CART

(0) items

Critical Thinking : Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780130869722

ISBN10:
0130869724
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2001
Publisher(s):
PRENTICE HALL

Related Products


  • Critical Thinking : Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life
    Critical Thinking : Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life
  • Critical Thinking Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life
    Critical Thinking Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life
  • Critical Thinking Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life Plus NEW MyStudentSuccessLab -- Access Card Package
    Critical Thinking Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life Plus NEW MyStudentSuccessLab -- Access Card Package
  • Critical Thinking Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life Plus NEW MyStudentSuccessLab -- Access Card Package
    Critical Thinking Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life Plus NEW MyStudentSuccessLab -- Access Card Package
  • Critical Thinking Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life Plus NEW MyStudentSuccessLab 2012 Update -- Access Card Package
    Critical Thinking Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life Plus NEW MyStudentSuccessLab 2012 Update -- Access Card Package





Summary

Widely sought as professional development leaders, Paul and Elder have conducted hundreds of workshops for university faculty all over the world. Their work speaks to the universal need to develop a sharp, open, and analytical mind. Tools that enable us to take charge of our learning and our lives are the very same tools that can help us all do more than merely survive in an economically and socially deprived environment. With them we can work independently or with others to produce positive changes. Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life provides a holistic theme, approaching critical thinking as a process for taking charge of and responsibility for one's thinking. Designed to foster the development of critical thinking skills and abilities, fair-mindedness, intellectual humility, and intellectual integrity, the approach is an eminently practical one. Numerous meaningful, yet common examples coupled with related activities allow the reader to examine and chronicle his/her own understanding and growth, providing the foundation for the lifelong application of critical thinking skills. A companion web site (www.prenhall.com/paul) provides students with valuable resources to enhance their pursuit to be critical thinkers.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Introduction xiii
How Skilled Is Your Thinking Right Now? xiii
Good Thinking Requires Hard Work xv
Become a Critic of Your Thinking xvii
Establish New Habits of Thought xix
Becoming a Fair-Minded Thinker
1(20)
Weak vs. Strong Critical Thinking
1(3)
What Does Fair-Mindedness Require?
4(13)
Recognizing the Interdependence of Intellectual Virtues
17(2)
Conclusion
19(2)
The First Four Stages of Development
21(16)
The Unreflective Thinker
23(1)
The Challenged Thinker
24(2)
The Beginning Thinker
26(4)
The Practicing Thinker
30(7)
Self-Understanding
37(12)
Monitoring the Egocentrism in Your Thought and Life
38(1)
Making a Commitment to Fair-Mindedness
39(1)
Recognizing the Mind's Three Distinctive Functions
40(2)
Understanding That You Have a Special Relationship to Your Mind
42(4)
Connecting Academic Subjects to Your Life and Problems
46(1)
Learning Both Intellectually and Emotionally
46(3)
The Parts of Thinking
49(34)
Reasoning Is Everywhere in Human Life
50(1)
Does Reasoning Have Parts?
51(2)
Beginning to Think About Your Own Reasoning
53(6)
The Elements of Thought in Relationship
59(1)
The Relationship Between the Elements
60(1)
Thinking to Some Purpose
60(1)
Thinking with Concepts
61(3)
Thinking with Information: Inert Information, Activated Ignorance, Activated Knowledge
64(6)
Distinguishing Between Inferences and Assumptions
70(7)
Understanding Implications
77(2)
Thinking Within and Across Points of View
79(1)
Using Critical Thinking to Take Charge of How We See Things
80(1)
The Point of View of the Critical Thinker
81(1)
Conclusion
82(1)
The Standards for Thinking
83(30)
Taking a Deeper Look at Intellectual Standards
84(11)
Bringing Together the Elements of Reasoning and the Intellectual Standards
95(8)
Using Intellectual Standards to Assess Your Thinking: Brief Guidelines
103(10)
Asking Questions That Lead to Good Thinking
113(20)
The Importance of Questioning
114(1)
Dead Questions Reflect Inert Minds
115(1)
Coming to Terms with Three Categories of Questions
116(4)
Becoming a Socratic Questioner
120(11)
Conclusion
131(2)
Master the Thinking, Master the Content
133(10)
Going Beyond Superficial Memorization to Deep Learning
134(2)
The Relation of Content to Thinking
136(1)
Understanding Content Through Thinking and Thinking Through Content
136(3)
Thinking Through Your Classes Using Your Knowledge of Thinking
139(4)
Designing Your Own Learning
143(28)
The Logic of a College as It Is
144(1)
The Logic of a College as It Should Be
145(1)
The Design of a College Class
146(2)
Figuring Out the Underlying Concept of Your Courses
148(2)
Figuring Out the From of Thinking Essential to Courses or Subjects
150(2)
Thinking Within the Logic of the Subject
152(1)
A Case: The Logic of Biochemistry
153(3)
Making the Design of the Course Work for You
156(2)
Sample Course: American History, 1600--1800
158(6)
Reading, Writing, Speaking, Listening, and Thinking
164(2)
Figuring Out the Logic of an Article or Essay
166(1)
Figuring Out the Logic of a Textbook
167(1)
Criteria for Evaluating an Author's Reasoning
168(3)
Evaluating Your Own Learning
171(12)
Strategies for Self-Assessment
172(1)
Developing Your Own Grading Standards
172(3)
Grade Profiles: Introduction to Psychology
175(2)
Evaluating Yourself in the Disciplines You Study
177(4)
Conclusion
181(2)
Making Decisions
183(12)
Evaluating Patterns in Decision-Making
184(1)
``Big'' Decisions
185(1)
The Logic of Decision-Making
185(3)
Dimensions of Decision-Making
188(2)
The Early Decisions (2-11 Years of Age)
190(1)
Adolescent Decisions (12-17 Years of Age)
191(2)
Conclusion
193(2)
Solving Problems
195(16)
Becoming an Activist Problem-Solver
196(1)
Evaluating Patterns in Your Problem-Solving
197(1)
Dissolving Pseudo-Problems
197(1)
False Needs and Irrational Ends
197(1)
``Big'' Problems
198(1)
Dimensions of Problem-Solving
199(5)
Avoiding the Pitfalls of Problem-Solving
204(3)
Analyze Problems Using the Elements of Thought
207(2)
The Art of Problem-Solving
209(2)
Taking Charge of Your Irrational Tendencies
211(28)
Egocentric Thinking
212(2)
Understanding Egocentric Thinking
214(1)
Understanding Egocentrism as a Mind Within the Mind
215(2)
The ``Successful'' Ego
217(2)
The ``Unsuccessful'' Ego
219(3)
Rational Thinking
222(3)
Two Egocentric Functions
225(10)
Pathological Tendencies of the Human Mind
235(1)
Challenging the Pathological Tendencies of the Mind
236(2)
The Challenge of Rationality
238(1)
Monitoring Your Sociocentric Tendencies
239(16)
The Nature of Sociocentrism
240(1)
Sociocentric Thinking as Pathology
241(3)
Social Stratification
244(1)
Sociocentric Thinking Is Unconscious and Potentially Dangerous
245(1)
Sociocentric Use of Language in Groups
246(1)
Disclosing Sociocentric Thinking Through Conceptual Analysis
247(1)
Revealing Ideology at Work Through Conceptual Analysis
248(1)
The Mass Media Foster Sociocentric Thinking
249(5)
Freedom from Sociocentric Thought
254(1)
Developing as an Ethical Reasoner
255(22)
Why People Are Confused About Ethics
256(3)
The Fundamentals of Ethical Reasoning
259(18)
Learning & Using Information Critically & Ethically, Part One
277(20)
A Critique of Disciplines
The Ideal of Knowledge Acquisition
278(1)
True Loyalty to a Discipline
279(1)
The Gap Between Fact and Ideal
279(2)
The Ideal Compared to the Real
281(1)
The Ideal of Mathematics: Abstract Quantification
282(3)
The Ideal of Science: Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, Geology, Biology
285(3)
The Ideal of Science: History, Sociology, Anthropology, Economics, Psychology
288(4)
The Ideal of the Arts and Humanities: Music, Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Dance, Literature, Philosophy
292(4)
Conclusion
296(1)
Learning & Using Information Critically & Ethically, Part Two
297(28)
The Method & A Model Case
Realistic Understanding
298(2)
Be a Critic, Not a Cynic
300(1)
Recognize the Mental Nature of Knowledge
300(1)
Develop Awareness of the Harm from Misuse of Information
301(3)
Question Academic and ``Expert'' Information
304(2)
Question the Status of Knowledge in a Field
306(1)
A Model Case: Questioning Psychology and the Mental Health Professions
307(2)
The Milgram Experiment
309(3)
Scientific Studies in the Psychology
312(1)
A Dark Side of the Mental Health Professions
313(1)
Legitimizing Deeply Held Social Beliefs
314(4)
Questioning ``Psychotherapy''
318(2)
Learning from Suspect Claims of Psychology and the Mental Health Professions
320(2)
Thinking Psychologically: A Postscript
322(3)
Strategic Thinking, Part One
325(16)
Understanding and Using Strategic Thinking
326(2)
Components of Strategic Thinking
328(1)
The Beginnings of Strategic Thinking
329(1)
Thoughts, Feelings, and Desires are Interdependent
329(3)
There Is a Logic to This, and You Can Figure It Out
332(6)
For Thinking to Be of High Quality, We Must Routinely Assess It
338(3)
Strategic Thinking, Part Two
341(18)
Understanding Our Native Egocentrism as a Default Mechanism
342(3)
We Must Become Sensitive to the Egocentrism of Those Around Us
345(3)
The Mind Tends to Generalize Beyond the Original Experience
348(2)
Egocentric Thinking Appears to the Mind as Rational
350(2)
The Egocentric Mind Is Automatic in Nature
352(1)
We Often Pursue Power Through Dominating or Submissive Behavior
353(2)
Humans Are Naturally Sociocentric Animals
355(2)
Developing Rationality Requires Work
357(1)
Conclusion
358(1)
Becoming an Advanced Thinker
359(34)
Practicing Skilled Thinking
360(1)
Stage Five: Reaching the Advanced Stage of Development
360(3)
Stage Six: Becoming a Master Thinker
363(1)
Qualities of Mind of a Master Thinker
364(2)
The Ideal Thinker
366(2)
Appendices
A Critical Questions About Critical Thinking
368(17)
B Sample Analyses of ``The Logic of...''
385(4)
C Article: ``Iraq Is a Pediatrician's Hell: No Way to Stop the Dying''
389(4)
Glossary 393(24)
References 417(2)
Index 419

Excerpts

PREFACE You are what you think. That's right. Whatever you are doing right now, whatever you feel, whatever you want--all are determined by the quality of your thinking. If your thinking is unrealistic, it will lead you to many disappointments. If your thinking is overly pessimistic, it will deny you due recognition of the many things in which you should properly rejoice. Test this idea for yourself. Identify some examples of your strongest feelings or emotions. Then identify the thinking that is correlated with those examples. For example, if youfeelexcited about college, it is because youthinkthat good things will happen to you in college. If you dread going to class, it is probably because youthinkit will be boring or too difficult. In a similar way, if the quality of your life is not what you would wish it to be, it is most likely because it is tied to the way youthinkabout your life. If you think about it positively, you will feel positive about it. If you think about it negatively, you will feel negative about it. For example, suppose you came to college with the view that college was going to be a lot of fun and you were going to form good friendships with fellow students who would respect and like you and, what is more, that your romantic relationships would become interesting and exciting. And let's suppose that hasn't happened. If this were the thrust of your thinking, you now would feel disappointed and maybe even frustrated (depending on how negative your experience has been interpretedby your thinking). For most people, thinking is subconscious, never explicitly put into words. For example, most people who think negatively would not say of themselves, "I have chosen to think about myself and my experience in largely negative terms. I prefer to be as unhappy as I can be." The problem is that when you are not aware of your thinking, you have no chance of correcting poor thinking. When thinking is subconscious, you are in no position to see any problems in it. And, if you don't see any problems in it, you won't be motivated to change it. The truth is that since few people realize the powerful role that thinking plays in our lives, few gain significant command of it. Therefore, most people are in many ways victims of their own thinking, that is, harmed rather than helped by it. Most people are their own worst enemy. Their thinking is a continual source of problems, preventing them from recognizing opportunities, keeping them from exerting energy where it will do the most good, poisoning relationships, and leading them down blind alleys. In this book we are concerned with helping you take charge of what you do, what you learn, and how you feel by taking command of how and what you think. We hope that you will discover the power of your thinking and will choose to develop it in ways that serve your interests, as well as the well-being of others. The single most significant variable in determining the quality of what you learn in college is your thinking. Certainly your, teachers will play a role in your learning. Some of them will do a better job than others of helping you learn. But even the best teachers can help you very little if you lack the intellectual skills necessary for thinking well through course content. This book introduces you to the tools of mind you need to reason well through the problems and issues you face, whether in the classroom, in your personal life, or in your professional life. If you take these ideas seriously, you can do something for yourself of lifelong value. If all goes as we plan it, you gradually will become more and more aware of the thinking that causes you problems. And you will be able to change that thinking so you can experience a more satisfying life. You will find that learning, both inside and outside of class, will become more and more rewarding. You will in


Please wait while the item is added to your cart...