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Criminology: Theories, Patterns, And Typologies

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Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780495005728

ISBN10:
049500572X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
2/27/2006
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $168.95

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Summary

See how criminology relates to criminal justice policy with CRIMINOLOGY: THEORIES, PATTERNS AND TYPOLOGIES! With an in-depth analysis of all areas of criminological theory and crime typologies, this up-to-date criminal justice text provides you with the tools you need to succeed. Studying is made easy with, chapter objectives, end-of-chapter reviews, key concepts, concepts summary tables, and newsworthy examples that help you see how what you are learning applies in the real world.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
PART ONE CONCEPTS OF CRIME, LAW, AND CRIMINOLOGY
1(92)
Crime and Criminology
2(26)
What Is Criminology?
4(2)
Criminology and Criminal Justice
4(1)
Criminology and Deviance
5(1)
Becoming Deviant
5(1)
A Brief History of Criminology
6(5)
Classical Criminology
7(1)
Nineteenth-Century Positivism
7(2)
The Foundations of Sociological Criminology
9(1)
The Development of Sociological Criminology
9(1)
The Development of Social Process Theories
10(1)
The Roots of Conflict Criminology
10(1)
Contemporary Criminology
10(1)
What Criminologists Do: The Criminological Enterprise
11(3)
Criminal Statistics
11(1)
The Sociology of Law
12(1)
Theory Construction
12(1)
Criminal Behavior Systems
13(1)
Penology
13(1)
Victimology
13(1)
Comparative Criminology: International Crime Trends
14(1)
How Criminologists View Crime
14(4)
The Consensus View of Crime
15(1)
The Conflict View of Crime
16(1)
The Interactionist View of Crime
16(2)
Defining Crime
18(1)
Crime and the Criminal Law
18(3)
Common Law
18(1)
Contemporary Criminal Law
19(1)
The Evolution of Criminal Law
20(1)
Ethical Issues in Criminology
21(1)
The Criminological Enterprise: The Elements of Criminal Law
22(2)
Summary
24(1)
ThomsonNOW
24(1)
Thinking Like a Criminologist
25(1)
Doing Research on the Web
25(1)
Book Companion Website
25(1)
Key Terms
25(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
26(1)
Notes
26(2)
The Nature and Extent of Crime
28(38)
Primary Sources of Crime Data
30(6)
Official Record Research
30(3)
Survey Research
33(2)
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
35(1)
Evaluating Primary Crime Data Sources
36(1)
Secondary Sources of Crime Data
36(2)
Cohort Research
36(1)
Experimental Research
37(1)
Observational and Interview Research
37(1)
Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review
38(1)
Data Mining
38(1)
Crime Mapping
38(1)
Crime Trends
38(2)
Trends in Violent Crime
39(1)
Trends in Property Crime
39(1)
The Criminological Enterprise: Explaining Crime Trends
40(4)
Trends in Victimization Data (NCVS Findings)
43(1)
Trends in Self-Reporting
43(1)
What the Future Holds
44(1)
Crime Patterns
45(3)
The Ecology of Crime
45(2)
Use of Firearms
47(1)
Social Class, Socioeconomic Conditions, and Crime
47(1)
Policy and Practice in Criminology: Should Guns Be Controlled?
48(10)
Age and Crime
51(1)
Gender and Crime
52(2)
Race and Crime
54(2)
Chronic Offenders/Criminal Careers
56(2)
Summary
58(1)
ThomsonNOW
59(1)
Thinking Like a Criminologist
59(1)
Doing Research on the Web
59(1)
Book Companion Website
59(1)
Key Terms
60(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
60(1)
Notes
60(6)
Victims and Victimization
66(27)
Problems of Crime Victims
68(2)
Economic Loss
68(1)
System Abuse
68(1)
Long-Term Stress
68(1)
Fear
69(1)
The Criminological Enterprise: Adolescent Victims of Violence
70(1)
Antisocial Behavior
71(1)
The Nature of Victimization
71(4)
The Social Ecology of Victimization
72(1)
The Victim's Household
72(1)
Victim Characteristics
72(2)
Victims and Their Criminals
74(1)
Theories of Victimization
75(1)
Victim Precipitation Theory
75(1)
Lifestyle Theory
75(1)
The Criminological Enterprise: Rape on Campus: Lifestyle and Risk
76(4)
Deviant Place Theory
77(1)
Routine Activities Theory
78(2)
The Criminological Enterprise: Crime and Everyday Life
80(1)
Caring for the Victim
81(3)
The Government's Response
81(1)
Victim Service Programs
82(1)
Victims' Rights
83(1)
Comparative Criminology: Victims' Rights in Europe
84(2)
Victim Advocacy
84(1)
Self-Protection
85(1)
Community Organization
86(1)
Summary
86(1)
ThomsonNOW
87(1)
Thinking Like a Criminologist
87(1)
Doing Research on the Web
87(1)
Book Companion Website
88(1)
Key Terms
88(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
88(1)
Notes
88(5)
PART TWO THEORIES OF CRIME CAUSATION
93(224)
Choice Theories
94(36)
The Development of Rational Choice Theory
96(2)
The Classical Theory of Crime
96(1)
Choice Theory Emerges
97(1)
The Concepts of Rational Choice
98(4)
Offense- and Offender-Specific Crimes
98(1)
Structuring Criminality
99(1)
Structuring Crime
100(2)
Is Crime Rational?
102(1)
Is Theft Rational?
102(1)
Is Drug Use Rational?
102(1)
Is Violence Rational?
102(1)
The Criminological Enterprise: Hector Vega: A Life in the Drug Trade
103(2)
Eliminating Crime
105(4)
Situational Crime Prevention
105(4)
Comparative Criminology: CCTV or Not CCTV? Comparing Situational Crime Prevention Efforts in Great Britain and the United States
109(5)
General Deterrence
110(4)
The Criminological Enterprise: Does Capital Punishment Deter Murder?
114(2)
Specific Deterrence
114(2)
Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology: Deterring Domestic Violence
116(4)
Incapacitation
118(2)
Public Policy Implications of Choice Theory
120(2)
Just Desert
120(2)
Summary
122(1)
ThomsonNOW
122(1)
Thinking Like a Criminologist
122(1)
Doing Research on the Web
123(1)
Book Companion Website
123(1)
Key Terms
123(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
123(1)
Notes
124(6)
Trait Theories
130(44)
Foundations of Trait Theory
132(2)
Impact of Sociobiology
132(1)
Modern Trait Theories
133(1)
Biosocial Trait Theories
134(2)
Biochemical Conditions and Crime
135(1)
Comparative Criminology: Diet and Crime: An International Perspective
136(12)
Neurophysiological Conditions and Crime
140(2)
Arousal Theory
142(1)
Genetics and Crime
143(3)
Evolutionary Theory
146(1)
Evaluation of the Biosocial Branch of Trait Theory
147(1)
Psychological Trait Theories
148(6)
Psychodynamic Theory
149(3)
Behavioral Theory
152(1)
Cognitive Theory
153(1)
The Criminological Enterprise: The Media and Violence
154(3)
Psychological Traits and Characteristics
157(3)
Personality and Crime
157(2)
Intelligence and Crime
159(1)
The Criminological Enterprise: The Antisocial Personality
160(3)
Public Policy Implications of Trait Theory
163(1)
Summary
164(1)
ThomsonNOW
164(1)
Thinking Like a Criminologist
164(1)
Doing Research on the Web
165(1)
Book Companion Website
165(1)
Key Terms
165(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
166(1)
Notes
166(8)
Social Structure Theories
174(38)
Socioeconomic Structure and Crime
176(3)
Child Poverty
177(1)
The Underclass
178(1)
Minority Group Poverty
178(1)
Social Structure Theories
179(1)
Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology: Bridging the Racial Divide
180(1)
Social Disorganization Theories
180(6)
Foundations of Social Disorganization Theory
182(2)
The Social Ecology School
184(2)
The Criminological Enterprise: Random Family
186(4)
Strain Theories
190(8)
The Concept of Anomie
191(1)
Merton's Theory of Anomie
192(1)
Structural Level Strain: Institutional Anomie Theory
193(1)
Individual Level Strain: General Strain Theory
194(2)
Sources of Strain
196(1)
Coping with Strain
197(1)
Evaluating GST
197(1)
Cultural Deviance Theories
198(3)
Conduct Norms
198(1)
Focal Concerns
199(1)
Theory of Delinquent Subcultures
199(2)
Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology: The Code of the Streets
201(2)
Theory of Differential Opportunity
202(1)
Evaluating Social Structure Theories
203(1)
Public Policy Implications of Social Structure Theory
204(1)
Summary
205(1)
ThomsonNOW
205(1)
Thinking Like a Criminologist
205(1)
Doing Research on the Web
206(1)
Book Companion Website
206(1)
Key Terms
206(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
206(1)
Notes
207(5)
Social Process Theories
212(38)
Socialization and Crime
214(4)
Family Relations
214(2)
Educational Experience
216(1)
Peer Relations
217(1)
Policy and Practice in Criminology: Keeping Kids in School: The Communities in Schools Program
218(3)
Institutional Involvement and Belief
220(1)
The Effects of Socialization on Crime
221(1)
Social Learning Theory
221(7)
Differential Association Theory
222(3)
Differential Reinforcement Theory
225(1)
Neutralization Theory
226(2)
Are Learning Theories Valid?
228(1)
Social Control Theory
228(4)
Self-Concept and Crime
228(1)
Hirschi's Social Bond Theory
229(3)
Social Reaction Theory
232(6)
Crime and Labeling Theory
234(1)
Differential Enforcement
234(1)
Becoming Labeled
234(19)
Consequences of Labeling
253
Primary and Secondary Deviance
236(1)
Research on Social Reaction Theory
236(1)
Is Labeling Theory Valid?
237(1)
Evaluating Social Process Theories
238(1)
Public Policy Implications of Social Process Theory
238(2)
Policy and Practice in Criminology: Head Start
240(2)
Summary
242(1)
ThomsonNOW
243(1)
Thinking Like a Criminologist
243(1)
Doing Research on the Web
243(1)
Book Companion Website
243(1)
Key Terms
243(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
244(1)
Notes
244(6)
Social Conflict Theories: Critical Criminology and Restorative Justice
250(32)
Marxist Thought
253(3)
Productive Forces and Productive Relations
253(1)
Surplus Value
254(1)
Marx on Crime
255(1)
Developing a Conflict-Based Theory of Crime
256(1)
The Contribution of Willem Bonger
256(1)
The Contribution of Ralf Dahrendorf
256(1)
The Contribution of George Vold
257(1)
Social Conflict Theory
257(2)
Social Conflict Research
258(1)
Critical Criminology
259(4)
Fundamentals of Critical Criminology
260(1)
Instrumental versus Structural Theory
261(1)
Research on Critical Criminology
262(1)
Critique of Critical Criminology
263(1)
Contemporary Forms of Critical Theory
263(4)
Left Realism
264(1)
Critical Feminist Theory
264(2)
Power-Control Theory
266(1)
Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology: Capitalism and Patriarchy
267(2)
Postmodern Theory
268(1)
Peacemaking Theory
268(1)
Public Policy Implications of Social Conflict Theory: Restorative Justice
269(5)
Reintegrative Shaming
270(1)
The Concept of Restorative Justice
270(1)
The Process of Restoration
271(2)
The Challenge of Restorative Justice
273(1)
Comparative Criminology: Practicing Restorative Justice Abroad
274(1)
Summary
275(1)
ThomsonNOW
276(1)
Thinking Like a Criminologist
276(1)
Doing Research on the Web
277(1)
Book Companion Website
277(1)
Key Terms
277(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
277(1)
Notes
277(5)
Developmental Theories: Life Course and Latent Trait
282(35)
Foundations of Developmental Theory
284(2)
Life Course Fundamentals
286(4)
Problem Behavior Syndrome
287(1)
Pathways to Crime
287(2)
Age of Onset/Continuity of Crime
289(1)
The Criminological Enterprise: Desisting from Crime
290(2)
Adolescent-Limiteds and Life Course Persisters
290(2)
Theories of the Criminal Life Course
292(4)
Sampson and Laub: Age-Graded Theory
293(3)
Latent Trait Fundamentals
296(2)
Crime and Human Nature
297(1)
General Theory of Crime
297(1)
The Criminological Enterprise: Shared Beginnings, Divergent Lives
298(7)
Evaluating Developmental Theories
305(2)
Policy and Practice in Criminology: The Fast Track Project
307(1)
Public Policy Implications of Developmental Theory
307(2)
Summary
309(1)
ThomsonNOW
309(1)
Thinking Like a Criminologist
309(1)
Doing Research on the Web
310(1)
Book Companion Website
310(1)
Key Terms
310(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
310(1)
Notes
311(6)
PART THREE CRIME TYPOLOGIES
317(183)
Violent Crime
318(48)
The Causes of Violence
320(4)
Psychological Abnormality
320(1)
Evolutionary Factors/Human Instinct
321(1)
Substance Abuse
321(1)
Socialization and Upbringing
321(2)
Exposure to Violence
323(1)
Cultural Values/Subculture of Violence
323(1)
Forcible Rape
324(1)
The Criminological Enterprise: Violent Land
325(6)
History of Rape
326(1)
Rape and the Military
326(1)
Incidence of Rape
326(1)
Types of Rape and Rapists
327(2)
The Causes of Rape
329(1)
Rape and the Law
330(1)
The Criminological Enterprise: Masculinity and Sexual Violence among the Urban Poor
331(1)
Murder and Homicide
332(6)
Degrees of Murder
333(1)
The Nature and Extent of Murder
333(1)
Murderous Relations
334(2)
Serial Murder
336(1)
Mass Murder
337(1)
Assault and Battery
338(3)
The Nature and Extent of Assault
338(1)
Assault in the Home
339(2)
Robbery
341(2)
Acquaintance Robbery
342(1)
Rational Robbery
343(1)
Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violence
343(1)
Hate Crimes
343(1)
The Criminological Enterprise: Armed Robbers in Action
344(5)
Workplace Violence
347(1)
Stalking
348(1)
Terrorism
349(3)
What Is Terrorism?
349(1)
A Brief History of Terrorism
349(1)
Contemporary Forms of Terrorism
350(2)
Comparative Criminology: Transnational Terrorism in the New Millennium
352(4)
What Motivates Terrorists?
353(1)
Responses to Terrorism
354(2)
Summary
356(1)
ThomsonNOW
356(1)
Thinking Like a Criminologist
357(1)
Doing Research on the Web
357(1)
Book Companion Website
357(1)
Key Terms
357(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
358(1)
Notes
358(8)
Property Crime
366(28)
A Brief History of Theft
368(1)
Modern Thieves
369(3)
Occasional Criminals
369(1)
Professional Criminals
370(1)
Sutherland's Professional Criminal
371(1)
The Professional Fence
371(1)
The Criminological Enterprise: Transforming Theft: Train Robbers and Safecrackers
372(2)
The Nonprofessional Fence
373(1)
Larceny/Theft
374(4)
Larceny Today
374(1)
Shoplifting
375(1)
Bad Checks
376(1)
Credit Card Theft
377(1)
Auto Theft
377(1)
The Criminological Enterprise: Credit Card Fraud
378(4)
False Pretenses or Fraud
380(1)
Confidence Games
381(1)
Embezzlement
382(1)
Burglary
382(2)
The Nature and Extent of Burglary
382(1)
Residential Burglary
383(1)
Commercial Burglary
383(1)
Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology: Are There Gender Differences in Burglary?
384(2)
Careers in Burglary
385(1)
Arson
386(2)
The Criminological Enterprise: What Motivates Juvenile Fire Setters?
388(1)
Summary
389(1)
ThomsonNOW
389(1)
Thinking Like a Criminologist
389(1)
Doing Research on the Web
390(1)
Book Companion Website
390(1)
Key Terms
390(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
391(1)
Notes
391(3)
Enterprise Crime: White-Collar and Organized Crime
394(30)
Enterprise Crime
396(1)
Crimes of Business Enterprise
396(1)
White-Collar Crime
396(1)
Redefining White-Collar Crime
396(1)
Components of White-Collar Crime
397(5)
Stings and Swindles
397(1)
Chiseling
398(1)
Individual Exploitation of an Institutional Position
399(1)
Influence Peddling and Bribery
400(1)
Embezzlement and Employee Fraud
401(1)
The Criminological Enterprise: Tyco, Enron, and WorldCom: Enterprise Crime at the Highest Levels
402(6)
Client Fraud
404(1)
Corporate Crime
405(3)
Causes of White-Collar Crime
408(1)
Greedy or Needy?
408(1)
Theories of White-Collar Crime
408(1)
Rationalization/Neutralization View
408(1)
Comparative Criminology: Snakes and Ladders: Confronting White-Collar Crime in Britain
409(1)
Corporate Culture View
410(1)
Self-Control View
410(1)
White-Collar Law Enforcement Systems
410(3)
Controlling White-Collar Crime
411(1)
Is the Tide Turning?
412(1)
Organized Crime
413(3)
Characteristics of Organized Crime
413(1)
Activities of Organized Crime
413(1)
The Concept of Organized Crime
414(1)
Alien Conspiracy Theory
414(1)
Contemporary Organized Crime Groups
415(1)
The Evolution of Organized Crime
415(1)
Comparative Criminology: Russian Organized Crime
416(2)
Controlling Organized Crime
416(1)
The Future of Organized Crime
417(1)
Summary
418(1)
ThomsonNOW
419(1)
Thinking Like a Criminologist
419(1)
Doing Research on the Web
420(1)
Book Companion Website
420(1)
Key Terms
420(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
420(1)
Notes
420(4)
Public Order Crime
424(42)
Law and Morality
426(3)
Debating Morality
426(2)
Social Harm
428(1)
Moral Crusaders
428(1)
Homosexuality
429(1)
Attitudes toward Homosexuality
429(1)
Homosexuality and the Law
430(1)
Is the Tide Turning?
430(1)
Paraphilias
430(1)
Prostitution
431(1)
Comparative Criminology: The Natasha Trade: International Trafficking in Prostitution
432(5)
Incidence of Prostitution
432(1)
International Sex Trade
432(1)
Types of Prostitutes
433(2)
Becoming a Prostitute
435(1)
Controlling Prostitution
436(1)
Legalize Prostitution?
436(1)
Pornography
437(3)
Child Pornography
437(1)
Does Pornography Cause Violence?
438(1)
Pornography and the Law
438(1)
Controlling Pornography
439(1)
Technological Change
439(1)
Substance Abuse
440(14)
When Did Drug Use Begin?
441(1)
Alcohol and Its Prohibition
441(1)
The Extent of Substance Abuse
441(4)
AIDS and Drug Use
445(1)
What Causes Substance Abuse?
446(1)
Is There a Drug Gateway?
447(1)
Types of Drug Users
447(2)
Drugs and Crime
449(1)
Drugs and the Law
450(1)
Drug Control Strategies
451(3)
Policy and Practice in Criminology: Drug Abuse Resistance Education
454(3)
Drug Legalization
456(1)
Summary
457(1)
ThomsonNOW
457(1)
Thinking Like a Criminologist
457(1)
Doing Research on the Web
458(1)
Book Companion Website
458(1)
Key Terms
458(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
459(1)
Notes
459(7)
Cyber Crime and Technology
466(34)
Cyber Theft: Cyber Crimes for Profit
468(6)
Computer Fraud
468(1)
Distributing Illegal Sexual Material
469(1)
Denial of Service Attack
470(1)
Illegal Copyright Infringement
471(1)
Internet Securities Fraud
472(1)
Identity Theft
473(1)
E-Tailing Fraud
474(1)
Cyber Vandalism: Cyber Crime with Malicious Intent
474(4)
Worms, Viruses, Trojan Horses, Logic Bombs, and Spam
475(1)
Web Defacement
476(1)
Cyber Stalking
477(1)
Cyber Spying
477(1)
Cyber Terrorism: Cyber Crime with Political Motives
478(2)
Why Terrorism in Cyber Space?
478(1)
Cyber Attacks
478(1)
Is Cyber Terrorism a Real Threat?
479(1)
The Extent and Costs of Cyber Crime
480(1)
Controlling Cyber Crime
481(1)
Cyber Crime Enforcement Agencies
482(1)
Local Enforcement Efforts
482(1)
Controlling Crime Using Information Technology
482(4)
Law Enforcement Technology
482(4)
Policy and Practice in Criminology: Crime Scene Investigation Goes High Tech
486(2)
Policy and Practice in Criminology: Biometric Technology
488(4)
Court Technology
489(2)
Corrections Technology
491(1)
Information Technology, Crime, and Civil Liberties
492(2)
Summary
494(1)
ThomsonNOW
495(1)
Thinking Like a Criminologist
495(1)
Doing Research on the Web
495(1)
Book Companion Website
495(1)
Key Terms
495(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
496(1)
Notes
496(4)
Glossary 500(12)
Case Index 512(1)
Name Index 513(23)
Subject Index 536(20)
Photo Credits 556


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