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Criminal Justice Today : An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century,9780130450647

Criminal Justice Today : An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century

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Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780130450647

ISBN10:
0130450642
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div
List Price: $98.00

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Summary

THE bestselling four-color book/multimedia package in the field, this introduction to criminal justice provides arealistic description of the American criminal justice system and how it works--police, courts, and corrections. Using a three-pronged thematic approach, it provides anintricately woven picture of contemporary American criminal justice, assumes a forward-looking perspective that recognizes the importance of individual rights, social order, multiculturalism, and high-technology as they affect the day-to-day practice of criminal justice, and gives serious emphasis toterrorism as a crime. Incorporates the most authoritative, reliable, and current information, statistics, and court cases, and provides citations to online criminal justice mega-sources that are constantly updated. Features a variety of issues-oriented, career, and "the future" boxes throughout. An accompanying simulations CD features real-life scenarios based on actual U.S. Supreme Court cases that enable readers to put themselves in the role(s) of police officer, judge, probation officer, legislator, and corrections official. What Is Criminal Justice? The Crime Picture. The Search for Causes. Criminal Law. Policing: History and Structure. Police Management. Policing: Legal Aspects. The Courts. The Courtroom Work Group and the Criminal Trial. Sentencing. Probation, Parole, and Community Corrections. Prisons and Jails. Prison Life. Juvenile Justice. Drugs and Crime. Multinational Criminal Justice. The Future of Criminal Justice. For those in law enforcement, the court system, corrections, juvenile delinquency, probation, parole, and private security.

Table of Contents

A Guide to Key Features iv
About the Author viii
Preface ix
To the Student xi
Acknowledgments xxxi
Foreword xxxv
part one CRIME IN AMERICA 3(178)
What Is Criminal Justice?
5(36)
Introduction
6(3)
Crime in the Last Half Century
9(6)
What Would You Do?
12(3)
The Themes of this Book
15(6)
Social Justice
17(1)
Individual Rights Versus Public Order
18(2)
CJ Today News ``Big Brother'' Cameras on Watch for Criminals
20(1)
American Criminal Justice: The System
21(1)
The Consensus Model
21(1)
The Conflict Model
22(1)
American Criminal Justice: The Process
22(5)
Investigation and Arrest
22(2)
Pretrial Activities
24(1)
Adjudication
25(1)
Sentencing
26(1)
Corrections
26(1)
Due Process and Individual Rights
27(2)
The Role of the Courts in Defining Rights
28(1)
Crime Control through Due Process
28(1)
Criminal Justice and Criminology
29(2)
Research and Professionalism
30(1)
CJ Futures The National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center
31(1)
Multiculturalism and Diversity in Criminal Justice
31(3)
CJ Today News Immigrants Pose Cultural Challenges to the Criminal Justice System
33(1)
Things to Come: An Overview of this Book
34(1)
Summary
35(1)
Discussion Questions
35(1)
Web Quest!
36(1)
Library Extras!
36(5)
The Crime Picture
41(48)
Introduction
42(3)
Crime Data and Social Policy
43(1)
The Collection of Crime Data
44(1)
The Uniform Crime Reports
45(19)
Development of the UCR Program
45(1)
Historical Trends
45(3)
UCR Terminology
48(2)
Part I Offenses
50(5)
Multiculturalism and Diversity in America Investigating Crime in a Multicultural Setting
55(4)
Part II Offenses
59(1)
NIBRS: The New UCR
60(2)
Hate Crimes
62(2)
The National Crime Victimization Survey
64(5)
Comparisons of the UCR and the NCVS
68(1)
Guns, Crime, and Gun Control
69(2)
Gun-Control Legislation
70(1)
Support for Gun Ownership
71(1)
Emerging Patterns of Criminal Activity
71(11)
The Fear of Crime
72(1)
Women and Crime
73(2)
Multiculturalism and Diversity in America Gender Issues
75(2)
CJ Today News Law Enforcers Report Spike in Cybercrime
77(1)
The Economic Cost of Crime
78(1)
What Would you Do?
78(1)
Drugs and Crime
79(1)
The Elderly and Crime
80(1)
Multiculturalism and Diversity in America Race and the Criminal Justice System
81(1)
Summary
82(1)
Discussion Questions
83(1)
Web Quest!
83(1)
Library Extras!
83(6)
The Search for Causes
89(40)
Introduction
90(2)
Criminological Theory
92(4)
The Classical School
96(2)
Cesare Beccaria: Crime and Punishment
97(1)
Jeremy Bentham: Hedonistic Calculus
97(1)
The Neoclassical Perspective
97(1)
Social Policy and Classical Theories
98(1)
Biological Theories
98(3)
Franz Joseph Gall: Phrenology
98(1)
Cesare Lombroso: Atavism
99(1)
Criminal Families
100(1)
William Sheldon: Somatotypes
100(1)
Social Policy and Biological Theories
101(1)
Psychobiological Theories
101(2)
Chromosome Theory
101(1)
Biochemical Factors and Imbalances
101(2)
Heredity and Environment
103(1)
Social Policy and Psychobiological Theories
103(1)
Psychological Theories
103(5)
Behavioral Conditioning
104(1)
Freudian Psychoanalysis
104(1)
Psychopathology and Crime
105(1)
The Psychotic Offender
106(1)
Psychological Profiling
106(2)
Social Policy and Psychological Theories
108(1)
Sociological Theories
108(7)
Social Ecology Theory
109(1)
Anomie Theory
109(1)
CJ Futures The Physical Environment and Crime
110(2)
Subcultural Theory
112(1)
The Life Course Perspective
112(1)
Social Policy and Sociological Theories
113(2)
Social-Psychological Theories
115(3)
Differential Association Theory
116(1)
Restraint Theories
117(1)
What Would You Do?
118(1)
Conflict Theories
118(2)
Radical Criminology
119(1)
Peacemaking Criminology
119(1)
Social Policy and Conflict Theories
120(1)
The Phenomenological School
120(2)
Labeling Theory
121(1)
Emergent Theories
122(1)
Summary
123(1)
Discussion Questions
123(1)
Web Quest!
124(1)
Library Extras!
124(5)
Criminal Law
129(52)
Introduction
130(1)
The Nature of Law
131(1)
The Development of Law
131(4)
The Code of Hammurabi
131(1)
Early Roman Law
132(1)
Common Law
132(1)
The Magna Carta
133(1)
The U.S. Constitution
133(1)
Natural Law
133(2)
The Rule of Law
135(1)
Purposes of the Law
135(2)
Social Engineering
137(1)
Social Conflict
137(1)
Types of Law
137(7)
Criminal Law
138(1)
Civil Law
138(3)
CJ Today News Makers Can't Be Sued for Gun Misuse
141(2)
Administrative Law
143(1)
Case Law
143(1)
Procedural Law
144(1)
General Categories of Crime
144(2)
Felonies
144(1)
Misdemeanors
145(1)
Offenses
145(1)
Treason and Espionage
145(1)
Inchoate Offenses
146(1)
General Features of Crime
146(5)
The Criminal Act (Actus Reus)
147(1)
A Guilty Mind (Mens Rea)
147(2)
Concurrence
149(1)
Other Features of Crime
149(1)
What Would You Do?
150(1)
Elements of a Specific Criminal Offense
151(2)
The Example of Murder
151(1)
The Corpus Delicti of a Crime
152(1)
Types of Defenses to a Criminal Charge
153(22)
Alibi
153(1)
Justifications
153(3)
Excuses
156(8)
Procedural Defenses
164(4)
Innovative Defenses
168(5)
Multiculturalism and Diversity in America Legal Authority and the Criminal Law
173(2)
Summary
175(1)
Discussion Questions
175(1)
Web Quest!
176(1)
Library Extras!
176(5)
part two POLICING 181(142)
Policing: History and Structure
183(30)
Introduction
184(1)
Historical Development of the Police
184(9)
English Roots
184(2)
The Early American Experience
186(3)
The Last Half Century
189(4)
American Law Enforcement Today: From the Federal to the Local Level
193(7)
What Would You Do?
193(1)
Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
193(4)
CJ Futures NCIC 2000
197(1)
State-Level Agencies
198(1)
Local Agencies
199(1)
Private Protective Services
200(7)
The Development of Private Policing
201(2)
The Private System of Justice
203(1)
The Professionalization of Private Security
203(1)
CJ Today News FBI Joins Private Companies to Fight Espionage
204(1)
Integrating Public and Private Security
205(1)
CJ Today Exhibit 5-1 American Society for Industrial Security (ASIS)---Code of Ethics
206(1)
Summary
207(1)
Discussion Questions
208(1)
Web Quest!
208(1)
Library Extras!
208(5)
Police Management
213(60)
Introduction
214(1)
Police Administration
214(9)
Styles of Policing
215(1)
Police-Community Relations
216(7)
Discretion and the Individual Officer
223(2)
Issues and Challenges in Contemporary Policing
225(28)
Police Personality and Culture
225(1)
Multiculturalism and Diversity in America Policing a Multicultural Society
226(1)
Corruption and Integrity
227(5)
The Dangers of Police Work
232(6)
Police Civil Liability
238(1)
What Would You Do?
239(2)
CJ Today News ``De-policing'' a Response to Community's Criticism
241(2)
Racial Profiling
243(2)
Racially Biased Policing
245(1)
CJ Today News Once Appalled by Race Profiling, Many Find Themselves Doing it
246(1)
Police Use of Force
247(4)
Individual Rights Versus Public Order The Case of Bernard McCummings
251(2)
CJ Today Exhibit 6-1 The Law Enforcement Code of Ethics
253(1)
Professionalism and Ethics
253(5)
Education and Training
254(1)
Recruitment and Selection
255(1)
Police Departments as Learning Organizations
256(1)
CJ Futures Police Learning Organizations and Technology
257(1)
Ethnic and Gender Diversity in Policing
258(4)
Women as Effective Police Officers
260(1)
What Can Be Done?
261(1)
Summary
262(1)
Discussion Questions
263(1)
Web Quest!
263(1)
Library Extras!
264(9)
Policing: Legal Aspects
273(50)
Introduction
274(1)
The Abuse of Police Power
274(4)
A Changing Legal Climate
277(1)
Individual Rights
278(1)
Due Process Requirements
278(1)
Search and Seizure
279(10)
The Exclusionary Rule
279(2)
The Warren Court (1953-1969)
281(2)
The Burger (1969-1986) and Rehnquist (1986-Present) Courts
283(1)
CJ Futures The `` Computer Errors Exception'' to the Exclusionary Rule
284(3)
CJ Today Exhibit 7-1 Plain-View Requirements
287(2)
Arrest
289(14)
CJ Today News High Court Upholds Mom's Arrest in Seatbelt Violation---Cuffs, Jail Allowed in Minor Offenses
290(1)
What Would You Do?
291(1)
Searches Incident to Arrest
291(2)
Emergency Searches of Persons
293(1)
Vehicle Searches
294(3)
Individual Rights Versus Public Order Fairness in Policing
297(1)
Suspicionless Searches
298(1)
High-Technology Searches
299(1)
Individual Rights Versus Public Order The USA Patriot Act of 2001
300(3)
Multiculturalism and Diversity in America The USA Patriot Act of 2001
303(1)
The Intelligence Function
303(14)
Informants
303(1)
Police Interrogation
304(2)
The Right to a Lawyer at Interrogation
306(1)
Suspect Rights: The Miranda Decision
307(1)
CJ Today Exhibit 7-2 The Miranda Warnings
307(2)
CJ Today Exhibit 7-3 The Miranda Triggers
309(3)
Gathering Special Kinds of Nontestimonial Evidence
312(1)
Electronic Eavesdropping
313(4)
Summary
317(1)
Discussion Questions
317(1)
Web Quest!
317(1)
Library Extras!
318(5)
part three ADJUDICATION 323(126)
The Courts
325(32)
Introduction
326(1)
American Court History
327(15)
State Court Development
327(2)
State Court Systems Today
329(6)
The Rise of the Federal Courts
335(1)
Individual Rights Versus Public Order Community Justice and the Courts
336(6)
Pretrial Activities
342(9)
The First Appearance
342(3)
CJ Today Exhibit 8-1 Nonjudicial Pretrial Release Decisions
345(3)
The Grand Jury
348(1)
The Preliminary Hearing
349(1)
Arraignment and the Plea
349(2)
What Would You Do?
351(1)
Summary
351(1)
Discussion Questions
352(1)
Web Quest!
352(1)
Library Extras!
352(5)
The Courtroom Work Group and the Criminal Trial
357(46)
Introduction
358(1)
The Courtroom Work Group: Professional Courtroom Actors
358(16)
The Judge
359(2)
The Prosecuting Attorney
361(2)
The Defense Counsel
363(5)
CJ Today Exhibit 9-1 Gideon v. Wainwright and Indigent Defense
368(2)
CJ Today Exhibit 9-2 American Bar Association Code of Professional Responsibility
370(1)
The Bailiff
371(1)
Local Court Administrators
371(1)
The Court Recorder
371(1)
The Clerk of Court
372(1)
The Expert Witness
372(1)
CJ Today News Secret-Telling Sparks Some Ethical Conflicts
373(1)
Outsiders: Nonprofessional Courtroom Participants
374(4)
Lay Witnesses
374(1)
Jurors
374(1)
The Victim
375(1)
The Defendant
376(1)
The Press
377(1)
What Would You Do?
378(1)
The Criminal Trial
378(15)
Trial Initiation: The Speedy Trial Act
380(1)
Jury Selection
381(3)
Opening Statements
384(1)
CJ Today Exhibit 9-3 Peremptory Challenges and Race
385(1)
The Presentation of Evidence
385(1)
CJ Today Exhibit 9-4 Pretrial and Posttrial Motions
386(2)
CJ Today Exhibit 9-5 ``Pleading the Fifth''
388(3)
Closing Arguments
391(1)
The Judge's Charge to the Jury
391(1)
Jury Deliberations and the Verdict
391(2)
Improving the Adjudication Process
393(3)
CJ Futures Courtrooms of the Future
394(1)
Multiculturalism and Diversity in America The Bilingual Courtroom
395(1)
Summary
396(1)
Discussion Questions
396(1)
Web Quest!
397(1)
Library Extras!
397(6)
Sentencing
403(46)
Introduction
404(1)
The Philosophy and Goals of Criminal Sentencing
405(4)
Retribution
406(1)
Incapacitation
406(1)
Deterrence
406(1)
Rehabilitation
407(1)
Restoration
408(1)
Indeterminate Sentencing
409(2)
Critiques of Indeterminate Sentencing
410(1)
Structured Sentencing
411(4)
Critiques of Structured Sentencing
413(1)
CJ Today Exhibit 10-1 Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances
413(1)
Mandatory Sentencing
414(1)
Truth in Sentencing
415(2)
CJ Today Exhibit 10-2 Three Strikes and You're Out: A Brief History of the ``Get Tough on Crime'' Movement
416(1)
Federal Sentencing Guidelines
417(3)
Federal Guideline Provisions
417(1)
Plea Bargaining under the Guidelines
418(1)
CJ Today News Does ``Scarlet Letter'' Judge Cross the Line?
419(1)
Innovations in Sentencing
420(2)
CJ Futures Is Chemical Castration a Valid Sentencing Option?
421(1)
Questions about Alternative Sanctions
422(1)
The Sentencing Environment
422(1)
The Presentence Investigation Report
423(1)
The Victim---Forgotten no Longer
424(4)
CJ Today Exhibit 10-3 Is the Victims' Rights Amendment Dead?
426(1)
Victim-Impact Statements
426(2)
Traditional Sentencing Options
428(13)
Fines
429(1)
Death: The Ultimate Sanction
430(11)
What Would You Do?
441(1)
Summary
441(1)
Discussion Questions
442(1)
Web Quest!
442(1)
Library Extras!
442(7)
part four CORRECTIONS 449(124)
Probation, Parole, and Community Corrections
451(28)
Introduction
452(2)
What Is Probation?
454(2)
The Extent of Probation
454(2)
Probation Conditions
456(1)
What Is Parole?
456(3)
The Extent of Parole
457(1)
Parole Conditions
458(1)
Federal Parole
458(1)
Probation and Parole: The Pluses and Minuses
459(1)
Advantages of Probation and Parole
459(1)
Disadvantages of Probation and Parole
459(1)
The Legal Environment
460(3)
What Would You Do?
460(3)
CJ Today News Parole Denied for Radical in Fatal 1981 Robbery
463(1)
The Federal Probation System
463(1)
The Job of Probation and Parole Officers
464(1)
The Challenges of the Job
465(1)
Intermediate Sanctions
465(6)
Split Sentencing
466(1)
Shock Probation and Shock Parole
466(1)
Shock Incarceration
467(1)
Mixed Sentencing and Community Service
468(1)
Intensive Supervision
469(1)
Home Confinement and Electronic Monitoring
470(1)
The Future of Probation and Parole
471(3)
CJ Futures Probation Kiosks: High-Tech Supervision
473(1)
Summary
474(1)
Discussion Questions
474(1)
Web Quest!
474(1)
Library Extras!
475(4)
Prisons and Jails
479(52)
Introduction
480(1)
Early Punishments
480(3)
Flogging
481(1)
Mutilation
482(1)
Branding
482(1)
Public Humiliation
482(1)
Workhouses
482(1)
Exile
483(1)
The Emergence of Prisons
483(21)
The Penitentiary Era (1790-1825)
485(1)
The Mass Prison Era (1825-1876)
485(1)
CJ Today Exhibit 12-1 Chaplain James Finley's Letter from the Ohio Penitentiary, 1850
486(1)
The Reformatory Era (1876-1890)
486(1)
CJ Today Exhibit 12-2 An Early Texas Prison
487(2)
The Industrial Era (1890-1935)
489(2)
The Punitive Era (1935-1945)
491(1)
CJ Today Exhibit 12-3 Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary
492(1)
The Treatment Era (1945-1967)
493(1)
The Community-Based Era (1967-1980)
494(2)
The Warehousing Era (1980-1995)
496(4)
What Would You Do?
500(1)
The Just Deserts Era (1995-Present)
500(4)
Prisons Today
504(7)
Security Levels
506(2)
CJ Today News Rural Towns Turn to Prisons to Reignite Their Economies
508(1)
The Federal Prison System
509(1)
Recent Improvements
510(1)
Jails
511(3)
CJ Today News Politically Correct Punishment
513(1)
Women and Jail
514(6)
The Growth of Jails
515(1)
Direct-Supervision Jails
516(2)
Jails and the Future
518(1)
CJ Today Exhibit 12-4 American Jail Association Code of Ethics for Jail Officers
519(1)
Private Prisons
520(4)
CJ Futures Jails and the Future
521(2)
CJ Today Exhibit 12-5 Arguments for and Against the Privatization of Prisons
523(1)
Summary
524(1)
Discussion Questions
524(1)
Web Quest!
525(1)
Library Extras!
525(6)
Prison Life
531(42)
Introduction
532(1)
Research on Prison Life---Total Institutions
532(1)
The Male Inmate's World
533(6)
The Evolution of Prison Subcultures
534(1)
CJ Today Exhibit 13-1 Prison Argot: The Language of Confinement
535(1)
The Functions of Prison Subcultures
535(1)
Prison Lifestyles and Inmate Types
536(2)
Homosexuality in Prison
538(1)
The Female Inmate's World
539(6)
CJ Today News Child Sleepovers at Prison Reviewed
542(1)
Social Structure in Women's Prisons
543(1)
Types of Female Inmates
544(1)
Violence in Women's Prisons
544(1)
The Staff World
545(3)
Types of Correctional Officers
546(1)
CJ Today Exhibit 13-2 American Correctional Association Code of Ethics
547(1)
The Professionalization of Correctional Officers
547(1)
Prison Riots
548(2)
Causes of Riots
548(2)
Stages in Riots and Riot Control
550(1)
Prisoners' Rights
550(11)
The Legal Basis of Prisoners' Rights
551(1)
Precedents in Prisoners' Rights
552(4)
CJ Today Exhibit 13-3 Federal Oversight of the Texas Prison System: A Timeline
556(2)
What Would You Do?
558(1)
A Return to the Hands-Off Doctrine?
558(1)
CJ Today News Male Prisoners Have Right to Procreate, Court Rules
559(2)
Issues Facing Prisons Today
561(5)
AIDS
562(1)
Geriatric Offenders
562(1)
Mentally Ill Inmates
563(2)
CJ Futures Technocorrections
565(1)
Summary
566(1)
Discussion Questions
567(1)
Web Quest!
567(1)
Library Extras!
567(6)
part five SPECIAL ISSUES 573(163)
Juvenile Justice
575(44)
Introduction
576(3)
Juvenile Justice Throughout History
579(5)
Earliest Times
579(1)
Juveniles in Early America
579(1)
The Institutional Era
580(2)
The Juvenile Court Era
582(2)
The Problems of Children Today
584(12)
Drug and Alcohol Abuse
585(1)
Violence
586(1)
Gangs
587(2)
CJ Today Exhibit 14-1 What Is a Gang?
589(1)
Runaways
589(1)
Sexual Abuse
590(1)
Other Forms of Abuse
591(1)
CJ Today News Colorado Parents Probed in Death of Newborn
592(1)
Teen Suicide
592(1)
What Can Be Done?
593(1)
CJ Today Exhibit 14-2 Parents on Trial
594(2)
The Legal Environment
596(5)
Kent v. U.S. (1966)
596(1)
In re Gault (1967)
596(1)
In re Winship (1970)
597(1)
McKeiver v. Pennsylvania (1971)
598(1)
Breed v. Jones (1975)
598(1)
Schall v. Martin (1984)
599(1)
Illinois v. Montanez (1996)
599(1)
Legislation Concerning Juvenile Justice
600(1)
The Legal Rights of Juveniles
600(1)
What Would You Do?
601(1)
The Juvenile Justice Process Today
601(9)
Adult and Juvenile Justice Compared
602(1)
CJ Today Exhibit 14-3 The Juvenile Justice System Versus Criminal Case Processing
603(1)
How the System Works
603(4)
CJ Today Exhibit 14-4 Juvenile Courts Versus Adult Courts
607(3)
The Post-Juvenile Court Era
610(2)
Summary
612(1)
Discussion Questions
612(1)
Web Quest!
613(1)
Library Extras!
613(6)
Drugs and Crime
619(40)
Introduction
620(1)
Drug Abuse: More Than an Individual Choice
620(1)
What is a Drug?
621(4)
Alcohol Abuse
622(3)
A History of Drug Abuse in America
625(7)
Drug Use and Social Awareness
627(1)
Antidrug Legislation
628(3)
The Investigation of Drug Abuse and Manufacturing
631(1)
CJ Today Exhibit 15-1 Drugs: What's in a Name?
632(1)
The Most Common Drugs---And who is Using Them
632(8)
Marijuana
634(1)
Cocaine
635(1)
Heroin
636(1)
Club Drugs
637(1)
CJ Today News Club Drugs Sending More Young People to Hospitals
638(2)
Drugs and Crime
640(3)
Money Laundering
641(1)
Narcoterrorism
642(1)
Solving the Drug Problem
643(9)
Strict Enforcement
644(1)
Asset Forfeiture
644(2)
What Would You Do?
646(1)
Interdiction
646(1)
Crop Control
647(1)
Education and Treatment
648(2)
Legalization and Decriminalization
650(2)
Summary
652(1)
Discussion Questions
652(1)
Web Quest!
653(1)
Library Extras!
653(6)
Multinational Criminal Justice
659(34)
Introduction
660(3)
Ethnocentrism and the Study of Criminal Justice
661(1)
Problems with Data
662(1)
The Chinese Justice System
663(7)
Maoist Justice
663(1)
The Chinese Justice System Today
664(1)
CJ Today Exhibit 16-1 Individual Rights Guaranteed Under the Constitution of the People's Republic of China
664(4)
CJ Today News China Strikes Hard, Hopes Crime Takes a Hit
668(2)
Islamic Criminal Justice
670(3)
The Hudud Crimes
670(2)
The Tazir Crimes
672(1)
Islamic Courts
672(1)
Criminal Justice in England and Wales
673(7)
Crime Rates
673(1)
The British Political System
674(1)
Modern Criminal Law in Britain
675(1)
The British Police
676(1)
The British Courts
677(2)
CJ Today Exhibit 16-2 Judicial Officers in Britain
679(1)
British Corrections
679(1)
International Criminal Justice Organizations
680(7)
The Role of the United Nations in Criminal Justice
681(1)
CJ Today Exhibit 16-3 Vienna Declaration on Crime and Justice
682(1)
Transnational Crime
683(1)
What Would You Do?
683(1)
Interpol and Europol
684(1)
The International Criminal Court
685(2)
Summary
687(1)
Discussion Questions
687(1)
Web Quest!
687(1)
Library Extras!
688(5)
The Future of Criminal Justice
693(43)
Introduction
694(1)
Technology and Criminal Justice
695(19)
A Brief History of Criminal Justice Technologies
696(1)
Criminalistics: Past, Present, and Future
697(1)
Emerging Technologies in Criminalistics
698(2)
What Would You Do?
700(4)
Problems in Implementing New Technologies
704(1)
Cybercrime: The New White-Collar Crime
705(7)
Identity Theft
712(2)
Terrorism
714(10)
Types of Terrorism
715(1)
CJ Today Exhibit 17-1 What Is Terrorist Activity?
716(2)
Terrorism and Technology
718(2)
CJ Today News Student Cyber Corps Tackles Terrorism
720(1)
Combating Terrorism
720(1)
Foreign Terrorist Organizations
721(1)
CJ Today Exhibit 17-2 Recommendations of the National Commission on Terrorism
722(1)
CJ Today Exhibit 17-3 The USA Patriot Act of 2001
723(1)
Technology and Individual Rights
724(5)
Technology and the First Amendment
724(1)
Technology and the Second Amendment
725(1)
Technology and the Fourth Amendment
726(1)
Technology and the Fifth Amendment
727(1)
Technology and the Sixth Amendment
728(1)
Technology and the Eighth Amendment
728(1)
Technology and the Fourteenth Amendment
729(1)
Summary
729(1)
Discussion Questions
730(1)
Web Quest!
730(1)
Library Extras!
731(5)
Bill of Rights 736(1)
List of Acronyms 737(2)
Glossary 739(25)
Case Index 764(3)
Name Index 767(10)
Subject Index 777

Excerpts

The first edition of this textbook appeared in print more than ten years ago. At that time, I chose what seemed to be a rather unique subtitle:An Introductory Text for the Twenty-first Century.The subtitle was unusual not only because the new century was still more than a decade away, but because other introductory criminal justice authors seemed to be writing about the past and not the future. I wanted my subtitle to speak to students and professors. I wanted it to say, "This is a book that, while it owes a legacy to the past, is not bound by it. This is a book that will prepare students of justice for the world of the future--a soon-to-be vital and real world with almost limitless possibilities in which they will live and work." Since then, of course, much has changed.Criminal Justice Todayis now in its seventh edition. The twenty-first century is here, and thinking about the future has become routine. As I write this preface to the seventh edition, I think of how the first edition of this text was a standard ink-on-paper hardcover book with sparsely placed black-and-white photographs. I reflect on how it has since evolved into a multimedia-rich, information-filled, experiential package that brings up-to-the-minute learning opportunities to today's students in printed form, on the Web, via CD-ROM, and through other digital formats. I think of how it makes extensive use of technologically enhanced learning environments, and I hope that it has contributed, at least in some small way, to the growth and continuing maturation of those environments. The seventh edition of this learning package (for it is no longer merely a book) is intimately integrated with today's "wired" world.Criminal Justice Todayhas evolved into a multifaceted learning experience that, I believe, sets the standard for a new generation of educational tools that integrate text-based information and electronic media in ways not possible only a short while ago. Although you can still hold this book in your hands, the printed pages are but a representation of the multitude of learning possibilities that accompany it. TheCriminal Justice TodayCompanion Website ( http://www.cjtoday.com ), for example, adds a wealth of constantly updated news, statistics, legal information, and diverse opinions to the core text.The Criminal Justice Todaye-mail discussion groups, message boards, and Talk Justice facility make it possible for students and professors to interact with one another and with others across the nation and around the world who share an interest in criminal justice and in crime prevention. Our criminal justice Cybrary ( http://cybrary.info ) provides a fully searchable gold mine of thousands of up-to-the-minute justice-specific websites and publications to facilitate research, writing, and learning. WebCT and Blackboard templates and fully developed content for this textbook, as well as the online teaching possibilities provided by theCriminal Justice TodayCompanion Website, allow classes to be taught entirely online, so students can study criminal justice subject matter from virtually anywhere. While much has changed over seven editions, this text remains true to its original purpose. In the preface to the first edition, I wrote that the purpose of this book is "to teach criminal justice students the fundamental tried-and-true concepts of an evolving discipline, to give them the critical-thinking skills necessary to effectively apply those concepts to the real world, and to apply those concepts and skills to today's problems and to the emerging issues of tomorrow." In Chapter 1 of that edition, I promised that this book would "describe in detail the criminal justice system, while helping students develop an appreciation for the delicacy of the balancing act n


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