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Criminology : A Sociological Understanding,9780130896438

Criminology : A Sociological Understanding

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780130896438

ISBN10:
0130896438
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2001
Publisher(s):
PRENTICE HALL
List Price: $88.40

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Summary

This book provides a sociological perspective on crime and criminal justice by treating social structure and social inequality as central themes in the study of crime-and major factors in society's treatment of criminals. It gives explicit attention to key sociological concepts such as poverty, gender, race, and ethnicity, and demonstrates their influence on crime. Recent coverage of major topics and current controversial issues includes computer crimes; harm reduction in society's effort to deal with illegal drug use; workplace violence; police scandals; violence against civilians; gun control; capital punishment; drug legalization; husband battering; civil disobedience; workplace violence; and racial prejudice and policing. For individuals trying to make informed judgements about why crime occurs and how society can best address this problem. m.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
About the Author xxiii
Part I: Understanding Crime and Victimization
Criminology and the Sociological Perspective
1(19)
The Sociological Perspective
3(3)
The Mutual Relevance of Sociology and Criminology
5(1)
The Rise of Sociological Criminology
6(2)
Consensus and Conflict in the Creation of Criminal Law
8(1)
Research Methodology in Criminology
9(4)
Types of Research
9(3)
Criteria of Causality
12(1)
An Overview of Criminal Law
13(4)
Legal Distinctions in Types of Crime
14(1)
Criminal Intent
15(1)
Legal Defenses to Criminal Liability
15(2)
Summary and Conclusion
17(1)
Key Terms
17(1)
Study Questions
18(1)
Internet Exercises
18(2)
Public Opinion, the News Media, and the Crime Problem
20(28)
Public Opinion and Public Policy
22(2)
The Accuracy of Public Beliefs about Crime and Criminal Justice
24(10)
The News Media and Public Opinion on Crime
25(2)
Overdramatization of Crime in the News Media
27(1)
A Brief Look Back
28(1)
Crime Myths
29(3)
The Effects of Media Coverage
32(1)
Crime and Controversy: Media Coverage of Violence Against Women
33(1)
Research on Public Attitudes about Crime and Punishment
34(11)
Fear of Crime
34(1)
International Focus: Perceptions of Crime and Criminal Justice in Canada
35(6)
The Seriousness of Crime
41(2)
Attitudes toward the Punishment of Criminals
43(2)
Summary and Conclusion
45(1)
Key Terms
46(1)
Study Questions
46(1)
Internet Exercises
47(1)
The Measurement and Patterning of Criminal Behavior
48(30)
Measuring Crime
50(11)
The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
50(6)
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
56(3)
Self Report Studies
59(2)
Evaluating UCR, NCVS, and Self Report Data
61(1)
Recent Trends in U.S. Crime Rates
61(2)
The Patterning of Criminal Behavior
63(2)
Geographical Patterns
63(1)
International Focus: Measuring Crime in Other Nations
64(1)
Seasonal and Climatological Variations
64(1)
Social Patterns of Criminal Behavior
65(9)
Gender and Crime
65(4)
Race and Crime
69(2)
Class and Crime
71(2)
Age and Crime
73(1)
Chronic Offenders and Criminal Careers
74(2)
Crime and Controversy: Criminal Potential and Life Events after Childhood
75(1)
Summary and Conclusion
76(1)
Key Terms
77(1)
Study Questions
77(1)
Internet Exercises
77(1)
Victims and Victimization
78(28)
Defining Victims and Studying Victimization
80(2)
The Patterning of Victimization
82(11)
Geographical Patterns
82(1)
Social Patterns
83(2)
International Focus: Cross-National Victimization Patterns
85(3)
The Victim--Offender Relationship
88(2)
Crime Characteristics
90(1)
Intimate Violence
91(2)
Explaining Victimization
93(5)
Lifestyle and Routine Activities Theory
94(1)
Deviant Lifestyles and Victimization
95(1)
Physical Proximity and Victimization
96(1)
Explaining Demographic Variation in Victimization
96(1)
The Issue of Victim Precipitation
96(2)
The Costs and Consequences of Victimization
98(2)
Economic and Medical Costs and Consequences
98(1)
Psychological Consequences
99(1)
Victims in the Criminal Justice System
100(1)
Victimization by White-Collar Crime
101(1)
Victimization of the Homeless
102(1)
Crime and Controversy: The Politics of Victimization
102(1)
Summary and Conclusion
103(1)
Key Terms
104(1)
Study Questions
105(1)
Internet Exercises
105(1)
Part II: Explaining Crime
Explaining Crime: Emphasis on the Individual
106(36)
From Theology to Science
110(5)
Gods and Demons as Causes of Crime and Deviance
110(1)
The Age of Reason
110(1)
The Classical School of Criminology
111(3)
The Rise of Positivism
114(1)
Biological Explanations
115(15)
Phrenology
115(1)
Cesare Lombroso: Atavism
115(2)
Earnest Hooton: Biological Inferiority
117(1)
William Sheldon: Body Shapes
118(1)
Family, Heredity, and Genes
119(3)
Neurochemical Mechanisms
122(3)
Diet and Nutrition
125(1)
Pregnancy and Birth Complications
126(1)
Crime and Controversy: Race and Biological Research
127(1)
Critique of Biological Explanations
128(2)
Psychological Explanations
130(8)
Psychoanalytic Explanations
130(1)
Moral Development and Crime
131(1)
Intelligence and Crime
132(1)
Personality and Crime
133(2)
Critique of Psychological Explanations
135(1)
International Focus: Psychological Research in New Zealand
136(2)
Summary and Conclusion
138(2)
Key Terms
140(1)
Study Questions
140(1)
Internet Exercises
140(2)
Sociological Theories: Emphasis on Social Structure
142(30)
The Legacy of Durkheim
145(1)
Social Disorganization and Social Ecology
146(9)
Clifford R. Shaw and Henry D. McKay
148(1)
Critique of Social Disorganization Theory
149(1)
The Revival of Social Disorganization Theory
149(1)
Other Ecological Work
150(1)
International Focus: Crime Rates Rise as Norms Break Down
151(4)
Anomie/Strain Theory
155(7)
Critique of Anomie Theory
157(2)
Defense and Extension of Anomie Theory
159(1)
General Strain Theory
160(1)
Crime and Controversy: Crime in Families: Social Environment or Biological Problem?
161(1)
Subcultural Theories
162(6)
Albert K. Cohen: School Failure and Delinquent Subcultures
162(2)
Walter B. Miller: Focal Concerns
164(2)
Marvin Wolfgang and Franco Ferracuti: The Subculture of Violence
166(1)
Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin: Differential Opportunity Theory
167(1)
Structural Theories and Gender
168(1)
Summary and Conclusion
169(1)
Key Terms
170(1)
Study Questions
171(1)
Internet Exercises
171(1)
Sociological Theories: Emphasis on Social Process
172(32)
Learning Theories
174(8)
Edwin H. Sutherland: Differential Association Theory
175(4)
Crime and Controversy: Delinquent Peers and Delinquency: The Causal Order Debate
179(1)
Other Learning Theories
180(2)
Control Theories
182(17)
Walter Reckless: Containment Theory
183(1)
Gresham M. Sykes and David Matza: Neutralization and Drift Theory
184(3)
Travis Hirschi: Social Control Theory
187(1)
International Focus: Social Bonding and Crime in Japan
188(9)
Michael Gottfredson and Travis Hirschi: Self-Control Theory
197(2)
Integrating Social Process and Structural Explanations
199(3)
Summary and Conclusion
202(1)
Key Terms
203(1)
Study Questions
203(1)
Internet Exercises
203(1)
Sociological Theories: Critical Perspectives
204(32)
Labeling Theory
207(9)
The Relativist Definition of Crime and Deviance
207(1)
The Imposition of the Deviant Label
207(2)
The Negative Consequences of Labeling
209(3)
Critique of Labeling Theory
212(1)
Revising and Renewing Labeling Theory
213(1)
Crime and Controversy: How Should We Deal with Juvenile Offenders?
214(2)
Conflict and Radical Theories
216(11)
Consensus and Conflict Perspectives in Sociology
216(1)
Conflict Perspectives in Criminology
217(2)
Radical Theories in Criminology
219(1)
International Focus: Crime and the Economy in China and Vietnam
220(7)
Feminist Theories
227(6)
Feminist Perspectives in Criminology
227(2)
The Scope of Feminist Theory and Research
229(2)
Developments in Feminist Criminology
231(2)
A Final Word on Feminism
233(1)
Summary and Conclusion
233(2)
Key Terms
235(1)
Study Questions
235(1)
Internet Exercises
235(1)
Part III: Criminal Behaviors
Violent Crime: Homicide, Assault, and Robbery
236(34)
Homicide and Assault
238(17)
Defining Homicide and Assault
238(1)
The Patterning and Social Dynamics of Homicide
239(3)
Trends in U.S. Homicide Rates
242(3)
Explaining Homicide and Assault
245(1)
International Focus: Why Is Canada Less Violent Than the United States?
246(6)
Crime and Controversy: Using Violence to Stop Violence
252(1)
Mass Media and Violence
253(2)
Robbery
255(5)
Defining Robbery
255(1)
The Extent, Patterning, and Costs of Robbery
255(3)
Types of Robbers
258(1)
Explaining Robbery
258(1)
Carjackings
258(2)
Workplace Violence
260(1)
Guns and Gun Control
260(6)
The Extent and Distribution of Guns
261(1)
The Use of Handguns in Violent Crime
261(1)
Do Handguns Deter or Promote Violent Crime?
262(2)
The Effectiveness of Gun Control
264(1)
The Effectiveness of Tougher Penalties for Handgun Crimes
265(1)
Reducing Violent Crime
266(2)
What History Tells Us
266(2)
Summary and Conclusion
268(1)
Key Terms
268(1)
Study Questions
268(1)
Internet Exercises
269(1)
Violence Against Women and Children
270(28)
Violence against Women
272(18)
An International Problem
273(1)
International Focus: Dowry Deaths in India and Pakistan
273(1)
Defining Rape and Battering
274(1)
The Extent of Rape and Battering
275(3)
The Social Patterning of Rape and Battering
278(2)
Explaining Rape and Battering
280(5)
The Issue of Husband Battering
285(1)
Reducing Violence against Women
286(2)
Crime and Controversy: Is a Woman's Sexual Past Relevant in a Rape Case?
288(2)
Violence against Children: Physical and Sexual Abuse
290(6)
Defining Child Physical and Sexual Abuse
291(1)
The Extent of Physical and Sexual Abuse
291(2)
The Patterning of Physical and Sexual Abuse
293(1)
Explaining Child Abuse
294(2)
Reducing Child Abuse
296(1)
Summary and Conclusion
296(1)
Key Terms
297(1)
Study Questions
297(1)
Internet Exercises
297(1)
Property Crime
298(26)
Defining Property Crime
300(1)
The Extent of Property Crime
301(1)
The Patterning of Property Crime
302(3)
The Social Organization of Property Crime
305(3)
Burglary
306(2)
Property Crime Victimization: Costs and Circumstances
308(2)
International Focus: Property Crime in Eighteenth-Century England
309(1)
Forgery and Fraud
310(3)
Check Forgery and Credit Card Fraud
311(1)
Coupon Fraud
311(1)
Welfare and Tax Fraud
311(1)
Insurance Fraud
312(1)
Explaining Property Crime
313(6)
Cultural Emphasis on Economic Success
313(1)
Techniques of Neutralization
314(1)
Economic Deprivation and Unemployment
315(1)
Routine Activities and Social Process Factors
316(1)
Property Crime for Thrills
316(1)
A Look at Shoplifting and Arson
317(2)
Reducing Property Crime
319(2)
Crime and Controversy: Target Hardening: Is Increased Security Worth the Price?
320(1)
Summary and Conclusion
321(1)
Key Terms
322(1)
Study Questions
322(1)
Internet Exercises
323(1)
White-Collar Crime
324(34)
Defining White-Collar Crime
326(4)
Edwin Sutherland and White-Collar Crime
327(1)
Conceptual Problems in Defining White-Collar Crime
328(1)
Contemporary Views
329(1)
Occupational Crime: Lawbreaking for Personal Gain
330(8)
Employee Theft: Pilferage and Embezzling
330(2)
Collective Embezzlement in the Savings and Loan Industry
332(1)
Fraud in the Professions
332(1)
Health-Care Fraud
333(3)
Financial Fraud
336(1)
Police and Political Corruption: Violations of Public Trust
337(1)
Organizational Criminality and Corporate Crime
338(12)
Corporate Financial Crime
339(3)
Corporate Violence: Threats to Health and Safety
342(1)
Crime and Controversy: Did Tobacco Companies Lie to Consumers?
343(5)
International Focus: Pharmaceutical Industry ``Dumping'' in the Third World
348(2)
The Economic and Human Costs of White-Collar Crime
350(1)
Explaining White-Collar Crime
351(3)
Reducing White-Collar Crime
354(1)
Summary and Conclusion
355(1)
Key Terms
356(1)
Study Questions
357(1)
Internet Exercises
357(1)
Political Crime
358(38)
Defining Political Crime
360(2)
Crime by Government
362(15)
Political Repression and Human Rights Violations
362(3)
International Focus: Human Rights Abuses in Nigeria
365(7)
Unethical or Illegal Experimentation
372(1)
State-Corporate Crime
373(2)
Political Corruption
375(2)
Hate Crime
377(2)
Crime against Government
379(13)
Mass Political Violence: Rebellion, Riots, Terrorism
380(6)
Civil Disobedience
386(4)
Crime and Controversy: Blood and Hammers Against Nuclear Weapons
390(1)
Espionage and Treason
390(2)
Explaining and Reducing Political Crime
392(2)
The Social Patterning of Political Crime
392(1)
Reducing Political Crime
393(1)
Summary and Conclusion
394(1)
Key Terms
395(1)
Study Questions
395(1)
Internet Exercises
395(1)
Public Order Crime and Organized Crime
396(38)
Overview of the Public Order Crime Debate
398(1)
Illegal Drug Use
399(18)
Drug Use in History
400(1)
Contemporary U.S. Drug Use
401(4)
Explaining Illegal Drug Use
405(3)
The Drugs--Crime Connection
408(2)
The Legalization Debate
410(6)
Harm Reduction and Drug Courts
416(1)
Sexual Offenses: Prostitution and Pornography
417(7)
Prostitution
417(2)
Pornography
419(1)
Crime and Controversy: Should Prostitution Be Legalized?
420(4)
Gambling
424(2)
Organized Crime
426(4)
History of Organized Crime
426(2)
The Alien Conspiracy Model and Myth
428(1)
International Focus: The Globalization of Public Order Crime and Organized Crime
429(1)
Reducing Public Order Crime and Organized Crime
430(2)
Summary and Conclusion
432(1)
Key Terms
432(1)
Study Questions
432(1)
Internet Exercises
433(1)
Part IV: Controlling and Preventing Crime
Policing: Dilemmas of Crime Control in a Democratic Society
434(36)
Crime Control in a Democratic Society
437(2)
The Ideal of Blind Justice
438(1)
A Preview of the Discussion
439(1)
The Development of the Modern Police Force
439(2)
Working Personality and Police Behavior
441(8)
Police Misconduct: Brutality
443(4)
Police Misconduct: Corruption
447(1)
Police Scandals
448(1)
International Focus: Police and Policing in Japan
449(1)
Police Discretion: To Arrest or Not to Arrest?
449(8)
Race, Ethnicity, and Arrest
450(5)
Gender and Arrest
455(2)
The Impact of Policing on Crime
457(9)
Do Additional Police Deter Crime?
457(3)
Does Arrest Make a Difference?
460(1)
Crime and Controversy: The 1990s' Drop in Urban Crime: A Result of ``Zero-Tolerance'' Policing?
461(2)
Community Policing: Real Promise or False Hope?
463(1)
Legal Technicalities and Police Effectiveness
463(1)
The Impact of Policing on Crime, Revisited
464(2)
Women and People of Color in Police Forces
466(2)
Summary and Conclusion
468(1)
Key Terms
468(1)
Study Questions
469(1)
Internet Exercises
469(1)
Prosecution and Punishment
470(36)
Criminal Courts and the Adversary System
472(4)
Prosecutors, the Courtroom Work Group, and Plea Bargaining
474(2)
Punishment, Social Structure, and Inequality
476(16)
Social Class and Legal Outcomes
478(2)
The Impact of Race and Ethnicity
480(10)
Gender and Sentencing
490(1)
International Focus: Punishing Criminals in Denmark and the Netherlands
491(1)
The Impact of Punishment on Crime
492(5)
Crime and Controversy: ``Three Strikes and You're Out'' Legislation
494(1)
The Evidence against a Deterrent Effect
495(2)
The Death Penalty Debate
497(6)
The Cost of the Death Penalty
497(1)
General Deterrence and the Death Penalty
498(1)
Arbitrariness and Racial Discrimination in the Death Penalty's Application
499(2)
The Quality of Legal Representation of Capital Defendants
501(1)
Wrongful Executions
502(1)
Summary and Conclusion
503(1)
Key Terms
504(1)
Study Questions
504(1)
Internet Exercises
505(1)
Conclusion: How Can We Reduce Crime?
506(16)
The Criminal Justice System ``Funnel''
508(3)
Sociological Prescription for Crime Reduction
511(9)
Social, Cultural, and Community Crime Prevention (Primary Prevention)
512(3)
Developmental Crime Prevention (Secondary Prevention)
515(2)
Criminal Justice Approaches (Tertiary Prevention)
517(3)
Summary and Conclusion
520(1)
Key Terms
521(1)
Study Questions
521(1)
Internet Exercises
521(1)
Glossary 522(7)
References 529(45)
Photo Credits 574(1)
Name Index 575(10)
Subject Index 585

Excerpts

PREFACE Welcome to this sociological introduction to the field of criminology! The successful first edition of this book emphasized the need to understand the social causes of crime in order to be able to significantly reduce crime. I liken this approach to that followed by the field of public health. If crime were a disease like cancer, we would naturally try to determine what was causing it so that we could prevent people from getting it. Although it's important to treat people who already have cancer, there will always be more cancer patients unless we discover its causes and then do something about these causes. The analogy to crime is clear: Unless we discover the causes of crime and do something about them, there will always be more criminals. Unfortunately, this is not the approach the United States has taken during the past few decades. Instead it has relied on a "get tough" approach to the crime problem that relies on more intensive policing, longer and more certain prison terms, and the building of more and more prisons. The nation's prison and jail population soared and reached 2 million as the new century began. Although crime did decline during the 1990s, criminologists dispute whether this decline stemmed from this "get tough" approach or, instead, from an improved economy, a decline in illegal drug trafficking, and other factors. As the 1990s ended, many criminologists even began to warn that the surge in prisoners could be setting the stage for a crime increase down the line, as almost all of these prisoners, penniless and without jobs and embittered by their incarceration, will one day be returned to their communities. In offering a sociological understanding of crime, this book suggests that the "get tough" approach is short-sighted since it ignores the roots of crime in the social structure and social inequality of society. To reduce crime, we must address these structural conditions and appreciate the role that factors such as race and ethnicity, gender, and social class play in criminal behavior. For criminology courses like my own, housed in sociology departments, it is especially important that criminology students acquire the sociological understanding that this book offers. But this understanding is also important for criminology students in courses housed in criminal justice departments. If crime cannot be fully understood without appreciating its structural context, then students in both sociology and criminal justice departments who do not develop this appreciation have only an incomplete understanding of the reasons for crime and of the most effective strategies to reduce it. In presenting a sociological perspective on crime and criminal justice, this book highlights issues of race and ethnicity, gender, and social class in every chapter and emphasizes the criminogenic effects of the social and physical features of urban neighborhoods. This second edition continues to include certain chapters that remain uncommon in other criminology texts, including Chapter 2 on "Public Opinion, the News Media, and the Crime Problem," Chapter 13 on "Political Crime," and Chapter 17 on "How Can We Reduce Crime?" In addition, the book's criminal justice chapters, Chapter 15 on "Policing: Dilemmas of Law Enforcement in Democratic Society" and Chapter 16 on "Prosecution and Punishment," continue to address two central themes in the sociological understanding of crime and criminal justice: (1) the degree to which race and ethnicity, gender, and social class affect the operation of the criminal justice system, and (2) the extent to which reliance on the criminal justice system can reduce the amount of crime. These two themes in turn reflect two more general sociological issues: the degree to which inequality affects the dynamics of social institutions, and the extent to which formal sanctions affect human behavior. The second edition of this book has been thoroughly revised. It i


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