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Ideal for undergraduate courses in criminology--especially those taught from a critical perspective--Criminology: A Sociological Approach, Sixth Edition, is a comprehensive yet highly accessible introduction to the study of crime and criminological theory. Authors Piers Beirne and James W. Messerschmidt present the topic from a sociological standpoint, emphasizing the social construction of crime and showing how crime relates to gender, class, race, and age. Providing students with a strong theoretical foundation, the book also addresses historical, feminist, and comparative perspectives and highlights the major types of crime and victimization patterns.
THE TEXT IS DIVIDED INTO THREE PARTS: * Part I focuses on four questions: "What is crime?" "How are perceptions of it influenced by the mass media and by fear of crime?" "How can we measure how much crime there is in the United States?" and finally, "How often does crime occur and with what degrees of seriousness?" * Part II is a systematic guide to modern criminological theory and its historical development * Part III examines specific types of crime, including property crime, interpersonal violence, white-collar crime, and political crime, and it concludes with a chapter on comparative criminology and globalization
The sixth edition features new and up-to-date empirical data and also covers areas not included in many criminology texts, like cultural criminology, green criminology, whiteness and crime, the rape-war connection, Ponzi schemes, domestic right-wing terrorism, and state-sanctioned torture.
Piers Beirne is Professor of Sociology and Legal Studies in the Department of Criminology at the University of Southern Maine.
James W. Messerschmidt is Professor of Sociology and Women and Gender Studies in the Department of Criminology at the University of Southern Maine.
Table of Contents
Brief Contents List of Boxes, Figures, and Tables Preface About the Authors
Part I. Introduction to Criminology
1. The Problem of Crime Preview Key Terms 1.1 Images of Crime Crime as a Social Problem Crime and the Culture of Fear Crime in the Mass Media Newsmaking Criminology 1.2 Crime, Criminal Law, and Criminalization Crime as a Legal Category Law and State Law and Criminalization 1.3 Crime as a Sociological Problem Crime as a Violation of Conduct Norms Crime as Social Harm and Analogous Social Injury Crime as a Violation of Rights Crime and Deviance Crime, Globalization, and Global Conduct Norms Assessment Review Questions for Class Discussion For Further Study
2. The Measurement of Crime Preview Key Terms 2.1 Caution: Data Do Not Speak for Themselves! 2.2 Official Crime Data Police-Based Data: Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) Police-Based Data: National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) Evaluation of the UCR Victimization Data: National Crime Victimization Surveys (NCVS) Evaluation of the NCVS Federal Data on White-Collar Crime, Corporate Crime, and Internet Crime 2.3 Unofficial Crime Data Self-Report Data Life-Course Data Life-History Data Criminal Biographies Observation Research and Participant Observation Research Comparative and Historical Research Assessment Review Questions for Class Discussion Web Exercises For Further Study
Part II. Criminological Theory
3. Inventing Criminology: Classicism, Positivism, and Beyond Preview Key Terms 3.1 The Enlightenment and Classical Criminology Beccaria: Of Crimes and Punishments (1764) Bentham: Punishment and the Panopticon Toward the Disciplinary Society 3.2 The Emergence of Positivist Criminology The Crisis of Classicism: The Dangerous Classes Quetelet's Social Mechanics of Crime 3.3 Criminal Anthropology: Lombroso's "Born Criminal" Lombroso's Criminal Man (1876) Goring's The English Convict (1913) 3.4 Neoclassical Criminology Penal Dilemmas Neoclassical Compromises Assessment: Classicism and Positivism Today Review Questions for Class Discussion For Further Study
4. Social Structure, Anomie, and Crime Preview Key Terms 4.1 Durkheim's Sociology of Law and Crime Law and Social Solidarity The Nature of Crime Anomie, Egoism, and Crime The Evolution of Punishment Evaluation of Durkheim 4.2 Social Structure, Anomie, and Deviance Merton's Typology of Modes of Individual Adaptation Evaluation of Merton 4.3 Revised Strain Theory Agnew's General Strain Theory Evaluation of General Strain Theory Messner and Rosenfeld's Institutional Anomie Theory Evaluation of Institutional Anomie Theory Review Questions for Class Discussion For Further Study
5. Delinquent Subcultures, Subcultures of Delinquency, and the Labeling Perspective Preview Key Terms 5.1 The Chicago School of Criminology: Social Disorganization and Delinquency Shaw and McKay's Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas (1942) Evaluation of the Chicago School 5.2 Delinquent Subcultures A. K. Cohen's Delinquent Boys (1955) Delinquency and Lower-Class Culture Delinquency and Opportunity Evaluation of Subcultural Theory 5.3 Matza's Delinquency and Drift (1964) The Positive Delinquent The Subculture of Delinquency Delinquency and Drift Evaluation of Delinquency and Drift 5.4 The Labeling Perspective The Social Meaning of Deviance Societal Reaction Primary and Secondary Deviance Deviance Amplification Stigmatization Evaluation of Labeling Theory Review Questions for Class Discussion For Further Study
6. Social Learning Theory and Social Control Theory Preview Key Terms 6.1 Differential Association Evaluation of Differential Association 6.2 Social Learning Theory Differential Reinforcement Evaluation of Social Learning Theory 6.3 Social Control Theory Evaluation of Social Control Theory 6.4 Self-Control Theory Gottfredson and Hirschi's Theory of Self-Control Evaluation of Self-Control Theory 6.5 Control Balance Theory Evaluation of Control Balance Theory Review Questions for Class Discussion For Further Study
7. The Conflict Tradition Preview Keywords 7.1 Marxism, Law, and Crime Key Concepts of Marxism State and Law Criminalization as a Violation of Rights Crime and Demoralization Evaluation of Marxism 7.2 Conflict Theory Crime and Criminalization Criminal Law and Crime Toward an Integrated Conflict Theory Evaluation of Conflict Theory 7.3 Radical Criminology Left Realism Evaluation of Radical Criminology Review Questions for Class Discussion For Further Study
8. Feminist and Critical Criminologies Preview Key Terms 8.1 Feminist Criminologies The First Phase The Second Phase Evaluation of Feminist Criminologies 8.2 Critical Criminologies Constitutive Criminology Cultural Criminology Critical Humanist Criminologies Green Criminology Evaluation of Critical Criminologies Review Questions for Class Discussion For Further Study
Part III. Inequalities and Crime
9. Inequality, Crime, and Victimization Preview Key Terms 9.1 Class and Crime Patterns of Crime and Victimization Class and Varieties of Crime 9.2 Gender and Crime Patterns of Crime and Victimization Gender and Varieties of Crime 9.3 Race and Crime Patterns of Crime and Victimization Race and Varieties of Crime 9.4 Age and Crime Patterns of Crime and Victimization Age and Varieties of Crime Review Questions for Class Discussion For Further Study
10. Property Crime Preview Key Terms 10.1 Robbery and Burglary Robbery Typologies of Robbery Robbery as Transaction Robbers on Robbery Burglary Burglars on Burglary 10.2 Varieties of Larceny Shoplifting Motor Vehicle Theft Fraud 10.3 Dealing and Damage Fencing Arson Review Questions for Class Discussion For Further Study
11. Interpersonal Violence Preview Key Terms 11.1 Murder, Assault, Hate Crimes, and Rape Murder and Aggravated Assault Hate Crimes Rape 11.2 Interpersonal Violence in the Family Heterosexual Wife Rape and Battering Gay and Lesbian Partner Battering Child and Elder Abuse Animal Abuse 11.3 Interpersonal Violence in the Workplace Murder and Assault Sexual Harassment Review Questions for Class Discussion For Further Study
12. White-Collar Crime Preview Key Terms 12.1 Occupational Crime Occupational Theft Occupational Fraud 12.2 Corporate Crime Corporate Violence Corporate Theft 12.3 Transnational Corporate Crime Bribery Dumping Dangerous Working Conditions Review Questions for Class Discussion For Further Study
13. Political Crime Preview Key Terms 13.1 Political Crimes Against the State Violent Political Crimes Against the State Nonviolent Political Crimes Against the State 13.2 Domestic Political Crimes by the State State Corruption State Political Repression State-Corporate Crime 13.3 Transnational Political Crimes by the State State Terrorism The State, Terrorism, and Globalization Review Questions for Class Discussion For Further Study
14. Comparative Criminology Preview Key Terms 14.1 Approaching Comparative Criminology The Goal(s) of Comparative Criminology Transnational Crime Cultural Relativism A Case Study of Comparative Sexual Deviance Toward Uniform Cross-National Crime Statistics Evaluation of Comparative Criminology 14.2 Comparative Crime and Victimization Data Cross-National Crime Data Cross-National Victimization Data 14.3 Cross-National Generalizations Regarding Crime Countries with Low Crime Rates Modernization and Crime Globalization and Crime American Exceptionalism: Crime and Incarceration in Comparative Perspective Review Questions for Class Discussion For Further Study