More New and Used
from Private Sellers
Only one copy
in stock at this price.
In Stock Usually Ships in 24 Hours.
In Stock Usually Ships in 24 Hours.
Starting at $46.13
Questions About This Book?
Why should I rent this book?
Renting is easy, fast, and cheap! Renting from eCampus.com can save you hundreds of dollars compared to the cost of new or used books each semester. At the end of the semester, simply ship the book back to us with a free UPS shipping label! No need to worry about selling it back.
How do rental returns work?
Returning books is as easy as possible. As your rental due date approaches, we will email you several courtesy reminders. When you are ready to return, you can print a free UPS shipping label from our website at any time. Then, just return the book to your UPS driver or any staffed UPS location. You can even use the same box we shipped it in!
What version or edition is this?
This is the 7th edition with a publication date of 1/1/2011.
What is included with this book?
- The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.
- The Used copy of this book is not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included.
- The Rental copy of this book is not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. You may receive a brand new copy, but typically, only the book itself.
In this era of increased polarization of opinion and contentious disagreement, CRITICAL REASONING presents a cooperative approach to critical thinking and formation of beliefs. CRITICAL REASONING emphasizes the importance of developing and applying analytical skills in real-life contexts. This book is unique in providing multiple, diverse examples of everyday arguments, both textual and visual, including the classroom-appropriate long argument passages from real-life sources that can be so hard to find. The writing is accessible to students without talking down to them. The book provides clear, step-by-step procedures to help students decide for themselves what to believe--to be consumers of information in our contemporary "world of experts."
Table of Contents
|Deciding What to Believe|
|Critical Reasoning Versus Passive Reading or Listening|
|Critical Reasoning Versus Mere Disagreement|
|Critical Reasoning as a Cooperative Enterprise|
|Some Common Misconceptions About Critical Reasoning|
|Benefits of Critical Reasoning|
|The Main Techniques of Critical Reasoning|
|The Anatomy of Arguments: Identifying Premises and Conclusions|
|The Key to Identification: Seeing What Is Supported by What|
|Clues to Identifying Argument Part s: Indicator Words|
|Marking the Part s of Arguments|
|What to Do When There Are No Indicator Words|
|The Principle of Charitable Interpretation|
|Patterns of Argument|
|Identifying Premises and Conclusions in Longer Passages|
|Understanding Arguments Through Reconstruction|
|Understanding Arguments by Identifying Implicit Conclusions|
|Understanding Arguments by Identifying Implicit Premises|
|Adding Both Conclusion and Premises|
|Guidelines and Warnings about Adding Implicit Premises and Conclusions|
|Moving to Real World Discourse|
|Simplifying and Paraphrasing|
|Finding an Argument in a Sea of Words|
|Reconstructing Arguments with Subordinate Conclusions|
|Evaluating Arguments: Some Basic Questions|
|When Does the Conclusion Follow from the Premises?|
|The Counterexample Method of Showing that an Argument's Conclusion Does Not Follow|
|When Should the Premises Be Accepted as True?|
|Sample Appraisals: Examples of Techniques of Criticism|
|Some Special Cases: Arguments That We Should or Should Not Do Something|
|The Rationale for Using These Critical Techniques|
|When Does the Conclusion Follow?|
|A More Formal Approach to Validity (Optional)|
|Statements Containing Logical Connectives: When are They True|
|When are They False?|
|Truth Tables as a Test for Validity|
|Testing Validity of Arguments Containing Quantifiers|
|A More Formal Way of Representing Statements with Quantifiers|
|A Glimpses at Natural Deduction|
|Fallacies: Bad Arguments that Tend to Persuade|
|Persuasiveness: Legitimate and Illegitimate|
|Types of Persuasive Fallacies|
|Distraction Fallacies: False Dilemma, Slippery Slope, Straw Man|
|Resemblance Fallacies: Affirming the Consequent Denying the Antecedent, Equivocation, and Begging the Question|
|Emotion and Reason in Argument|
|When Is an Emotional Appeal Illegitimate?|
|Emotion Fallacies: Appeal to Force and Appeal to Pity, Prejudicial Language|
|Emotion and Resemblance Combined: Appeal to Authority and Attacking the Person|
|Note on Terminology|
|"That Depends On What You Mean BY..."|
|Unclear Expressions in the Premises: Looking for Shifts in Meaning|
|The Possibility of Misleading Definition|
|Kinds of Unclarity: Vagueness and Ambiguity|
|Interpreting and Evaluating: A Dialogue Process|
|Argument and Definition|
|Evaluating Definition-like Premises|
|Reconstructing Conceptual Theories|
|A Model for Conceptual Theories|
|Reconstructing Fragmentary Theories|
|The Criticism of Conceptual Theories|
|Conceptual Clarification and Argument|
|Arguments That Are Not Deductive|
|Induction And Statistical Reasoning|
|Two Types of Inductive Arguments|
|Deductive versus Nondeductive Arguments|
|Criticizing Arguments that Generalize: Sampling Arguments|
|Attacking the Premises (Disputing the Data)|
|Questioning the Representativeness of the Sample|
|Pointing to a Shift in the Unit of Analysis|
|Challenging the Truth of the Conclusion|
|Summary of Criticisms|
|Arguments with Statistical Premises|
|Criticism of Arguments with Statistical Premises|
|Identifying Inductive and Deductive Arguments in Natural Prose Passages|
|Review: Types of Inductive Arguments|
|Causal, Analogical, And Convergent Arguments: Three More Kinds Of Nondeductive Reasoning|
|Five Ways in which Causal Reasoning Might Fail|
|Supporting Causal Arguments|
|Problems with Generalizing Causal Claims|
|Arguments from Analogy|
|Evaluation of Convergent versus Deductive Arguments|
|Representing Convergent Arguments and Counter-considerations|
|Applying Criticism to Convergent Arguments with Counter-Considerations: A Four-Step Process|
|Explanation and the Criticism of Theories|
|"That's Just a Theory." Picking Out Theories|
|Criticism of Theories|
|First-Stage Criticisms--Plausible Alternative|
|Review of Techniques for Criticizing Theories|
|Putting it all Together: Six Steps to Understanding and Evaluating Arguments|
|A Sample Application of the Six-Step Procedure|
|A Second Sample Application of the Six-Step Procedure|
|Making Reasonable Decisions as An Amateur In A World Of Specialists|
|Leaving It to the Experts|
|Coping with the Dilemma|
|Creating Arguments and Theories in a World of Experts|
|The Strategy and Its Prospects|
|Can Information Technology Dissolve the Dilemma?|
|The Contemporary Problem of Knowledge|
|Answers to Selected Exercises|
|Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.|