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Criminology: Theories, Patterns, and Typologies



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Cengage Learning
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Includes learning objectives, names to know, key terms and objectives, and test bank to reinforce learned concepts.

Table of Contents

Concepts of Crime, Law, and Criminology
Crime and Criminologyp. 2
Introductionp. 3
The Study of Criminologyp. 4
What Is Criminology?p. 4
A Brief History of Criminologyp. 4
Classical Criminologyp. 5
Nineteenth-Century Positivismp. 6
The Development of Sociological Criminologyp. 7
The Foundations of Sociological Criminologyp. 7
The Chicago School and Beyondp. 8
Conflict Criminologyp. 9
Criminology Todayp. 9
Criminology and Criminal Justicep. 10
The Distinction Between Criminology and Criminal Justicep. 10
The Distinction Between Criminology and Deviancep. 10
What Criminologists Do: The Criminological Enterprisep. 11
Criminal Statisticsp. 12
Sociology of Lawp. 12
Theory Constructionp. 12
Criminal Behavior Systemsp. 13
race, culture, gender, and criminology: The Changing Face of International Crime Ratesp. 14
Penologyp. 14
Victimologyp. 15
How Criminologists View Crimep. 16
The Consensus View of Crimep. 17
The Conflict View of Crimep. 17
The Interactionist View of Crimep. 18
Defining Crimep. 19
Criminology Research Methodsp. 20
Survey Researchp. 20
Cohort Researchp. 20
Aggregate Data Researchp. 21
Experimental Researchp. 21
Observational and Interview Researchp. 22
Ethical Issues in Criminologyp. 23
Summaryp. 24
Thinking Like a Criminologistp. 24
Key Termsp. 24
Notesp. 25
Criminal Law and Its Processesp. 26
Introductionp. 27
The Origin of Lawp. 28
Early Crime, Punishment, and Law in Chaosp. 29
Origins of Common Lawp. 30
Compensation for Crimep. 30
The Norman Conquestp. 30
Common Lawp. 31
Policy and praotice in criminology Origin of the Jury Trialp. 32
Common Law and Statutory Lawp. 32
Common Law and Statutory Law in Americap. 33
Common Law in Other Culturesp. 34
Classification of Lawp. 34
Crimes and Tortsp. 34
Felonies and Misdemeanorsp. 35
Mala in Se and Mala Prohibitump. 35
Functions of Criminal Lawp. 36
Enforcing Social Controlp. 36
Discouraging Revengep. 37
Expressing Public Opinion and Moralityp. 37
Deterring Criminal Behaviorp. 38
Punishing Wrongdoingp. 38
Maintaining Social Orderp. 39
The Legal Definition of a Crimep. 39
Actus Reusp. 39
Mens Reap. 40
Criminal Defensesp. 41
Ignorance or Mistakep. 41
Insanityp. 42
Intoxicationp. 43
Duressp. 43
Policy and practice in criminology: The Insanity Controversyp. 44
Necessityp. 45
Self-Defensep. 45
Entrapmentp. 45
Exotic Defensesp. 46
Changing Criminal Lawp. 46
Summaryp. 47
Thinking Like A Criminologistp. 48
Key Termsp. 48
Notesp. 49
The Nature and Extent of Crimep. 50
Introductionp. 51
The Uniform Crime Reportp. 51
Collecting the Uniform Crime Reportp. 51
How Accurate Are the Uniform Crime Reports?p. 52
The Future of the Uniform Crime Reportp. 54
Victim Surveysp. 55
The National Crime Victimization Surveyp. 55
Is the NCVS Valid?p. 55
Self-Report Surveysp. 56
The Focus of Self-Reportsp. 56
Are Self-Reports Accurate?p. 57
The "Missing Cases"p. 58
Are Crime Statistics Sources Compatible?p. 58
Crime Trendsp. 59
The Criminological Enterprise: Explaining Crime Trendsp. 60
Trends in Violent Crimep. 62
Trends in Property Crimep. 62
Trends in Self-Reports and Victimizationp. 62
What the Future Holdsp. 63
Crime Patternsp. 64
The Ecology of Crimep. 64
Use of Firearmsp. 65
Policy and practice in criminology: Gun Control Practicesp. 66
Social Class and Crimep. 67
Age and Crimep. 69
Gender and Crimep. 72
Race and Crimep. 74
Criminal Careersp. 77
Delinquency in a Birth Cohortp. 77
Implications of the Chronic Offender Conceptp. 78
Summaryp. 79
Thinking Like A Criminologistp. 79
Key Termsp. 79
Notesp. 80
Victims and Victimizationp. 84
Introductionp. 85
Problems of Crime Victimsp. 85
Lossp. 85
Sufferingp. 86
Fearp. 87
Antisocial Behaviorp. 87
The Nature of Victimizationp. 88
The Social Ecology of Victimizationp. 89
The Victim's Householdp. 90
Victim Characteristicsp. 90
The Victims and Their Criminalsp. 93
The Criminological Enterprise: Victims of Stalkingp. 94
Theories of Victimizationp. 95
Victim Precipitation Theoryp. 95
The Criminological Enterprise: Parents Who Get Killed and the Children Who Kill Themp. 96
Lifestyle Theoriesp. 97
Routine Activities Theoryp. 98
The Criminological Enterprise: Crime and Everyday Lifep. 100
Caring for the Victimp. 101
The Government's Responsep. 101
Victim Service Programsp. 102
Victims' Rightsp. 103
Self-Protectionp. 104
Community Organizationp. 105
Summaryp. 105
Thinking Like a Criminologistp. 106
Key Termsp. 107
Notesp. 107
Theories of Crime Causation
Choice Theoryp. 112
Introductionp. 113
The Development of Rational Choice Theoryp. 113
The Classical Theory of Crimep. 114
Choice Theory Emergesp. 114
The Concepts of Rational Choicep. 115
Rational Choice and Routine Activitiesp. 118
Is Crime Rational?p. 120
Are Street Crimes Rational?p. 121
Is Drug Use Rational?p. 122
Can Violence Be Rational?p. 122
The Criminological Enterprise: In the Drug Businessp. 123
The Seductions of Crimep. 125
Eliminating Crimep. 125
Situational Crime Preventionp. 126
Policy and practice in criminology: Reducing Subway Crimep. 128
General Deterrencep. 129
Specific Deterrencep. 134
race, culture, gender, and criminology: Deterring Domestic Violencep. 136
Rethinking Deterrencep. 138
Incapacitationp. 138
Policy Implications of Choice Theoryp. 140
Just Desertp. 140
Summaryp. 141
Thinking Like A Criminologistp. 142
Key Termsp. 142
Notesp. 143
Trait Theoriesp. 148
Introductionp. 149
Foundations of Biological Trait Theoryp. 150
Impact of Sociobiologyp. 151
Modern Trait Theoriesp. 151
The Criminological Enterprise: The Nature Assumptionp. 152
Biological Trait Theoriesp. 153
Biochemical Conditions and Crimep. 154
Neurophysiological Conditions and Crimep. 157
Genetics and Crimep. 160
Evolutionary Views of Crimep. 162
Evaluation of the Biological Branch of Trait Theoryp. 163
Psychological Trait Theoriesp. 164
Theory of Imitationp. 164
Psychodynamic Perspectivep. 165
Behavioral Theoriesp. 167
Cognitive Theoryp. 168
The Criminological Enterprise: The Media and Violencep. 170
Crime and Mental Illnessp. 172
Personality and Crimep. 172
The Criminological Enterprise: The Antisocial Personalityp. 174
Intelligence and Crimep. 174
Social Policy Implicationsp. 177
Summaryp. 179
Thinking Like A Criminologistp. 179
Key Termsp. 179
Notesp. 180
Social Structure Theoriesp. 186
Introductionp. 187
Sociological Criminologyp. 187
Economic Structure and Crimep. 188
Lower-Class Culturep. 188
Are the Poor Undeserving?p. 190
race, culture, gender, and criminology: When Work Disappearsp. 191
Social Structure Theoriesp. 192
Branches of Social Structure Theoryp. 192
Social Disorganization Theoryp. 193
The Work of Shaw and McKayp. 193
The Social Ecology Schoolp. 196
Strain Theoriesp. 200
Anomiep. 200
Theory of Anomiep. 201
Institutional Anomie Theoryp. 202
Relative Deprivation Theoryp. 204
General Strain Theory (GST)p. 205
Cultural Deviance Theoryp. 209
Conduct Normsp. 209
Focal Concernsp. 209
Theory of Delinquent Subculturesp. 210
Theory of Differential Opportunityp. 211
Evaluation of Social Structure Theoriesp. 213
Is the Structural Approach Valid?p. 213
Social Structure Theory and Social Policyp. 213
Policy and practice in criminology: Operation Weed and Seedp. 214
Summaryp. 215
Thinking Like A Criminologistp. 217
Key Termsp. 217
Notesp. 217
Social Process Theoriesp. 222
Introductionp. 223
Socialization and Crimep. 224
Family Relationsp. 224
Educational Experiencep. 226
Peer Relationsp. 226
Institutional Involvement and Beliefp. 227
The Effects of Socialization on Crimep. 227
Social Learning Theoriesp. 228
Differential Association Theoryp. 228
Differential Reinforcement Theoryp. 233
Neutralization Theoryp. 234
Are Learning Theories Valid?p. 236
Social Control Theoriesp. 236
Self-Concept and Crimep. 237
Social Control Theoryp. 238
Elements of the Social Bondp. 238
Testing Social Control Theoryp. 239
Social Reaction Theoryp. 241
Crime and Labeling Theoryp. 242
Differential Enforcementp. 243
Becoming Labeledp. 243
Consequences of Labelingp. 243
Primary and Secondary Deviancep. 244
Research on Social Reaction Theoryp. 245
Is Labeling Theory Valid?p. 246
An Evaluation of Social Process Theoryp. 247
Social Process Theory and Social Policyp. 248
Policy and practice in criminology: Head Startp. 249
Summaryp. 250
Thinking Like A Criminologistp. 251
Key Termsp. 251
Notesp. 251
Conflict Theoryp. 256
Introductionp. 257
Marxist Thoughtp. 257
Productive Forces and Productive Relationsp. 258
Surplus Valuep. 259
Marx on Crimep. 260
Developing a Conflict Theory of Crimep. 260
The Contribution of Willem Bongerp. 260
The Contribution of Ralf Dahrendorfp. 261
The Contribution of George Voldp. 262
Conflict Theoryp. 262
Conflict Criminologyp. 262
Research on Conflict Theoryp. 265
Analysis of Conflict Theoryp. 265
Marxist Criminologyp. 266
The Development of a Radical Criminologyp. 266
Fundamentals of Marxist Criminologyp. 267
Instrumental Marxismp. 269
Structual Marxismp. 270
Research on Marxist Criminologyp. 271
The Criminological Enterprise: Marxist Theories of Crimep. 272
Critique of Marxist Criminologyp. 274
Emerging Forms of Conflict Theoryp. 274
Left Realismp. 274
Radical Feminist Theoryp. 275
Power-Control Theoryp. 277
Postmodern Theoryp. 278
Peacemaking Criminologyp. 279
Social Conflict Theory and Social Policyp. 279
The Criminological Enterprise: Restorative Justicep. 280
Summaryp. 281
Thinking Like A Criminologistp. 282
Key Termsp. 282
Notesp. 283
Integrated Theories: Latent Trait and Developmental Theoriesp. 287
Introductionp. 288
Developing Complex Theoriesp. 289
The Criminological Enterprise: The Crime Prismp. 290
Latent Trait Theoriesp. 291
Human Nature Theoryp. 292
General Theory of Crimep. 294
The Criminological Enterprise: Mating Habits and Crimep. 298
Control-Balance Theoryp. 299
Developmental Theoriesp. 299
The Glueck Researchp. 301
Developmental Conceptsp. 301
Theories of Criminal Developmentp. 305
race, culture, gender, and criminology: Violent Female Criminalsp. 306
The Social Development Modelp. 306
Elliott's Integrated Theoryp. 309
Farrington's Theory of Delinquent Developmentp. 309
Interactional Theoryp. 311
Sampson and Laub: Age-Graded Theoryp. 313
Commonalities and Distinctionsp. 316
Summaryp. 316
Thinking Like A Criminologistp. 316
Key Termsp. 317
Notesp. 317
Crime Typologies
Violent Crimep. 324
Introductionp. 325
The Roots of Violencep. 326
Personal Traitsp. 326
The Criminological Enterprise: Violent Landp. 327
Ineffective Familiesp. 328
race, culture, gender, and criminology: Mothers Who Kill Their Childrenp. 329
Evolutionary Factors/Human Instinctp. 329
Exposure to Violencep. 330
Substance Abusep. 330
Firearm Availabilityp. 330
Cultural Valuesp. 331
Forcible Rapep. 333
History of Rapep. 333
Incidence of Rapep. 334
Types of Rape/Rapistsp. 334
TheCauses of Rapep. 337
Rape and the Lawp. 338
Murder and Homicidep. 339
Degrees of Murderp. 340
The Nature and Extent of Murderp. 340
Murderous Relationsp. 341
Types of Murdersp. 343
The Criminological Enterprise: Mass Murder and Serial Killingp. 344
Assault and Batteryp. 346
Patterns of Assaultp. 346
The Nature and Extent of Assaultsp. 347
Assault in the Homep. 347
Robberyp. 350
The Criminological Enterprise: Armed Robbers in Actionp. 352
Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violencep. 353
Hate Crimesp. 353
Workplace Violencep. 354
Political Violencep. 356
Terrorismp. 356
Forms of Terrorismp. 357
Extent of Terrorismp. 360
Who Is the Terrorist?p. 360
Responses to Terrorismp. 361
Summaryp. 361
Thinking Like A Criminologistp. 362
Key Termsp. 362
Notesp. 362
Property Crimesp. 368
Introductionp. 369
A Brief History of Theftp. 370
Modern Thievesp. 370
Occasional Criminalsp. 370
race, culture, gender, and criminology: Catching Thieves in Eighteenth-Century Englandp. 371
Professional Criminalsp. 372
The Criminological Enterprise: Transforming Theft: Train Robbers and Safe Crackersp. 374
Larceny/Theftp. 375
Larceny Todayp. 376
Varieties of Larcenyp. 377
Shopliftingp. 377
Bad Checksp. 378
Credit Card Theftp. 379
Auto Theftp. 379
False Pretenses or Fraudp. 380
Confidence Gamesp. 381
Embezzlementp. 381
Burglaryp. 381
The Nature and Extent of Burglaryp. 382
Careers in Burglaryp. 383
race, culture, gender, and criminology: The Female Burglarp. 385
The Criminological Enterprise: What Motivates Juvenile Firesetters?p. 386
Arsonp. 387
Summaryp. 387
Thinking Like A Criminologistp. 388
Key Termsp. 388
Notesp. 388
White-Collar and Organized Crimep. 390
Introductionp. 391
White-Collar Crimep. 392
Redefining White-Collar Crimep. 392
The White-Collar Crime Problemp. 393
International White-Collar Crimep. 393
Components of White-Collar Crimep. 394
Stings and Swindlesp. 394
Chiselingp. 395
Individual Exploitation of Institutional Positionp. 397
Influence Peddling and Briberyp. 397
Embezzlement and Employee Fraudp. 400
Client Fraudp. 400
The Criminological Enterprise: The Savings and Loan Casesp. 402
Corporate Crimep. 404
High-Tech Crimep. 407
The Cause of White-Collar Crimep. 409
Greedy or Needy?p. 409
White-Collar Law Enforcement Systemsp. 411
Corporate Policingp. 412
Controlling White-Collar Crimep. 412
Organized Crimep. 415
The Criminological Enterprise: Can Corporations Commit Murder?p. 416
Characteristics of Organized Crimep. 417
Activities of Organized Crimep. 417
The Concept of Organized Crimep. 418
Organized Crime Groupsp. 421
Controlling Organized Crimep. 422
The Future of Organized Crimep. 422
Summaryp. 423
Thinking Like A Criminologistp. 424
Key Termsp. 424
Notesp. 424
Public Order Crimesp. 429
Introductionp. 430
Law and Moralityp. 430
Debating Moralityp. 431
Homosexualityp. 433
Attitudes Toward Homosexualityp. 435
Homosexuality and the Lawp. 435
Paraphiliasp. 436
Prostitutionp. 438
Incidence of Prostitutionp. 438
Types of Prostitutesp. 439
Becoming a Prostitutep. 440
Legalize Prostitution?p. 441
Pornographyp. 442
The Dangers of Pornographyp. 442
Does Pronography Cause Violence?p. 443
Pornography and the Lawp. 444
Controlling Sex for Profitp. 445
Substance Abusep. 446
When Did Drug Use Begin?p. 446
Alcohol and Its Prohibitionp. 447
Commonly Abused Drugsp. 447
The Extent of Substance Abusep. 451
AIDS and Drug Usep. 453
The Causes of Substance Abusep. 454
Types of Drug Usersp. 456
Drugs and Crimep. 458
Drugs and the Lawp. 460
The Criminological Enterprise: How Substance Abuse Provokes Violencep. 461
Drug Control Strategiesp. 462
Policy and practice in oriminology: Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE)p. 466
Summaryp. 469
Thinking Like A Criminologistp. 469
Key Termsp. 470
Notesp. 470
Glossaryp. 475
Table of Casesp. 493
Name Indexp. 494
Subject Indexp. 508
Photo Creditsp. 523
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