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Criminal Justice with PowerWeb,9780073252315

Criminal Justice with PowerWeb

by
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780073252315

ISBN10:
007325231X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/20/2006
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
List Price: $143.10

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Summary

An internationally recognized scholar and author, James A. Inciardi presents a solid overview of the structure, processes, and problems of the criminal justice system in the United States. Inciardi brings his significant field and research experience to bear on the revision of this successful textbook; his research background, his privileged access to national data, and his story-telling style of writing guarantee a unique perspective to criminal justice.

Table of Contents

Brief Table of Contents

Part 1: The Foundations of Crime and Justice

Chapter 1: "Criminal Justice" in America

Chapter 2: Crime and the Nature of Law

Chapter 3: Legal and Behavioral Aspects of Crime

Chapter 4: Criminal Statistics and the Extent of Crime

Chapter 5: The Process of Justice: An Overview

Part 2: The Police

Chapter 6: Police Systems in the United States: History and Structure

Chapter 7: Enforcing the Law and Keeping the Peace: The Nature and Scope of Police Work

Chapter 8: The Law of Arrest, Search, and Seizure: Police and the Constitution

Chapter 9: Beyond the Limits of the Law: Police Crime, Corruption, and Brutality

Part 3: The Courts

Chapter 10: The Structure of American Courts

Chapter 11: Judges, Prosecutors, and Other Performers at the Bar of Justice

Chapter 12: The Business of the Court: From First Appearance through Trial

Chapter 13: Sentencing, Appeal, and the Judgment of Death

Part 4: Corrections

Chapter 14: From Walnut Street to Alcatraz: The American Prison Experience

Chapter 15: Penitentiaries, Prisons, and Other Correctional Institutions: A Look Inside the Inmate World

Chapter 16: Prison Conditions and Inmate Rights

Chapter 17: Probation, Parole, and Community-Based Correction

Part 5: Juvenile Justice

Chapter 18: Juvenile Justice: An Overview

Glossary

Credits

Case Index

Name Index

Subject Index

Detailed Table of Contents

Part I: The Foundations of Crime and Justice

Chapter 1: Criminal Justice in America

The Emergence of Criminal Justice

Law and Order and the War on Crime
The Presidents Crime Commission
The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968
The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration

Models of Criminal Justice

The Due Process Model
The Crime Control Model

Key Factors in Criminal Justice Today

The War on Drugs
Women, Crime, and Criminal Justice
Victims and Justice
Terrorism, Criminal Justice, and the Constitution

International and Cross-Cultural Perspectives

Organization of This Book

Critical Thinking in Criminal Justice

Summary

Key Terms

Issues for Discussion

Media and Literature Resources

Endnotes

Chapter 2: Crime and the Nature of Law

The Nature of Crime

Crime as a Social Construct
Crime as a Legal Construct

Criminal Law

Common Law
Other Sources of Criminal Law

Theories of Crime Causation

Biological Theories
Sociocultural Theories

Critical Thinking in Criminal Justice

Summary

Key Terms

Issues for Discussion

Media and Literature Resources

Endnotes

Chapter 3: Legal and Behavioral Aspects of Crime

Legal Categories of Crime

Criminal Homicide
Assault
Robbery
Arson
Burglary
Property Offenses
Sex Offenses
Drug Law Violations
Crimes Against Public Order and Safety

Major Forms of Crime

Domestic Violence
Hate Crime
White-Collar and Corporate Crime
Organized Crime

Critical Thinking in Criminal Justice

Summary

Key Terms

Issues for Discussion

Media and Literature Resources

Endnotes

Chapter 4: Criminal Statistics and the Extent of Crime

The Uniform Crime Reports

Structure and Content
The Extent of Crime
Reliability of Estimates
The UCR: An Evaluation

Victim Survey Research

The National Crime Victimization Survey
Applications and Limitations of Victimization Surveys

Self-Reported Criminal Behavior

Other Sources of Data on Crime and Justice

Critical Thinking in Criminal Justice

Summary

Key Terms

Issues for Discussion

Media and Literature Resources

Endnotes

Chapter 5: The Process of Justice: An Overview

Criminal Due Process

Trial by Ordeal
Inquisitorial Versus Adversarial Justice
The Law of the Land
The Bill of Rights
Nationalization of the Bill of Rights

Due Process of Law in the Early 2000s

Substantive Due Process
Procedural Due Process

The Criminal Justice Process

Prearrest Investigation
Arrest
Booking
Initial Appearance
Preliminary Hearing
Determination of Formal Charges
Arraignment
The Trial Process
Sentencing
Appeals and Release

Criminal Justice as a System

Critical Thinking in Criminal Justice

Summary

Key Terms

Issues for Discussion

Media and Literature Resources

Endnotes

Part II: The Police

Chapter 6: Police Systems in the United States: History and Structure

The Emergence of Modern Police

Magistrates, Constables, Beadles, and Thief-Takers
Henry Fielding and the Bow Street Runners
Patrick Colquhoun and Sir Robert Peel

Law and Order in Early America

The Trans-Mississippi West
Policing the Metropolis

Police Systems in the United States

Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
Department of Justice
Department of Homeland Security
Treasury Department
United States Postal Service
Other Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
State Police Agencies
County and Municipal Policing
Police in the Private Sector
Volunteer Police and the Vigilante Tradition

Critical Thinking in Criminal Justice

Summary

Key Terms

Issues for Discussion

Media and Literature Resources

Endnotes

Chapter 7: Enforcing the Law and Keeping the Peace: The Nature and Scope of Police Work

The Functions of Police

The Role of Police
The Right to Use Force

The Police Bureaucracy

Division of Labor
Chain and Units of Command
Rules, Regulations, and Discipline

The Organization of Policing

Patrol
Detective Work
Specialized Police Units

Community Policing

Women in Policing

The Emergence of Women Police
The Equal Opportunity Movement for Women in Policing
The Current Status of Women in Policing

Police Discretion and Selective Law Enforcement

Situations Requiring Discretion
Full Versus Selective Enforcement
Factors in the Decision to Arrest
Command Discretion

The Police Subculture

The Police Personality
Sources of Stress

Critical Thinking in Criminal Justice

Summary

Key Terms

Issues for Discussion

Media and Literature Resources

Endnotes

Chapter 8: The Law of Arrest, Search, and Seizure: Police and the Constitution

Search and Seizure

Search Warrants
Probable Cause

Warrantless Search

Search Incident to Arrest
Stop-and-Frisk
Automobile Searches
Fresh Pursuit
Consent Searches
Other Warrantless Searches

The Plain View Doctrine

The Exclusionary Rule

Weeks v. United States
Wolf v. Colorado
Mapp v. Ohio

Custodial Interrogation

Twining v. New Jersey
Brown v. Mississippi
The Prompt Arraignment Rule
Confessions and Counsel
Miranda v. Arizona
Show Ups and Lineups
DNA and Other Nontestimonial Exemplars

Critical Thinking in Criminal Justice

Summary

Key Terms

Issues for Discussion

Media and Literature Resources

Endnotes

Chapter 9: Beyond the Limits of the Law: Police Crime, Corruption, and Brutality

Police Corruption

Meals and Services
Kickbacks
Opportunistic Theft
Planned Theft and Robbery
Shakedowns
Protection
Case Fixing
Private Security
Patronage

Explanations of Police Corruption

The Society-at-Large Explanation
The Structural Explanation
The Rotten-Apple Explanation

Police Violence

Police Brutality
Deadly Force
Tasers and Nonlethal Use of Force

Controlling Police Misconduct

Legislative Control
Civilian Review Boards
Police Control

Critical Thinking in Criminal Justice

Summary

Key Terms

Issues for Discussion

Media and Literature Resources

Endnotes

Part III: The Courts

Chapter 10: The Structure of American Courts

State Courts

State Court Infrastructure
Levels of Jurisdiction in State Courts
Courts of Limited Jurisdiction
Major Trial Courts
Appellate Courts
Reform and Unification of State Courts

The Federal Judiciary

U.S. Commissioners Courts and U.S. Magistrates Courts
U.S. District Courts
U.S. Courts of Appeals
The U.S. Supreme Court

Critical Thinking in Criminal Justice

Summary

Key Terms

Issues for Discussion

Media and Literature Resources

Endnotes

Chapter 11: Judges, Prosecutors, and Other Performers at the Bar of Justice

The Courtroom Work Group

Judges
Prosecutors
Defense Attorneys
Bailiffs, Clerks, and Other Courtroom Regulars

The Right to Counsel

Powell v. Alabama
Extending the Right to Counsel
Restrictions on the Right to Counsel

Legal Aid, Assigned Counsel, and Public Defenders

Voluntary Defender Programs
Assigned Counsel Systems
Public Defenders
Contract Systems

Legal, Prosecutorial, and Judicial Misconduct: Aspects of the Criminal Justice Nonsystem

Critical Thinking in Criminal Justice

Summary

Key Terms

Issues for Discussion

Media and Literature Resources

Endnotes

Chapter 12: The Business of the Court: From First Appearance Through Trial

Is Criminal Justice Chaotic?

Bail and Pretrial Release

The Right to Bail
Discretionary Bail Setting
The Bail Bond Business
Criticisms of the Bail System
Pretrial Detention
Preventive Detention
Release on Recognizance

The Grand Jury

Operation of the Grand Jury
Grand Jury Procedure and the Supreme Court
Grand Juries on Trial

The Plea

Not Guilty
Guilty
Nolo Contendere
Insanity
Statute of Limitations
Double Jeopardy

Pretrial Motions

Motion for Discovery
Motion for Change of Venue
Motion for Suppression
Motion for a Bill of Particulars
Motion for Severance of Charges of Defendants
Motion for Continuance
Motion for Dismissal

Speedy and Public Trial

The Supreme Court and Speedy Trial
Speedy Trial and the States
The Speedy Trial Act of 1974
The Right to a Public Trial

The Jury

The Right to a Trial by Jury
Jury Selection
The Venire
The Voir Dire

The Criminal Trial

Opening Statements
Presentation of the States Case
Motion for Directed Verdict
Presentation of the Defenses Case
Rebuttal and Surrebuttal
Closing Arguments
Charging the Jury
Jury Deliberations
Verdict and Judgment
Posttrial Motions

Critical Thinking in Criminal Justice

Summary

Key Terms

Issues for Discussion

Media and Literature Resources

Endnotes

Chapter 13: Sentencing, Appeal, and the Judgment of Death

Sentencing

Sentencing Objectives
Statutory Sentencing Structures
Fines
Imprisonment
Other Sentencing Variations
Disparities in Sentencing
Sentencing Reform
Truth in Sentencing
The Sentencing Process

The Death Penalty

The Death Sentence, 18641967
Capital Punishment and Discrimination
Cruel and Unusual Punishment
The Death Penalty and the Supreme Court
The Return of Capital Punishment
Methods of Execution
The Death Penalty Debate
Capital Punishment at the Beginning of the 21st Century

Appellate Review

The Defendants Right to Appeal
The Prosecutions Right to Appeal
Appellate Review of Sentences
The Appeal Process

Critical Thinking in Criminal Justice

Summary

Key Terms

Issues for Discussion

Media and Literature Resources

Endnotes

Part IV: Corrections

Chapter 14: From Walnut Street to Alcatraz: The American Prison Experience

Varieties of Punishment

Origins of American Corrections

Punishment in the Colonies
Punishment Versus Reformation
The Classical School of Criminology

American Prisons in Perspective

The Walnut Street Jail
The Separate System
The Silent System
Prison Industries
The Reformatory Era
The 20th-Century Industrial Prison

The Federal Prison System

Jails and Detention Centers

Origins of American Jails
Contemporary Jail Systems
The Jail Population
Jail Conditions
Home Incarceration

Critical Thinking in Criminal Justice

Summary

Key Terms

Issues for Discussion

Media and Literature Resources

Endnotes

Chapter 15: Penitentiaries, Prisons, and Other Correctional Institutions: A Look Inside the Inmate World

Types of Prisons

Maximum-Security Prisons
Supermax Prisons
Medium-Security Prisons
Minimum-Security Prisons
Open Institutions

Correctional Organization and Administration

Police Administration
Prison Personnel

Institutional Routines

Prison Facilities
Classification
Prison Programs

Prison Discipline

Sex in Prison

Same-Gender Sex
Sexual Assault
Conjugal Visitation
Coeducational Prisons

The Inmate Social System

Prisonization
The Inmate Code
Sources and Functions of the Inmate Social System

Women in Prison

Womens Institutions
Women and Children in Prison
The Social Order of Womens Prisons

The Effectiveness of Correctional Treatment

The Martinson Report
Obstacles to Effective Correctional Treatment

Critical Thinking in Criminal Justice

Summary

Key Terms

Issues for Discussion

Media and Literature Resources

Endnotes

Chapter 16: Prison Conditions and Inmate Rights

Attica, 1971

Conditions at Attica
The Revolt
The Assault

In Pursuit of Prisoners Rights

The Wit of Habeas Corpus
Civil Rights and Prisoners Rights

Legal Services in Prison

Johnson v. Avery
Jailhouse Lawyers

Constitutional Rights and Civil Disabilities

Religion
Mail and Media Interviews
Rehabilitative Services
Medical Services
Prisoner Labor Unions

Prison Discipline and Constitutional Rights

The Arkansas Prison Scandal
Solitary Confinement
The Lash
Prison Disciplinary Proceedings

The Conditions of Incarceration

The Texas Prison Suit
The New Mexico Inmate Massacre
Future Prospects

Reform Versus Law and Order

Critical Thinking in Criminal Justice

Summary

Key Terms

Issues for Discussion

Media and Literature Resources

Endnotes

Chapter 17: Probation, Parole, and Community-Based Correction

Criminal Justice Diversion

The Development of Diversion
Patterns of Diversion
The Impact of Diversion
Community Service Programs

Probation

The Nature of Probation
The Probation Philosophy
Suspended Sentences and Conditional Release
The Presentence or Probation Investigation
Conditions of Probation
Restitution Programs
Probation Services
Shock Probation
Intensive Probation Supervision
Probation Violation and Revocation
The Effectiveness of Probation

Parole

The Origins of Parole
Parole Administration
Eligibility for Parole
Conditions of Parole
Parole Supervision and Services
Parole Violation and Revocation
Parole Discharge
The State of Parole in the United States

Trends in Community-Based Correction

Furlough and Temporary Release
Should Parole Be Abolished?
What Works and What Does Not with Prisoner Reentry

Critical Thinking in Criminal Justice

Summary

Key Terms

Issues for Discussion

Media and Literature Resources

Endnotes

Part V: Juvenile Justice

Chapter 18: Juvenile Justice: An Overview

The Nature of Juvenile Justice
The Emergence of Juvenile Justice
Parens Patriae
Modern Juvenile Courts

The Processing of Juvenile Offenders

Police Discretion
Petition and Intake
Detention and Bail
Adjudication and Disposition

Juveniles and the Constitution

Due Process and Juvenile Proceedings
Police Encounters and Juvenile Rights
New Jersey v. T.L.O.

Critical Issues in Juvenile Justice

Status Offenders
Juveniles in Adult Courts
Children on Death Row
Juvenile Detention
Juvenile Corrections

Is Child Saving Dead?

Critical Thinking in Criminal Justice

Summary

Key Terms

Issues for Discussion

Media and Literature Resources

Endnotes

Glossary

Credits

Case Index

Name Index

Subject Index



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