bargaining Be Abolished? The Trial The Pre-trial Phase Opening Arguments Presentation of Witnesses and Evidence The Case Goes to the Jury The Defense Doesn't Rest Appeal Rights and Wrongs in the Courthouse "I Know My Rights" Victims' Rights Sentencing the Offender Indeterminate Sentencing Determinate Sentencing Mandatory Minimum Sentences PART IV: FROM PENOLOGY TO CORRECTIONS AND BACK CHAPTER 11: THE HISTORY OF CONTROL AND PUNISHMENT The History of Control and Punishment Before There Were Prisons Corporal Punishment Torture Flogging Branding Mutilation Humiliation Shock Death Economic Punishment The Galley Workhouses Exile and Transportation Prisons in America Control in the Colonies Development of the Penitentiary: 1780-1860 The Pennsylvania System The Auburn System Age of Reform: 1860-1900 Alexander Maconochie Sir Walter Crofton Zebulon Brockway Prison Labor and Public Works: 1900-1930 Age of Rehabilitation: 1930-1970 Retributive Era: 1970s to the Present Capital Punishment Capital Punishment in Historical Perspective Arguments Supporting Capital Punishment Arguments against Capital Punishment Is the Death Penalty Dead? CHAPTER 12: CONTEMPORARY PRISON LIFE Contemporary Prison Life Inmate Subculture Prison Gangs Supermax Prisons Prison Riots and Violence Attica Prison Riot New Mexico State Penitentiary Riot Women in Prison A Short History of Women's Prisons Life in Women's Prisons Courts and the Prison Eighth Amendment Fourteenth Amendment: Due Process Fourteenth Amendment: Equal Protection Working in the Prison Private Prisons CHAPTER 13: CORRECTIONS IN THE COMMUNITY Corrections in the Community Community Corrections in Context Diversion Probation Probation Officers at Work Investigation Supervision Service Private Probation Advantages Disadvantages Intermediate Sanctions Intensive-supervision Probation Drug Testing House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring Fines Boot-camp Prisons Shock Probation Parole When to Parole Re-entry and "Making It" Jails PART V: PROBLEMS IN THE CROSSCURRENTS CHAPTER 14: JUVENILE JUSTICE Juvenile Justice Childhood and the Law Youths in the Early United States Houses of Refuge The Juvenile Court The Modern Juvenile Justice System Who Enters the Juvenile Justice System? Entering the Juvenile Justice System Pre-hearing Detention Intake Diversion Determining Jurisdiction Adjudicatory Hearing Disposition Aftercare Issues in Juvenile Justice Chronic Offenders Gangs Conditions of Youth Confinement Juvenile Waiver: Treating Children as Adults Zero Tolerance The Future of Juvenile Justice CHAPTER 15: VICTIMS OF CRIME AND VICTIMLESS CRIMES Victims of Crime and Victimless Crimes Typologies of Crime Victims Modern Theories of Victimization Cultural Trappings Victim-precipitation Theory Victims in the Criminal Justice System Types of Victims Victims' Rights and Assistance Victimless Crimes Drug Use and Abuse A Short History of Drug Use and Drug Laws in the United States The War on Drugs Law Enforcement and Drugs Drug Treatment, Decriminalization, and Legalization Sex Work Prostitution Pornography CHAPTER 16: PRESENT AND EMERGING TRENDS: THE FUTURE OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE Present and Emerging Trends: the Future of Criminal Justice War and Peace in the Criminal Justice System The Wars on Crime and Drugs The War on Terrorism September 11, 2001 The USA Patriot Act How Terrorism Is Changing the Criminal Justice System Peacemaking Criminology and Restorative Justice Religious and Humanist Tradition Feminist Tradition Critical Traditions The Peacemaking Pyramid Nonviolence Social Justice Inclusion Correct Means Ascertainable Criteria Categorical Imperative Restorative Justice