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Critical Thinking : Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life,9780131149625

Critical Thinking : Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780131149625

ISBN10:
0131149628
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $67.20

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Summary

Like its parent text, Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life, Second Edition, this book focuses on an integrated, universal concept of critical thinking that is both substantive and practical; it provides readers with the basic intellectual skills they need to think through content in any class, subject, or discipline, and through any problems or issues they face.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Introduction xvii
A Startup Definition of Critical Thinking xvii
How Skilled Are You as a Thinker? xviii
Good Thinking Requires Hard Work xx
Defining Critical Thinking xxiii
The Concept of Critical Thinking xxiv
Become a Critic of Your Thinking xxv
Establish New Habits of Thought xxvi
Develop Confidence in Your Ability to Reason and Figure Things Out xxvii
Become A Fair-Minded Thinker
1(24)
Weak Versus Strong Critical Thinking
2(4)
What Does Fair-Mindedness Require?
6(15)
Intellectual Humility: Strive to Discover the Extent of Your Ignorance
7(2)
Intellectual Courage: Develop the Courage to Challenge Popular Beliefs
9(2)
Intellectual Empathy: Learn to Enter Opposing Views Empathically
11(2)
Intellectual Integrity: Hold Yourself to the Same Standards to Which You Hold Others
13(2)
Intellectual Perseverance: Refuse to Give Up Easily; Work Your Way Through Complexities and Frustration
15(1)
Confidence in Reason: Respect Evidence and Reasoning, and Value Them as Tools for Discovering the Truth
16(3)
Intellectual Autonomy: Value Independence of Thought
19(2)
Recognize the Interdependence of Intellectual Virtues
21(2)
Conclusion
23(2)
The First Four Stages of Development: At What Level of Thinking Would You Place Yourself?
25(16)
Stage 1: The Unreflective Thinker
26(2)
Stage 2: The Challenged Thinker
28(2)
Stage 3: The Beginning Thinker
30(4)
Stage 4: The Practicing Thinker
34(1)
A ``Game Plan'' for Improvement
35(1)
A Game Plan for Devising a Game Plan
35(6)
Integrating Strategies One by One
39(2)
Self-Understanding
41(12)
Monitor the Egocentrism in Your Thought and Life
42(1)
Make a Commitment to Fair-Mindedness
43(1)
Recognize the Mind's Three Distinctive Functions
44(1)
Understand That You Have a Special Relationship to Your Mind
45(4)
Connect Academic Subjects to Your Life and Problems
49(1)
Learn Both Intellectually and Emotionally
50(3)
The Parts of Thinking
53(34)
Reasoning Is Everywhere in Human Life
54(1)
Reasoning Has Parts
55(2)
A First Look at the Elements of Thought
57(5)
An Everyday Example: Jack and Jill
60(1)
Analysis of the Example
61(1)
How the Parts of Thinking Fit Together
62(1)
The Relationship Between the Elements
63(1)
The Best Thinkers Think to Some Purpose
64(1)
The Best Thinkers Take Command of Concepts
65(3)
The Best Thinkers Assess Information
68(5)
Inert Information
68(1)
Activated Ignorance
69(1)
Activated Knowledge
70(3)
The Best Thinkers Distinguish Between Inferences and Assumptions
73(7)
The Best Thinkers Think-Through Implications
80(2)
The Best Thinkers Think Across Points of View
82(2)
The Point of View of the Critical Thinker
84(1)
Conclusion
85(2)
The Standards for Thinking
87(30)
Take a Deeper Look at Universal Intellectual Standards
88(11)
Clarity
88(1)
Accuracy
89(2)
Precision
91(1)
Relevance
92(1)
Depth
93(1)
Breadth
94(1)
Logicalness
95(1)
Significance
96(1)
Fairness
96(3)
Bring Together the Elements of Reasoning and the Intellectual Standards
99(7)
Purpose, Goal, or End in View
100(1)
Question at Issue or Problem to Be Solved
101(1)
Point of View, or Frame of Reference
102(1)
Information, Data, Experiences
102(1)
Concepts, Theories, Ideas
103(1)
Assumptions
104(1)
Implications and Consequences
105(1)
Inferences
105(1)
Brief Guidelines for Using Intellectual Standards
106(11)
Ask Questions That Lead To Good Thinking
117(20)
The Importance of Questioning
118(1)
Questioning Your Questions
118(2)
Dead Questions Reflect Inert Minds
120(1)
Three Categories of Questions
120(4)
Become a Socratic Questioner
124(11)
Focus Your Thinking on the Type of Question Being Asked
126(1)
Focus Your Questions on Universal Intellectual Standards for Thought
127(2)
Focus Your Questions on the Elements of Thought
129(2)
Focus Your Questions on Prior Questions
131(2)
Focus Your Questions on Domains of Thinking
133(2)
Conclusion
135(2)
Master the Thinking, Master the Content
137(10)
Go Beyond Superficial Memorization to Deep Learning
138(1)
The Relation of Content to Thinking
139(1)
Understand Content Through Thinking and Thinking-Through Content
140(7)
All Content Is Organized by Concepts
141(1)
All Content Is Logically Interdependent
142(2)
A Caution
144(3)
Discover How the Best Thinkers Learn
147(28)
18 Ideas for Improving Your Studies
148(1)
The Logic of a Typical College Class
149(5)
Becoming a Skilled Thinker
151(1)
The Design of a Typical College Class and the Typical College Student
152(2)
Figure Out the Underlying Concept of Your Courses
154(1)
Figure Out the Form of Thinking Essential to Courses or Subjects
155(2)
Think Within the Logic of the Subject
157(1)
A Case: The Logic of Biochemistry
158(4)
Make the Design of the Course Work for You
162(7)
Sample Course: American History, 1600--1800
164(5)
Reading, Writing, Speaking, Listening, and Thinking
169(1)
Figure Out the Logic of an Article or Essay
170(2)
Figure Out the Logic of a Textbook
172(1)
Criteria for Evaluating an Author's Reasoning
173(2)
Redefine Grades As Levels of Thinking and Learning
175(10)
Develop Strategies for Self-Assessment
176(1)
Use Student Profiles to Assess Your Performance
176(4)
Exemplary Students (Grade of A)
177(1)
High-Performing Students (Grade of B)
177(1)
Mixed-Quality Students (Grade of C)
178(1)
Low-Performing Students (Grade of D or F)
179(1)
Apply Student Profiles to Assess Your Performance Within Specific Disciplines
180(3)
Exemplary Thinking as a Student of Psychology (Grade of A)
180(1)
High-Performing Thinking as a Student of Psychology (Grade of B)
181(1)
Mixed-Quality Thinking as a Student of Psychology (Grade of C)
181(1)
Low-Performing Thinking as a Student of Psychology (Grade of D or F)
182(1)
Conclusion
183(2)
Make Decisions and Solve Problems
185(26)
Making Decisions
185(9)
Evaluating Patterns in Decision-Making
186(1)
``Big'' Decisions
187(1)
The Logic of Decision-Making
187(3)
Dimensions of Decision-Making
190(1)
The Early Decisions (2-11 Years of Age)
191(1)
Adolescent Decisions (12-17 Years of Age)
192(2)
Solving Problems
194(15)
Becoming an Activist Problem-Solver
194(2)
Evaluating Patterns in Your Problem-Solving
196(1)
``Big'' Problems
197(1)
Dimensions of Problem-Solving
197(6)
Avoiding the Pitfalls of Problem-Solving
203(2)
Analyzing Problems Using the Elements of Thought
205(3)
The Art of Problem-Solving
208(1)
Conclusion
209(2)
Deal With Your Irrational Mind
211(38)
Take Charge of Your Egocentric Nature
212(26)
Understand Egocentric Thinking
214(2)
Understand Egocentrism as a Mind Within the Mind
216(2)
Successful Egocentric Thinking
218(1)
Unsuccessful Egocentric Thinking
219(3)
Rational Thinking
222(4)
Two Egocentric Functions
226(9)
Pathological Tendencies of the Human Mind
235(1)
Challenge the Pathological Tendencies of Your Mind
236(2)
The Challenge of Rationality
238(1)
Take Charge of Your Sociocentric Tendencies
238(10)
The Nature of Sociocentrism
240(3)
Social Stratification
243(1)
Sociocentric Thinking Is Unconscious and Potentially Dangerous
244(1)
Sociocentric Uses of Language
245(1)
Disclose Sociocentric Thinking Through Conceptual Analysis
246(1)
Reveal Ideology at Work Through Conceptual Analysis
246(2)
Conclusion
248(1)
Detect Media Bias and Propaganda in National and World News
249(42)
Democracy and the News Media
250(2)
Myths That Obscure the Logic of the News Media
252(1)
``Objectivity'' in the News Media
252(5)
Points of View
254(1)
Forms of Objectivity
255(2)
The Perception of Bias in the Mainstream
257(3)
Propaganda and News Story Writing
257(2)
Protecting the Home Audience from Guilt Feelings
259(1)
Fostering Sociocentric Thinking
260(2)
Slanting Stories to Favor Privileged Views
262(11)
How to Obtain Useful Information from Propaganda and Standard News Stories
265(1)
Steps in Becoming a Critical Consumer of the ``News''
266(1)
Media Awareness of Media Bias
267(3)
The Bias Toward Novelty and Sensationalism
270(1)
Critical Consumers of the News
271(1)
Questions for the News Media
272(1)
Finding Alternative Sources of Information
273(1)
Becoming an Independent Thinker
274(14)
Buried, Ignored, or Underreported Stories
276(11)
Using the Internet
287(1)
Additional Alternative News Sources
288(1)
Conclusion
288(3)
Recognize Fallacies: The Art of Mental Trickery and Manipulation
291(46)
Truth and Deception in the Human Mind
292(1)
Three Types of Thinkers
293(2)
Uncritical Persons (intellectually unskilled thinkers)
293(1)
Skilled Manipulators (weak-sense critical thinkers)
293(1)
Fair-Minded Critical Persons (strong-sense critical thinkers)
294(1)
The Concept of Fallacies of Thought
295(3)
Naming Fallacies
296(1)
Mistakes Versus Fallacies
297(1)
No Exhaustive List of Fallacies
297(1)
Faulty Generalizations
298(3)
Analyzing Generalizations
301(5)
Post Hoc Generalizations
304(1)
Analogies and Metaphors
305(1)
44 Foul Ways to Win an Argument
306(18)
Fallacy Detection: Analyzing a Speech from the Past
324(4)
Fallacy Detection: Analyzing a Current Presidential Speech
328(4)
Fallacy Detection: Analyzing a Speech from a Presidential Candidate
332(2)
Avoid Two Extremes
334(1)
Conclusion
335(2)
Develop as an Ethical Reasoner
337(22)
Why People Are Confused About Ethics
337(3)
The Fundamentals of Ethical Reasoning
340(17)
Ethical Concepts and Principles
341(3)
The Universal Nature of Ethical Principles
344(3)
Distinguishing Ethics from Other Domains of Thinking
347(8)
Understanding Our Native Selfishness
355(2)
Conclusion
357(2)
Learn and Use Information Critically and Ethically: Part One: Critique of Disciplines
359(20)
The Ideal of Knowledge Acquisition
359(1)
True Loyalty to a Discipline
360(1)
The Gap Between Fact and Ideal
361(2)
The Ideal Compared to the Real
363(1)
The Ideal of Mathematics: Abstract Quantification
364(3)
The Pain and Suffering of Those Who Fail
365(1)
Loss of Self-Esteem and Opportunity to Receive Higher Education
365(1)
Low Level of Math Competency of Those Who Pass School Examinations
366(1)
The Ideal of Science: Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, Geology, Biology
367(3)
The Ideal of Science: History, Sociology, Anthropology, Economics, Psychology
370(4)
The Social Sciences as Taught and Practiced
373(1)
The Ideal of the Arts and Humanities: Music, Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Dance, Literature, Philosophy
374(3)
The Promise of the Fine Arts and Literature
374(1)
The Reality of Instruction in the Fine Arts and Literature
374(1)
The Promise of Philosophy
375(1)
The Reality of Philosophy
376(1)
Conclusion
377(2)
Learn and Use Information Critically and Ethically: Part Two: Method and a Model Case
379(26)
Realistic Understanding
380(1)
Be a Critic, Not a Cynic
381(1)
Recognize the Mental Nature of Knowledge
382(1)
Develop Awareness of the Harm that Results from Misuse of Information
383(3)
Question Academic and ``Expert'' Information
386(2)
Question the Status of Knowledge in a Field
388(1)
A Model Case: Questioning Psychology and the Mental Health Professions
388(3)
Psychology as an Ideal
390(1)
Psychology as Taught and Practiced
390(1)
The Milgram Experiment
391(2)
Scientific Studies in Psychology
393(1)
A Dark Side of the Mental Health Professions
394(1)
Legitimizing Deeply Held Social Beliefs
395(4)
Questioning Psychotherapy
399(2)
Learning from Suspect Claims of Psychology and the Mental Health Professions
401(1)
Thinking Psychologically: A Postscript
402(3)
Strategic Thinking: Part One
405(16)
Understanding and Using Strategic Thinking
405(3)
Components of Strategic Thinking
408(1)
The Beginnings of Strategic Thinking
408(13)
Key Idea #1: Thoughts, Feelings, and Desires Are Interdependent
409(3)
Key Idea #2: There Is a Logic to This, and You Can Figure It Out
412(6)
Key Idea #3: For Thinking to Be of High Quality, We Must Routinely Assess It
418(3)
Strategic Thinking: Part Two
421(18)
Key Idea #4: Our Native Egocentrism Is a Default Mechanism
421(4)
Key Idea #5: We Must Become Sensitive to the Egocentrism of Those Around Us
425(2)
Key Idea #6: The Mind Tends to Generalize Beyond the Original Experience
427(2)
Key Idea #7: Egocentric Thinking Appears to the Mind as Rational
429(2)
Key Idea #8: The Egocentric Mind Is Automatic in Nature
431(1)
Key Idea #9: We Often Pursue Power Through Dominating or Submissive Behavior
432(2)
Key Idea #10: Humans Are Naturally Sociocentric Animals
434(2)
Key Idea #11: Developing Rationality Requires Work
436(1)
Conclusion
437(2)
Becoming An Advanced Thinker: Our Conclusion
439(40)
Practicing Skilled Thinking
439(1)
Stage 5: Reaching the Advanced Stage of Development
440(3)
Stage 6: Becoming a Master Thinker
443(1)
Qualities of Mind of a Master Thinker
444(2)
The Inner Logic of the Master Thinker
446(1)
The Ideal Thinker
446(4)
Appendices
A Critical Questions About Critical Thinking
450(16)
B Sample Analysis of ``The Logic of. . .''
466(9)
C Article: ``Iraq Is a Pediatrician's Hell: No Way to Stop the Dying''
475(4)
Glossary 479(22)
References 501(2)
Index 503

Excerpts

Whatever you are doing right now is determined by the way you are thinking. Whatever you feel---all your emotions--- are determined by your thinking. Whatever you want---all your desires--- are determined by your thinking. If your thinking is unrealistic, it will lead you to many disappointments. If your thinking is overly pessimistic, it will deny you due recognition of the many things in which you should properly rejoice.Test this idea for yourself. Identify some examples of your strongest feelings or emotions. Then identify the thinking that is correlated with those examples. For example, if youfeelexcited about college, it is because youthinkthat good things will happen to you in college. If you dread going to class, it is probably because you think it will be boring or too difficult.In a similar way, if the quality of your life is not what you would wish it to be, it is most likely because it is tied to the way you think about your life. If you think about it positively, you will feel positively about it. If you think about it negatively, you will feel negative about it.For example, suppose you came to college with the view that college was going to be a lot of fun and you were going to form good friendships with fellow students who would respect and like you and, what is more, that your love life would become interesting and exciting. And let's suppose that hasn't happened. If this were the thrust of your thinking, you now would feel disappointed and maybe even frustrated (depending on how negatively you have interpreted your experience).For most people, thinking is subconscious, never explicitly put into words. For example, most people who think negatively would not say of themselves, "I have chosen to think about myself and my experience in a negative way. I prefer to be as unhappy as I can make myself."The problem is that when you are not aware of your thinking, you have no chance of correcting it if it is poor. When thinking is subconscious, you are in no position to see any problems in it. And, if you don't see any problems in it, you won't be motivated to change it.Since few people realize the powerful role that thinking plays in their lives, few gain significant command of it. Most people are in many ways victims of their thinking, that is,hurtrather thanhelpedby it. Most people are their own worst enemy. Their thinking is a continual source of problems, preventing them from recognizing opportunities, keeping them from exerting energy where it will do the most good, poisoning relationships, and leading them down blind alleys.Or consider your success as a student in college. The single most significant variable in determining that success is the quality of your thinking. If you think well when you study, you will study well. If you think well when you read, you will read well. If you think well when you write, you will write well. And if you study well, read well, and write well, you will do well in college. Certainly your instructors will play a role in your learning. Some of them will do a better job than others of helping you learn. But even the best teachers cannot get into your head and learn for you. Even the best teachers cannot think for you, read for you, or write for you. If you lack the intellectual skills necessary for thinking well through course content, you will not be successful in college.Here is the key question we are putting to you in this book. If the quality of a person's thinking is the single most significant determinant of both their happiness and their success---as it is---why not discover the tools that the best thinkers use and take the time to learn to use them yourself? Perhaps you will not become proficient in all of them, but for every tool you learn there will be a payoff.This book will alert you to the tools the best thinkers use and will exemplify the activities and practice you c


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