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Cross-Cultural Psychology: Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications, Fifth Edition,9780205253234
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Cross-Cultural Psychology: Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications, Fifth Edition



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  • Cross-Cultural Psychology Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications Plus MySearchLab with eText -- Access Card Package
    Cross-Cultural Psychology Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications Plus MySearchLab with eText -- Access Card Package
  • Introduction to Cross-Cultural Psychology: Critical Thinking and Contemporary Application
    Introduction to Cross-Cultural Psychology: Critical Thinking and Contemporary Application
  • Cross-Cultural Psychology : Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications
    Cross-Cultural Psychology : Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications
  • Cross-Cultural Psychology: Critical Thinking And Contemporary Applications
    Cross-Cultural Psychology: Critical Thinking And Contemporary Applications
  • Cross-Cultural Psychology : Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications
    Cross-Cultural Psychology : Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications


Dynamic author team provides comprehensive overview with focus on critical-thinking The fifth edition continues a heavy focus on applying critical thinking framework in examining, analyzing, and evaluating psychological data. With significant rewriting and additional new topics, updated references on new research, and MySearchLab with an interactive eText, Cross-Cultural Psychology keeps pace with the rapidly changing conditions of modern times. The dynamic team from two different worlds bring a unique set of experiences and perceptions in writing this book. Eric Shiraev was raised in the city of Leningrad in the former Soviet Union and David Levy is from Southern California,. Between the diverse backgrounds and having each author spent an extended period teaching in the other's home country, the authors provide a comprehensive review of theories and research in cross-cultural psychology. Learning Goals Upon completing this book, readers should be able to: Better understand the field of cross-cultural psychology Understand contemporary theories and research in cross-cultural psychology Use critical thinking to examine, analyze, and evaluate the field of cross-cultural psychology Assist current and future practitioners from a wide variety of fields and services Note:MySearchLab with eText does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase the MySearchLab with eText, please visit:www.mySearchLab.comor you can purchase a ValuePack of the text + MySearchLab with eText (at no additional cost): ValuePack ISBN-10: 0205844677 / ValuePack ISBN-13: 9780205844678

Author Biography

Eric Shiraev is a professor, researcher, and author. He took his academic degrees at St. Petersburg University in Russia and completed a post-doctoral program in the United States at UCLA. He served at various positions at St. Petersburg University, NVCC, Oregon State University, George Washington University, and George Mason University. His research interests are diverse. He is an author, co-author, and co-editor of twelve books and numerous publications in the fields of global studies, history of science, cross-cultural studies, and political psychology. In his publications, he develops a distinct multi-disciplinary approach to analyze human behavior. Besides teaching and scholarly work, Eric Shiraev writes opinion essays for the media around the world. He resides near Washington DC. Visit his site:


Dr. David A. Levy has extensive experience as a teacher, therapist, writer, and researcher. He is Professor of Psychology at Pepperdine University's Graduate School of Education and Psychology, where he has been teaching graduate courses since 1986. He received his B.A. degree in theater arts from UCLA, a M.A. degree in psychology from Pepperdine University, a second M.A. degree in psychology from UCLA, and his Ph.D. in psychology from UCLA, where he specialized in social psychology, with minors in psychological assessment and personality psychology. He served as Visiting Professor of Psychology in the Soviet Union, where he delivered lectures and workshops in psychology and psychotherapy at Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) State University, the Leningrad Academy of Science, and the Bekhterev Psychoneurological Institute. He was honored as a Harriet and Charles Luckman Distinguished Teaching Fellow at Pepperdine, and was a recipient of the Shepard Ivory Franz Distinguished Teaching Award and Charles F. Scott Fellowship at UCLA. Dr. Levy holds professional licenses both in psychology and in marriage and family therapy. He has worked in a wide range of private practice and inpatient psychiatric settings, he has supervised clinical interns, and he has utilized his expertise in psychological testing (particularly the MMPI) in forensic cases.

    His numerous theoretical and empirical research studies have been published in scientific journals and presented at professional conferences. His book, "Tools of Critical Thinking: Metathoughts for Psychology," garnered widespread acclaim in both academic and clinical settings for its innovative approaches to improving thinking skills. Levy co-authored (with Eric Shiraev) "Cross-Cultural Psychology: Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications," which became an internationally best-selling textbook. Levy is the author of "Family Therapy: History, Theory, and Practice," which was the first textbook on the topic available to Russian readers. His Levy Optimism-Pessimism Scale (LOPS) has been utilized internationally in a variety of research contexts, and he is a member of the Board of Editors for the Journal of Humanistic Psychology.

Levy is also the author of numerous satirical articles, including "The Emperor's Postmodern Clothes: A Brief Guide to Deconstructing Academically Fashionable Phrases for the Uninitiated," "How to Be a Good Psychotherapy Patient," "Psychometric Infallibility Realized: The One-Size-Fits-All Psychological Profile," "Stinks and Instincts: An Empirical Investigation of Freud's Excreta Theory," and "A Proposed Category for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM): Pervasive Labeling Disorder."

    As a media consultant, Levy has appeared on dozens television and radio broadcasts (including CNN, CBS, NBC, PBS, A&E, and E!), providing psychological perspectives on current events, and examining issues and trends in the mental health fields. He has also worked as a professional director, producer, writer and actor in motion pictures, television and stage. He received an Emmy nomination for Outstanding Performance in a Network Television Series, and he was a guest star on the television series "Cheers," where he portrayed the leader of Frasier's low self-esteem group.


Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Understanding Cross-Cultural Psychologyp. 1
What Is Cross-Cultural Psychology?p. 2
Basic Definitionsp. 3
Culturep. 3
Society, Race, and Ethnicityp. 4
Knowledge in Cross-Cultural Psychologyp. 7
Cultural Traditionalismp. 9
Empirical Examination of Culturep. 10
Collectivism and Individualism: Further Researchp. 11
Cultural Syndromesp. 12
Evolutionary Approachp. 13
Sociological Approachp. 14
Ecocultural Approachp. 15
The Cultural Mixtures Approachp. 16
The Integrative Approach: A Summaryp. 17
Indigenous Psychologyp. 18
Ethnocentrismp. 19
Multiculturalismp. 19
A Brief History of the Fieldp. 19
Chapter Summaryp. 21
Key Termsp. 22
Methodology of Cross-Cultural Researchp. 24
Goals of Cross-Cultural Researchp. 25
Quantitative Research in Cross-Cultural Psychologyp. 26
Quantitative Approach: Measurement Scalesp. 26
Quantitative Approach: Looking for Links and Differencesp. 27
Qualitative Approach in Cross-Cultural Psychologyp. 28
Major Steps for Preparation of a Cross-Cultural Studyp. 30
Sample Selectionp. 30
Observation in Cross-Cultural Psychologyp. 32
Survey Methodsp. 33
Experimental Studiesp. 34
Content Analysisp. 35
Focus Group Methodologyp. 36
Meta-Analysis: Research of Researchp. 36
A Hidden Obstacle of Cross-Cultural Studies: Test Translationp. 37
Comparing Two Phenomena: Some Important Principlesp. 38
On Similarities and Differences: Some Critical Thinking Applicationsp. 40
Cultural Dichotomiesp. 41
There Are Fewer Differences than One Might Thinkp. 41
There Are More Differences than One Might Expectp. 42
Avoiding Bias of Generalizationsp. 42
Know More About Cultures You Examinep. 43
Chapter Summaryp. 46
Key Termsp. 47
Critical Thinking in Cross-Cultural Psychologyp. 49
The Evaluative Bias of Language: To Describe Is to Prescribep. 51
Differentiating Dichotomous Variables and Continuous Variables: Black and White, or Shades of Gray?p. 53
The Similarity-Uniqueness Paradox: All Phenomena Are Both Similar and Differentp. 55
The Barnum Effect: "One-Size-Fits-All" Descriptionsp. 57
The Assimilation Bias: Viewing the World Through Schema-Colored Glassesp. 59
The Representativeness Bias: Fits and Misfits of Categorizationp. 62
The Availability Bias: The Persuasive Power of Vivid Eventsp. 64
The Fundamental Attribution Error: Underestimating the Impact of External Influencesp. 67
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: When Expectations Create Realityp. 70
Correlation Does Not Prove Causation: Confusing "What" with "Why"p. 72
Bidirectional Causation and Multiple Causation: Causal Loops and Compound Pathwaysp. 75
Bidirectional Causationp. 75
Multiple Causationp. 76
The Naturalistic Fallacy: Blurring the Line Between "Is" and "Should"p. 78
The Belief Perseverance Effect: "Don't Confuse Me with the Facts!"p. 81
Conclusions: "To Metathink or Not to Metathink?"p. 84
Chapter Summaryp. 85
Key Termsp. 86
Cognition: Sensation, Perception, and States of Consciousnessp. 88
Sensation and Perception: Basic Principlesp. 89
How Culture Influences What We Perceivep. 90
How People Perceive Picturesp. 92
Perception of Depthp. 94
Are People Equally Misled by Visual Illusions?p. 94
Some Cultural Patterns of Drawingp. 95
Perception of Colorp. 96
Other Sensesp. 98
Hearingp. 98
Tastep. 98
Smellp. 99
Touchp. 99
Perception of Timep. 100
Perception of the Beautifulp. 101
Perception of Musicp. 103
Consciousness and Culturep. 104
Sleep and Cultural Significance of Dreamsp. 105
Beyond Altered States of Consciousnessp. 108
Chapter Summaryp. 112
Key Termsp. 114
Intelligencep. 115
Defining intelligencep. 116
Ethnic Differences in IQ Scoresp. 118
Explaining Group Differences in Test Scores: Intelligence and Intelligent Behaviorp. 119
Do Biological Factors Contribute to Intelligence?p. 120
Incompatibility of Tests: Cultural Biasesp. 122
A Word About "Cultural Literacy"p. 123
Environment and Intelligencep. 123
Socioeconomic Factorsp. 125
The Family Factorp. 126
"Natural Selection" and IQ Scoresp. 127
Cultural Values of Cognitionp. 128
General Cognition: What Is "Underneath" Intelligence?p. 131
Classificationp. 131
Sortingp. 132
Memoryp. 132
Formal and Mathematical Reasoningp. 133
Creativityp. 133
Cognitive Skills, School Grades, and Educational Systemsp. 135
Culture, Tests, and Motivationp. 136
IQ, Culture, and Social Justicep. 137
And in the End, Moral Valuesp. 139
Chapter Summaryp. 141
Key Termsp. 143
Emotionp. 144
When We Laugh We Are Happy: Similarities of Emotional Experiencep. 146
You Cannot Explain Pain If You Have Never Been Hurt: Differences in Emotional Experiencep. 148
Emotions: Different or Universal?p. 151
Physiological Arousalp. 151
The Meaning of Preceding Eventsp. 152
Emotion as an Evaluationp. 154
We Are Expected to Feel in a Particular Wayp. 156
How People Assess Emotional Experiencep. 157
When Emotions Signal a Challenge: Cross-Cultural Research on Stress and Anxietyp. 158
Expression of Emotionp. 160
When Emotion Hurts: Cross-Cultural Studies of Angerp. 162
Emotion and Inclination to Actp. 163
Emotion and Judgmentp. 164
Chapter Summaryp. 165
Key Termsp. 166
Motivation and Behaviorp. 167
A Glance into Evolutionp. 168
Social Science: See the Society Firstp. 168
Drive and Arousal: Two Universal Mechanisms of Motivationp. 169
The Power of the Unconscious: Psychoanalysisp. 170
Humanistic Theoriesp. 171
Learning and Motivationp. 173
A Carrot and a Beef Tongue: Hunger and Food Preferencep. 173
When Hunger Causes Distress: Eating Disordersp. 174
Victory and Harmony: Achievement Motivationp. 175
Aggressive Motivation and Violencep. 178
Culture and Sexualityp. 183
Sex and Sexuality: Some Cross-Cultural Similaritiesp. 186
Chapter Summaryp. 188
Key Termsp. 189
Human Development and Socializationp. 190
Development and Socializationp. 191
Quality of Life and the Child's Developmentp. 191
Norms, Customs, and Child Carep. 192
Parental Values and Expectationsp. 194
Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Developmentp. 196
PiagetĘs Stages of Cognitive Developmentp. 197
Stages of Moral Development According to Kohlbergp. 198
Developmental Stagesp. 200
Life Before Birth: Prenatal Periodp. 201
First Steps: Infancyp. 202
Discovering the World: Childhoodp. 204
Major Rehearsal: Adolescencep. 206
Adulthoodp. 209
Late Adulthoodp. 211
Chapter Summaryp. 213
Key Termsp. 215
Psychological Disordersp. 216
American Background: DSM-IVp. 217
Two Views on Culture and Psychopathologyp. 218
Central and Peripheral Symptoms: An Outcome of the Debate Between Universalists and Relativistsp. 220
Culture-Bound Syndromesp. 221
Anxiety Disordersp. 225
Depressive Disordersp. 226
Schizophreniap. 229
Culture and Suicidep. 230
Personality Disordersp. 232
Is Substance Abuse Culturally Bound?p. 236
Psychodiagnostic Biasesp. 238
Psychotherapyp. 240
Culture Match?p. 242
Chapter Summaryp. 245
Key Termsp. 246
Social Perception and Social Cognitionp. 248
Valuesp. 249
Western and Non-Western Valuesp. 251
Striving for Consistent: The Cognitive Balance Theoryp. 253
Avoiding Inconsistency: Cognitive Dissonancep. 253
Psychological Dogmatismp. 254
Social Attributionp. 254
Attribution as Locus of Controlp. 255
Attribution of Success and Failurep. 257
Self-Perceptionp. 258
Do Social Norms Affect the Way We See Our Own Body?p. 260
Duty and Fairness in Individualist and Collectivist Culturesp. 261
Stereotypes and the Power of Generalizationsp. 262
On "National Character"p. 265
Chapter Summaryp. 267
Key Termsp. 268
Social Interactionp. 270
Universal Interactionp. 271
Direct Contacts and Body Languagep. 274
Conformityp. 276
Is Conformity Universal across Cultures?p. 277
Following Ordersp. 280
Social Influencep. 282
Feeling Good About Some Viewsp. 283
Is Social Loafing Universal?p. 284
Cooperation and Competitionp. 284
Leadershipp. 286
Chapter Summaryp. 288
Key Termsp. 290
Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology: Some Highlightsp. 291
Healthp. 292
Spirituality, Science, and Healthp. 295
Business Decisionsp. 298
Working with Immigrantsp. 300
Educationp. 304
Culture, Behavior, and the Lawp. 304
Human Rightsp. 306
Working and Serving Abroadp. 307
Religion: A Campus Contextp. 309
Conclusionp. 310
Chapter Summaryp. 311
Key Termsp. 312
Referencesp. 313
Author Indexp. 355
Subject Indexp. 361
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