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Critical Thinking and Communication : The Use of Reason in Argument,9780205335411
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Critical Thinking and Communication : The Use of Reason in Argument

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780205335411

ISBN10:
0205335411
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

Relating common theoretical models to true-to-life examples from law, ethics, education, and business, Inch and Warnick stress the importance of argumentation in everyday life as they build student competence and critical awareness. This text encourages students to develop skills in both constructing and refuting arguments. Through exercises and examples, students learn how to create individual arguments, extend argument cases, and understand how arguments are designed and how to interpret them. The text allow students to conceptualize argumentation in the larger framework of verbal and written interaction, from public speaking and debating to interpersonal, intercultural, and small group communication.

Table of Contents

Preface ix
SECTION I BUILDING A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 1(64)
Arguments and Argumentation
2(22)
Critical Thinking
4(2)
Argumentation and Arguments
6(4)
Perspectives on Argumentation
10(3)
An Argument Model
13(5)
Summary
18(1)
Exercises
19(5)
Contexts for Argument
24(23)
Culture and Argumentation
25(7)
Argumentation and Ethics
32(5)
Strengthening the Individual
34(2)
Strengthening the Community
36(1)
Developing an Ethical Code
37(2)
Ethics for Arguers
37(1)
Ethics for Recipients
38(1)
Summary
39(1)
Exercises
40(7)
Argument Occasions
47(18)
Nature of Occasions
49(8)
Argument Spheres-Personal, Technical, Public
50(4)
Argument Fields
54(3)
Argument Situations
57(3)
Summary
60(1)
Exercises
61(4)
SECTION II COMMUNICATING ARGUMENTS 65(68)
Arguers, Recipients, and Argumentation
66(33)
Types of Audiences
68(6)
The Audience and Argumentation
74(6)
Selecting the Starting Points
75(1)
Supporting Reasoning
76(1)
Using Evidence
77(2)
Organizing Arguments
79(1)
The Arguer and Argumentation
80(7)
Message Sources and Their Influence
82(3)
Enhancing Credibility through Argument
85(2)
Fallacies Related to Audience
87(4)
Ad Hominem
88(1)
Ad Populum
88(2)
Appeal to Tradition
90(1)
Straw Arguments
90(1)
Summary
91(2)
Exercises
93(6)
Language and Argument
99(34)
The Nature of Language
101(9)
Language and Meaning
103(1)
Language and Abstraction
104(3)
Connotations and Denotations
107(3)
Language in Argument
110(11)
Language, Thought, and Perception
110(2)
Functions of Language
112(4)
Using Language in Argument
116(5)
Fallacies of Language
121(4)
Equivocation
122(1)
Amphiboly
122(1)
Emotive Language
123(2)
Summary
125(2)
Exercises
127(6)
SECTION III PARSING ARGUMENTS 133(94)
Argument Claims and Propositions
134(21)
The Nature of Claims and Propositions
135(5)
Formulating A Proposition
140(6)
Controversiality
140(1)
Clarity
141(3)
Balance
144(1)
Challenge
145(1)
Types of Claims
146(3)
Factual Claims
146(2)
Value Claims
148(1)
Policy Claims
149(1)
Interconnection of Claims
149(1)
Summary
150(1)
Exercises
151(4)
Evidence in Argument: The Foundation for Arguments
155(35)
The Nature of Evidence
156(2)
Types of Evidence
158(3)
Evaluating Fact and Opinion Evidence
161(6)
Reliability
161(1)
Expertise
162(1)
Objectivity
162(1)
Consistency
163(1)
Recency
164(1)
Relevance
164(1)
Access
165(1)
Accuracy of Citation
165(2)
Evaluating Statistical Evidence
167(2)
Fallacies of Evidence
169(2)
Begging the Question
170(1)
Non Sequitur
170(1)
Research Strategies for Locating Evidence
171(9)
Research Results and Credibility
172(2)
Finding Evidence
174(6)
Summary
180(2)
Exercises
182(8)
Reasoning and the Process of Making Inferences
190(37)
Formal Logic and Practical Reasoning
192(3)
Reasoning as Inference Making
195(19)
Quasilogical Arguments
196(2)
Analogy
198(4)
Generalization and Argument from Example
202(2)
Cause
204(4)
Coexistential Arguments
208(3)
Dissociation
211(3)
Fallacies of Faulty Reasoning
214(4)
False Analogy
214(1)
Hasty Generalization
215(1)
False Cause
216(1)
Slippery Slope
217(1)
Summary
218(2)
Exercises
220(7)
SECTION IV ARGUING EXTENDED CASES 227(74)
Case Construction: Arguing about Propositions of Fact
228(25)
Arguing About Facts, Values, and Policies
229(2)
Relating Facts, Values, and Policies
231(1)
Principles of Case Construction
232(4)
Stock Issues in Fact-Based Cases
236(3)
Fact Definition
237(1)
Threshold
237(1)
Application
238(1)
Principles of Refutation
239(3)
The Issues Brief
242(1)
Summary
243(3)
Exercises
246(7)
Arguing about Values
253(20)
Values and Value Systems
255(5)
The Process of Value Change
260(1)
Values and Argumentation
261(1)
Stock Issues for Value Arguments
262(4)
Value
263(1)
Criteria
264(1)
Application
265(1)
The Issues Brief
266(1)
Summary
266(2)
Exercises
268(5)
Arguing about Policies
273(28)
Policy Arguments and Policy Systems
275(1)
Stock Issues in Policy Arguments
276(6)
I11
277(2)
Blame
279(1)
Cure
280(1)
Cost-Benefits
281(1)
The Issues Brief
282(5)
Alternative Formats for Arguing Policies
287(5)
Comparative-Advantages Case
287(3)
Goals Case
290(2)
Alternative Formats for Refuting Policy Arguments
292(3)
Strategy of Defense of the Present Policy System
293(1)
Strategy of Defense of the Present Policy System with Minor Repairs
293(1)
Strategy of Counterproposals
294(1)
Summary
295(1)
Exercises
296(5)
SECTION V ANALYZING ARGUMENTS 301(34)
Argument Analysis and Criticism
302(33)
Benefits of Argument Analysis
303(1)
A General Model for Argument Analysis
304(14)
Analysis of Simple Arguments
305(5)
Analysis of Other Structural Patterns
310(4)
An Application
314(4)
The Toulmin Model
318(8)
The Nature and Background of the Toulmin Model
318(1)
Six Parts of the Model
318(5)
Difficulties in Applying the Model
323(2)
Argument Chains and the Toulmin Model
325(1)
Comparison of the Two Models
326(1)
Summary
327(1)
Exercises
328(7)
Appendix A Intercollegiate Debate 335(18)
Appendix B Answers to Selected Exercises 353(11)
Appendix C Fallacies 364(5)
Index 369


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