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Criminal Violence: Patterns, Causes, and Prevention, Third Edition, provides a current, comprehensive, and highly accessible overview of major topics, theories, and controversies within the field of criminal violence. Using lively, straightforward language, Marc Riedel and Wayne Welsh consider diverse theoretical perspectives and present state-of-the-art prevention and intervention methods. In their discussions of various types of violence, the authors employ a consistent and coherent three-part framework that allows students to see the important relationships between research, theory, and application: * "Patterns" describe the characteristics of victims, offenders, and offenses; places where violence occurs frequently; and trends over time. * "Explanations" look at the major theories that are used to understand each type of violence. * "Interventions" propose solutions for each type of violence, including diverse legal and social strategies--both proactive (e.g., prevention) and reactive (e.g., punishment). Supplemented by an Instructor's Manual with Test Bank, the thoroughly revised and updated third edition: * Now integrates theory into each chapter, allowing students to better understand how theory relates to various types of violence * Integrates a comparative perspective where appropriate * Adds additional examples, boxes, bullet points, review questions, and case studies throughout
Marc Riedel is Professor of Sociology at Southeastern Louisiana University.
Wayne Welsh is Professor of Criminal Justice at Temple University.
Table of Contents
Preface Foreword About the Authors
SECTION I: INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 1. VIOLENCE AND CRIMINAL VIOLENCE Defining Violence Turning Violence into Criminal Violence Perspectives on Criminal Violence --- A Criminological Perspective --- A Criminal Justice Perspective --- Public Health Perspectives How Is Criminal Violence Studied? --- Theoretical Perspectives --- Research Methods --- Challenges of Violence Research What Lies Ahead? --- A Tripartite Approach to Understanding Violence Conclusions
SECTION II: TOOLS
CHAPTER 2. MEASURES OF VIOLENCE The Application of Measures of Violence Overview Crime Rates Uniform Crime Reports --- Collecting Violent Crime Data National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) --- Comparing the UCR and the NIBRS National Crime Victimization Survey --- The Redesign of the NCVS
CHAPTER 3. VIOLENCE IN OTHER TIMES AND PLACES Violence in the Early United States White and Native American Warfare --- The Trail of Tears Slavery, African Americans, and Violence --- Lynching Social Banditry Prohibition --- The Role of Organized Crime Contemporary Trends in Violence --- Violence in Other Places --- Transnational Comparisons Conclusions
SECTION III: TYPES OF CRIMINAL VIOLENCE
CHAPTER 4. HOMICIDES AND ASSAULTS Homicides and Assaults in the United States --- Patterns --- Other Characteristics --- Arrest Clearances --- Serial Homicides Trends --- Arrest Clearances --- Explanations --- Interventions --- Increasing Clearance Rates --- Apprehending Serial Killers Conclusions
CHAPTER 5. ROBBERY Patterns and Trends Explanations --- Strain Theory and Differential Opportunity Theory --- Control Theory --- Differential Association Theory --- Symbolic Interaction Theory --- Routine Activities Theory Interventions --- Criminal Justice Approaches --- Opportunity Reduction Strategies Conclusions
CHAPTER 6. RAPE AND SEXUAL ASSAULTS Definitions, Patterns, and Trends Characteristics of Victims, Offenders, and Offenses Explanations --- Psychoanalytic Theories --- Feminist Theories --- Social Learning Theories Interventions --- Rape Law Reform --- Incarceration and Recidivism --- Sex Offender Notification and Registration Laws --- Victim Resistance --- Victim Counseling and Assistance --- Sex Offender Treatment Programs Conclusions
CHAPTER 7. HATE CRIMES Definitions --- Patterns and Trends Explanations --- Group Conflict Theories --- Strain Theory --- Social Learning Theory Interventions --- Police Bias Investigation Units and Conflict Prevention Units --- Hate Crimes Legislation --- Civil Remedies --- Teaching Tolerance Conclusions
SECTION IV: VIOLENCE IN SPECIFIC SETTINGS AND CONTEXTS
CHAPTER 8. FAMILY VIOLENCE "People Hit Family Members Because They Can" Patterns and Risks --- Intimate Violence --- Violence Towards Other Family Members Trends --- Intimate Partners --- Child Killings Explanations --- Intimate Partner Violence --- Violence Towards Children Interventions --- Reducing Intimate Partner Violence --- Reducing Family Violence Conclusion: Is It Time for Another Look?
CHAPTER 9. WORKPLACE VIOLENCE Introduction --- Multiplier Effects Patterns and Trends --- Types of Workplace Violence --- Workplace Homicide --- Nonfatal Workplace Violence --- "Going Postal" Explanations --- Routine Activities --- Rational Choice and Aggression in the Workplace Interventions --- Prevention Policies and Strategies --- Empirical Evidence
CHAPTER 10. SCHOOL VIOLENCE Patterns and Trends --- Fear and Avoidance --- School Security Responses --- School Disciplinary Data --- Student Victimization --- Student and Teacher Perceptions of School Violence --- Self-Reported School Violence Explanations of School Disorder --- Individual Explanations --- School-Level Theories --- Community and Multilevel Explanations of School Disorder Interventions --- The National Study of Delinquency Prevention in Schools School-Based Violence Prevention: What Works? --- Conflict Resolution --- Peer Mediation --- Changing School Organization and Climate Conclusions
CHAPTER 11. GANGS AND GANG VIOLENCE Patterns and Trends of Gang Violence --- A Problem of Definition --- Focusing the Definition --- Growth and Change in Gangs --- Gang Organization and Violence Explanations --- Strain Theories --- Cultural Deviance --- Social Control Interventions --- Reducing Gang Violence in Boston --- Pulling Levers in Other Jurisdictions Conclusions
CHAPTER 12. THE ROLE OF FIREARMS IN VIOLENCE Patterns and Trends --- Crimes Involving Firearms --- Victims --- Characteristics of Offenders --- Firearm Acquisition, Ownership, and Use Explanations --- Symbolic Interaction Theory --- Routine Activities and Illegal Markets --- Cultural Theories and Firearm Availability Interventions --- Disrupting Illegal Gun Markets --- The Boston Gun Project and Operation Ceasefire --- Gun Control Legislation --- Right-to-Carry Laws Firearm Injury Prevention Programs Conclusions
CHAPTER 13. THE ROLE OF DRUGS AND ALCOHOL IN VIOLENCE Patterns Explanations --- Biological and Psychological Effects --- Routine Activities --- Cultural Explanations --- Structural Explanations --- Situational Explanations Interventions --- Criminal Justice Approaches --- Public Health Approaches Conclusions
CHAPTER 14. TERRORISM Definitions Patterns and Trends --- A Brief History of Terrorism --- State-Sponsored Terrorism --- Terrorist Tactics --- Types of Terrorists --- Terrorist Incidents Explanations Strain Theory Social Learning Theory Conflict Theory Interventions --- The 9/11 Report: A Global Strategy --- The Patriot Act --- Military Action --- Diplomacy and International Cooperation Conclusion
SECTION V: CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 15. PREVENTION AND PUNISHMENT: A DELICATE BALANCE Criminal Justice Approaches --- Criminal Justice Goals --- The Death Penalty --- Three-Strikes Laws --- The Limits of Punishment Public Health Approaches --- The Multilevel Risk Approach --- OJJDP's Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders --- Community-Based Approaches --- Blueprints for Violence Prevention When Violent Crime Goes Down, Do We Know Why? Conclusion