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Criminal Violence: Patterns, Explanations, and Prevention, Fourth Edition, provides a current, comprehensive, and highly accessible overview of major topics, theories, and controversies within the field of criminal violence.
Using engaging, straightforward language, Marc Riedel and Wayne Welsh consider diverse theoretical perspectives and present state-of-the-art prevention and intervention methods. In their discussions of various types of violence, the authors employ a consistent and coherent three-part framework that allows students to see the important relationships between research, theory, and application.
Marc Riedel is Professor of Sociology at Southeastern Louisiana University.
Wayne Welsh is Professor of Criminal Justice at Temple University.
Table of Contents
Preface About the Authors
Section I: Introduction
Chapter 1. Violence and Criminal Violence
Defining Violence Turning Violence into Criminal Violence Perspectives on Criminal Violence A Criminological Perspective A Criminal Justice Perspective Public Health Perspectives How Is Criminal Violence Studied? Theoretical Perspectives Research Methods Challenges of Violence Research What Lies Ahead? A Tripartite Approach to Understanding Violence Conclusions Discussion Questions Suggested Readings References
Section II: Tools
Chapter 2. Measures of Violence
The Application of Measures of Violence Overview Crime Rates Uniform Crime Reports Collecting Violent Crime Data National Incident-Based Reporting System Comparing the Uniform Crime Report and the National Crime Victimization Survey National Crime Victimization Survey The Redesign of the National Crime Victimization Survey The National Crime Victimization Survey Today Strengths and Limitations of the National Crime Victimization Survey Limitations of the National Crime Victimization Survey Discussion Questions Suggested Readings References
Chapter 3. Violence in Other Times and Places
Violence in the Early United States White and Native American Warfare The Trail of Tears Slavery, African Americans, and Violence Lynching Social Banditry Prohibition The Role of Organized Crime Contemporary Trends in Violence Impersonalization of Homicide Violence in Other Places Conclusions Discussion Questions Suggested Readings Note References
Section III: Types of Criminal Violence
Chapter 4. Homicides and Assaults
Homicides and Assaults in the United States Age, Gender, and Race Other Characteristics Arrest Clearances Multiple Murders Trends Trends in Arrest Clearances Trends in Serial Homicides Explanations Symbolic Interaction Subcultural Theories Explaining the Characteristics of Arrest Clearances Explaining Serial Homicides Interventions Increasing Clearance Rates Apprehending Serial Killers Conclusions Discussion Questions Suggested Readings References
Chapter 5. Robbery
Patterns and Trends Explanations Strain Theory and Differential Opportunity Theory Control Theory Differential Association Theory Symbolic Interaction Theory Feminist Theory Routine Activities Theory Interventions Criminal Justice Approaches Opportunity Reduction Strategies Conclusions Discussion Questions Suggested Readings Note References
Chapter 6. Rapes and Sexual Assaults
Definitions Patterns and Trends Characteristics of Victims, Offenders, and Offenses Explanations Psychiatric Perspectives Feminist Theories Social Cognitive Theories Multifactor Theories Interventions Rape Law Reform Incarceration Sex Offender Notification and Registration Laws Victim Resistance Victim Services Sexual Violence Education Sex Offender Treatment Programs Conclusions Discussion Questions Suggested Readings Notes References
Chapter 7. Hate Crimes
Definitions Patterns and Trends Explanations Group Conflict Theories Strain Theory Social Learning Theory Interventions Law Enforcement Responses Hate Crime Legislation Civil Lawsuits Educational Strategies Conclusions Discussion Questions Suggested Readings Notes References
Section IV: Violence in Specific Settings and Contexts
Chapter 8. Family Violence
"People Hit Family Members Because They Can" Patterns and Risks Intimate Partner Violence Violence Toward Family Members Trends Intimate Partners Child Killings Explanations Intimate Partner Violence Violence Toward Children Interventions Reducing Intimate Partner Violence Reducing Family Violence Conclusion: Is It Time for Another Look? Discussion Questions Suggested Readings References
Chapter 9. Workplace Violence
Introduction Multiplier Effects Patterns and Trends Types of Workplace Violence Nonfatal Workplace Violence Workplace Homicide "Going Postal" Explanations Routine Activities Rational Choice: and Aggression in the Workplace Interventions Prevention Policies and Strategies Empirical Evidence Discussion Questions Suggested Readings References
Chapter 10. School Violence
Patterns and Trends Fear and Avoidance School Security Responses School Incidents and Disciplinary Actions Student Victimization Teacher Victimization Self-Reported School Violence Explanations of School Disorder Individual Explanations School-Level theories Community and Multilevel Explanations of School Disorder Interventions School-Based Violence Prevention: What Works? The National Study of Delinquency Preventions in Schools Examples of School-Based Prevention Programs Conclusions Discussion Questions Suggested Readings References
Chapter 11. Gangs and Gang Violence
Patterns and Trends Growth and Change in Gangs Gang Organization and Violence Explanations Strain Theories Cultural Deviance Social Control Interactional Theory Interventions Reducing Gang Violence in Boston Pulling Levers in Other Jurisdictions Conclusions Discussion Questions Suggested Readings References
Chapter 12. The Role of Firearms in Violence
Patterns and Trends Crimes Involving Firearms Victims Characteristics of Offenders Firearm Acquisition, Ownership, and Use Explanations Symbolic Interaction Theory Routine Activities and Illegal Markets Cultural Theories and Firearm Availability Media Violence Interventions Disrupting Illegal Gun Markets Gun Control Legislation Right-to-Carry Laws Firearm Injury Prevention Programs Conclusions Discussion Questions Suggested Readings Note References
Chapter 13. The Role of Drugs and Alcohol in Violence
Patterns Explanations Biological and Psychological Effects Routine Activities Cultural Explanations Structural Explanations Situational Interventions Interventions Criminal Justice Approaches Public Health Approaches Conclusions Discussion Questions Suggested Readings Notes References
Chapter 14. Terrorism
Definitions Patterns and Trends A Brief History of Terrorism State-Sponsored Terrorism. Terrorist Tactics Types of Terrorists . Terrorist Incidents Explanations Strain Theory Social Learning Theory Conflict Theory Interventions The 9/11 Report The Patriot Act Military Action Diplomacy and International Cooperation Conclusions Discussion Questions Suggested Readings Notes References
Section V: Conclusion
Chapter 15. Prevention and Punishment: A Delicate Balance
Criminal Justice Approaches Criminal Justice Goals The Death Penalty . Three Strikes Laws The Limits of Punishment Public Health Approaches to Punishment and Prevention The Multilevel Risk Approach Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders Community Based Approaches Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development When Violent Crime Goes Down, Do We Know Why? Conclusions Discussion Questions Suggested Readings References