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Critical Visions in Film Theoryis a new book for a new generation, embracing groundbreaking approaches in the field without ignoring the history of classical film theory. The study of film theory has changed dramatically over the past 30 years with innovative ways of looking at classic debates in areas like film form, genre, and authorship, as well as exciting new conversations on such topics as race, gender and sexuality, and new media. Until now, no film theory anthology has stepped forward to represent this broader, more inclusive perspective. Critical Visionsalso provides the best guidance for students, giving them the context and the tools they need to critically engage with theory and apply it to their film experiences.
Timothy Corrigan is Professor of Cinema Studies, English, and History of Art at the University of Pennsylvania. His work in film studies focuses on modern American and international cinema, as well as on pedagogy and film. He is coauthor, with Patricia White, of The Film Experience: An Introduction (2009). His most recent book is The Essay Film from Montaigne, after Marker. He is an editor of the journal Adaptation and serves on the editorial board of Cinema Journal. He has taught film at the University of Amsterdam, Temple University, University of Iowa, and at campuses in Tokyo, Rome, Paris, and London.
Patricia White is Professor of Film and Media Studies at Swarthmore College. She is the author of Uninvited: Classical Hollywood Cinema and Lesbian Representability and is completing a new book on global women's filmmaking in the twenty-first century. With Timothy Corrigan, she is co-author of The Film Experience and co-editor of Critical Visions in Film Theory: Classic and Contemporary Readings. A member of the editorial collective Camera Obscura, she also serves on the board of Women Make Movies.
Meta Mazaj is a Lecturer in Cinema Studies at the University of Pennsylvania. She has published on critical theory, Balkan cinema, new European cinema, film and nationalism. She is author of Nation and Cynicism in the Post 1990s Balkan Cinema (2008), and her current work focuses on East European and transnational cinema.
Table of Contents
PART 1 Experiencing Film: From Perception to Reception
PLATO From Republic The Allegory of the Cave HUGO MÜNSTERBERG Why We Go to the Movies CHRISTIAN METZ From The Imaginary Signifier Loving the Cinema Identifi cation, Mirror Disavowal, Fetishism JEAN-LOUIS BAUDRY Ideological Effects of the Basic Cinematographic Apparatus
GREGORY CURRIE Film, Reality, and Illusion VIVIAN SOBCHACK From The Address of the Eye Phenomenology and Film Experience TOM GUNNING The Cinema of Attractions: Early Film, Its Spectator and the Avant-Garde STUART HALL Encoding/Decoding JUDITH MAYNE Paradoxes of Spectatorship
PART 2 The Sights, Sounds, and Signs of Cinema
JOHN BERGER From Ways of Seeing BÉLA BALÁZS From Theory of the Film The Creative Camera
The Close-Up The Face of Man LEV KULESHOV The Principles of Montage MAYA DEREN Cinematography: The Creative Use of Reality MICHEL CHION From The Voice in Cinema The Acousmêtre CLAUDIA GORBMAN From Unheard Melodies Classical Hollywood Practice GILLES DELEUZE From Cinema II: The Time-Image Preface Recapitulation of Images and Signs Conclusions JAMES NAREMORE From Acting in the Cinema Protocols PAUL WELLS From Understanding Animation Notes Towards a Theory of Animation
PART 3 Modernism and Realism: Debates in Classical
Film Theory WALTER BENJAMIN The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility (Second Version) JEAN EPSTEIN Photogénie and the Imponderable DZIGA VERTOV Film Directors: A Revolution SERGEI EISENSTEIN The Dramaturgy of Film Form (The Dialectical Approach to Film Form) RUDOLF ARNHEIM From Film as Art Film and Reality SIEGFRIED KRACAUER From Theory of Film Basic Concepts Inherent Affi nities ANDRÉ BAZIN From What Is Cinema? The Ontology of the Photographic Image The Evolution of the Language of Cinema MIRIAM HANSEN The Mass Production of the Senses: Classical Cinema as Vernacular Modernism
PART 4 Auteurism: Directors, Stars, and Beyond
ROLAND BARTHES The Death of the Author ALEXANDRE ASTRUC The Birth of a New Avant-Garde: La Caméra-Stylo ANDREW SARRIS The Auteur Theory Revisited PETER WOLLEN From Signs and Meaning in the Cinema The Auteur Theory TANIA MODLESKI From The Women Who Knew Too Much Hitchcock, Feminism, and the Patriarchal Unconscious JUDITH MAYNE Lesbian Looks: Dorothy Arzner and Female Authorship RICHARD DYER From Stars TIMOTHY CORRIGAN From A Cinema without Walls The Commerce of Auteurism JEROME CHRISTENSEN Studio Authorship, Corporate Art
PART 5 Genre: Classifying Stories
ARISTOTLE From Poetics The Origins of Tragedy, Comedy and Epic THOMAS SCHATZ From Hollywood Genres Film Genre and the Genre Film RICHARD DYER Entertainment and Utopia JEAN-LOUIS COMOLLI and JEAN NARBONI Cinema/Ideology/Criticism RICK ALTMAN From Film/Genre A Semantic/Syntactic/Pragmatic Approach to Genre THOMAS ELSAESSER Tales of Sound and Fury: Observations on the Family Melodrama CAROL J. CLOVER From Men, Women, and Chain Saws Her Body, Himself
PART 6 Narrative: Telling Stories
TZVETAN TODOROV Structural Analysis of Narrative ROBERT STAM Beyond Fidelity: The Dialogics of Adaptation DAVID BORDWELL From Poetics of Cinem The Art Cinema as a Mode of Film Practice TERESA DE LAURETIS From Alice Doesn’t Desire in Narrative MANTHIA DIAWARA Black American Cinema: The New Realism JANE FEUER Narrative Form in American Network Television HENRY JENKINS From Convergence Culture Searching for the Origami Unicorn: The Matrix and Transmedia Storytelling
PART 7 Alternative Modes: Experimental and Documentary Film
CHARLES BAUDELAIRE The Salon of 1859: The Modern Public and Photography GERMAINE DULAC The Avant-Garde Cinema JOHN GRIERSON First Principles of Documentary STAN BRAKHAGE In Consideration of Aesthetics BILL NICHOLS From Blurred Boundaries
Performing Documentary DOGME 95 Manifesto Vow of Chastity TRINH T. MINH-HA Documentary Is/Not a Name
PART 8 Sexuality and Gender in Cinema: FromPsychoanalysis to Performativity
SIGMUND FREUD On Fetishism LAURA MULVEY Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema LINDA WILLIAMS “Something Else Besides a Mother” KOBENA MERCER Dark and Lovely Too: Black Gay Men in Independent Film YVONNE TASKER Dumb Movies for Dumb People: Masculinity, the Body, and the Voice in Contemporary Action Cinema B. RUBY RICH New Queer Cinema LINDA WILLIAMS Porn Studies: Proliferating Pornographies On/Scene
PART 9 Race and Ethnicity in Cinema: From Stereotypes to Self-Representation
FRANTZ FANON From Black Skin, White Masks The Fact of Blackness ELLA SHOHAT and ROBERT STAM From Unthinking Eurocentrism Stereotype, Realism, and the Struggle over Representation RICHARD DYER White FATIMAH TOBING RONY From The Third Eye King Kong and the Monster in Ethnographic Cinema ANA M. LÓPEZ Are All Latins from Manhattan? TONI CADE BAMBARA Reading the Signs, Empowering the Eye FAYE GINSBURG Screen Memories and Entangled Technologies
PART 10 National and Transnational Film Histories
BENEDICT ANDERSON From Imagined Communities CESARE ZAVATTINI Some Ideas on the Cinema FERNANDO SOLANAS and OCTAVIO GETINO Towards a Third Cinema: Notes and Experiences for the Development of a Cinema of Liberation in the Third World STEPHEN CROFTS Reconceptualizing National Cinema/s JYOTIKA VIRDI From The Cinematic ImagiNation Nation and Its Discontents HAMID NAFICY From An Accented Cinema Situating Accented Cinema DUDLEY ANDREW An Atlas of World Cinema
PART 11 Screen Cultures: Current Debates
THEODOR W. ADORNO and MAX HORKHEIMER From The Dialectic of Enlightenment The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception FREDRIC JAMESON Postmodernism and Consumer Society LISA NAKAMURA From Digitizing Race The Social Optics of Race and Networked Interfaces in The Matrix Trilogy and Minority Report LEV MANOVICH From The Language of New Media What Is Digital Cinema? ALEXANDER R. GALLOWAW From Gaming Origins of the First-Person Shooter LAWRENCE LESSIG From Remix RW, Revived LAURIE OUELLETTE “Take Responsibility for Yourself”: Judge Judy and the Neoliberal Citizen D. N. RODOWICK An Elegy for Theory
APPENDIX A: Alternative Tables of Contents APPENDIX B: Film Pairings for Studying Film Theory Acknowledgments Index