All chapters conclude with “Summary,” “Important Terms,” “Review Questions,” “Survey,” and “For Further Study.”
I. INTRODUCTION TO CRIMINOLOGY.
1. The Study of Crime.
The Nature of Crime and Delinquency.
Social Origins of the Criminal Law.
Strategies of Criminological Research.
II. THE EXTENT AND NATURE OF CRIME.
2. Measuring Crime.
The Emergence of Modern Criminology.
Official Crime Statistics.
Measuring Criminal Victimization.
Measuring Crime by Self-Reports.
3. Crime and Its Costs.
4. Dimensions of Crime.
Cross-National Variations in Crime Rates.
Regional Variations in Crime Rates within the United States.
Variations in Crime Rates by Community.
Temporal Variations in Crime Rates.
Variations in Crime Rates by Sex.
Variations in Crime Rates by Age.
Variations in Crime Rates by Race.
Variations in Crime Rates by Social Class.
III. THE CAUSES OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR.
5. Biological and Psychological Explanations of Crime.
Biological Explanations of Crime.
Psychological Explanations of Crime.
6. Social, Cultural, and Economic Sources of Crime.
Social, Cultural, and Economic Sources of White-Collar Crime.
Social, Cultural, and Economic Sources of Organized Crime.
Social, Cultural, and Economic Sources of Conventional Crime.
Gender, Crime, and Feminist Criminology.
Social, Cultural, and Economic Factors and Variations in Crime Rates.
7. Social Control and Commitment to the Law.
Neutralizing the Law.
Social Control Theory.
Techniques of Neutralization, Social Control Theory, and Variations in Crime Rates.
8. Learning to Commit Crime.
Sources of Learning to Commit Crime.
Differential Association Theory.
The Labeling Perspective.
Rewards and Risks of Crime.
Learning Theories and Variations in Crime Rates.
9. Opportunities and Facilitating Factors.
Routine Activities Theory.
Targets of Crime.
Facilitating Factors: Alcohol, Drugs, and Firearms.
10. Criminal Careers.
Theoretical Perspectives on Criminal Careers.
Analyzing Criminal Careers.
Criminal Careers of Robbers.
Criminal Careers of White-Collar Offenders.
Leaving a Life of Crime.
11. The Organization of Criminal Behavior.
The Meaning of Organization.
IV. REACTIONS TO CRIME.
12. Community Reactions to Crime.
Fear of Crime.
Informal Control of Crime.
Individual Response to Crime.
Collective Response to Crime.
13. The Criminal Justice System.
The Victim in the Criminal Justice System.
14. Deterrence, Incapacitation, Retribution, and Rehabilitation.
15. Solving the Crime Problem.
Ideological Approaches to Solving the Crime Problem.
The Politics of Crime.
Crime and the Criminal Justice System.
Situational Crime Prevention.
Dealing with the Causes of Crime.