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Cross-Cultural Psychology : Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications,9780205474325
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Cross-Cultural Psychology : Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780205474325

ISBN10:
0205474322
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2010
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $92.60
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Summary

The dynamic author team of Shiraev and Levy provide a comprehensive review of theories and research in cross-cultural psychology within a critical thinking framework for examining, analyzing, and evaluating psychological data. This text introduces the field of cross-cultural psychology, discusses basic methodology for cross-cultural research, and explores the fields of sensation and perception, consciousness, intelligence, human development, emotion, motivation, social perception and interaction, and psychological disorders from a cross-cultural perspective. Features: bull; bull;A critical thinking framework, including "Critical Thinking" boxes and tables, provide practice in developing learning skills. bull;More than thirty high-interest activities and exercises provide students ample opportunity for active learning and enhanced comprehension. These activities and exercises are designed to serve as class discussion starters, demonstrations, points for debate, individual or group assignments, term papers, or oral assignments. bull;"A Case in Point" sections review and illustrate controversial issues, display cases and research findings, and introduce various opinions about human behavior in different cultural contexts. bull;"Cross-Cultural Sensitivity" boxes in every chapter underscore the importance of empathy in interpersonal communication. bull;Relevant quotations from a wide range of sources provide divergent points of view, pique readers' interest, and inspire critical thinking. New Features to the Edition: bull; bull;A new comprehensive website provides additional information for instructors and students including research updates and links, national statistics, discussion topics, practice questions, and chapter summaries. bull;A broader selection of applied problems allows students to examine cross-cultural psychology in the context of contemporary society. bull;Eighty-six new reference sources and new data related to a wide range of ethnic groups. bull;New features and topics such as four types of knowledge in cross-cultural psychology, ethnic cognitive styles, personality disorders, health policies, counseling decisions, forms of healing, working and serving abroad, working with immigrants--all provide students with new information related to cross-cultural communication, education, business, and health care. bull;A new feature for professors: a test bank to accompany the 3rd edition with a comprehensive selection of questions for every chapter and ready-to-use quizzes.

Table of Contents

PREFACE ix
1 UNDERSTANDING CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY
1(28)
What Is Cross-Cultural Psychology?
3(1)
Basic Definitions
4(6)
Cultural Traditionalism
10(1)
Empirical Examination of Culture
11(3)
Collectivism and Individualism: Further Research
14(1)
Cultural Syndromes
15(1)
Sociobiological Approach
15(1)
Sociological Approach
16(1)
Ecocultural Approach
17(2)
The Cultural Mixtures Approach: A New Cross-Cultural Psychology in the Twenty-First Century?
19(1)
The Integrative Approach: A Summary
20(2)
What Is Indigenous Psychology?
22(1)
What Is Ethnocentrism?
23(1)
What Is Multiculturalism?
23(1)
A Brief History of the Field
24(5)
2 METHODOLOGY OF CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH
29(30)
Goals of Cross-Cultural Research
31(1)
Quantitative Research in Cross-Cultural Psychology
31(1)
Quantitative Approach: Measurement Scales
32(1)
Quantitative Approach: Looking for Links and Differences
33(1)
Qualitative Approach in Cross-Cultural Psychology
34(1)
Major Steps for Preparation of a Cross-Cultural Study
35(1)
Sample Selection
36(2)
Observation in Cross-Cultural Psychology
38(1)
Survey Methods
39(2)
Experimental Studies
41(1)
Content-Analysis
41(2)
Focus-Group Methodology
43(1)
Meta-Analysis: Research of Research
43(1)
A Hidden Obstacle of Cross-Cultural Studies: Test Translation
44(1)
Comparing Two Phenomena: Some Important Principles
45(2)
On Similarities and Differences: Some Critical Thinking Applications
47(1)
Cultural Dichotomies
48(1)
Avoiding Bias of Generalizations
49(1)
Know More about Cultures You Examine
50(9)
3 CRITICAL THINKING IN CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY
59(44)
The Evaluative Bias of Language: To Describe Is to Prescribe
61(2)
Differentiating Dichotomous Variables and Continuous Variables: Black and White, or Shades of Gray?
63(2)
The Similarity—Uniqueness Paradox: All Phenomena Are Both Similar and Different
65(3)
The Barnum Effect: "One-Size-Fits-All" Descriptions
68(2)
The Assimilation Bias: Viewing the World through Schema-Colored Glasses
70(3)
The Representativeness Bias: Fits and Misfits of Categorization
73(3)
The Availability Bias: The Persuasive Power of Vivid Events
76(3)
The Fundamental Attribution Error: Underestimating the Impact of External Influences
79(3)
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: When Expectations Create Reality
82(2)
Correlation Does Not Prove Causation: Confusing "What" with "Why"
84(3)
Bidirectional Causation and Multiple Causation: Causal Loops and Compound Pathways
87(3)
The Naturalistic Fallacy: Blurring the Line between "Is" and "Should"
90(4)
The Belief Perseverance Effect: "Don't Confuse Me with the Facts!"
94(4)
Conclusions: "To Metathink or Not to Metathink?"
98(5)
4 COGNITION: SENSATION, PERCEPTION, AND STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS
103(30)
Sensation and Perception: Basic Principles
104(2)
How Culture Influences What We Perceive
106(2)
How People Perceive Depictions
108(1)
Perception of Depth
109(1)
Are People Equally Misled by Visual Illusions?
110(1)
Some Cultural Patterns of Drawing Pictures
111(1)
Perception of Color
111(3)
Other Senses
114(2)
Perception of Time
116(2)
Perception of the Beautiful
118(1)
Perception of Music
119(1)
Consciousness and Culture
120(2)
Sleep and Cultural Significance of Dreams
122(4)
Beyond Altered States of Consciousness
126(7)
5 INTELLIGENCE
133(32)
Defining Intelligence
134(3)
Ethnic Differences in IQ Scores
137(1)
Explaining Group Differences 'In Test Scores: Intelligence and Intelligent Behavior
138(2)
Do Biological Factors Contribute to Intelligence?
140(1)
Incompatibility of Tests: Cultural Biases
141(2)
A Word about "Cultural Literacy"
143(2)
Environment and Intelligence 143 Socioeconomic Factors
145(1)
The Family Factor
146(1)
"Natural Selection" and IQ Scores
147(2)
Cultural Values of Cognition
149(4)
General Cognition: What Is "Underneath" Intelligence?
153(2)
Cognitive Skills, School Grades, and Educational Systems
155(1)
Culture, Tests, and Motivation
156(1)
IQ, Culture, and Social Justice
157(2)
And in the End, Moral Values
159(6)
6 EMOTION
165(26)
When We Laugh We Are Happy: Similarities of Emotional Experience
167(3)
You Cannot Explain Pain if You Have Never Been Hurt: Differences in Emotional Experience
170(3)
Emotions: Different or Universal?
173(1)
Physiological Arousal
173(1)
The Meaning of Preceding Events
174(3)
Emotion as an Evaluation
177(2)
We Are Expected to Feel in a Particular Way
179(1)
How People Assess Emotional Experience
179(1)
When Emotions Signal a Challenge: Cross-Cultural Research on Stress and Anxiety
180(2)
Expression of Emotion
182(3)
When Emotion Hurts: Cross-Cultural Studies of Anger
185(1)
Emotion and Inclination to Act
186(1)
Emotion and Judgment
186(5)
7 MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOR
191(26)
Sociobiology: A Glance into Evolution
192(2)
Social Science: See the Society First
194(1)
Drive and Arousal: Two Universal Mechanisms of Motivation
194(1)
The Power of the Unconscious: Psychoanalysis
195(1)
Humanistic Theories
196(2)
Learning and Motivation: Cognitive Theories
198(1)
A Carrot and a Beef Tongue: Hunger and Food Preference
199(1)
When Hunger Causes Distress: Eating Disorders
199(1)
Victory and Harmony: Achievement Motivation
200(4)
Aggressive Motivation and Violence
204(6)
Culture and Sexuality
210(3)
Sex and Sexuality: Some Cross-Cultural Similarities
213(4)
8 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIALIZATION
217(28)
Development and Socialization
218(1)
Quality of Life and the Child's Development
219(1)
Norms, Customs, and Child Care
220(2)
Parental Values and Expectations
222(1)
Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
223(2)
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
225(1)
Stages of Moral Development According to Kohlberg
226(2)
Developmental Stages
228(1)
Life before Birth: Prenatal Period
229(2)
First Steps: Infancy
231(2)
Discovering the World: Childhood
233(2)
Major Rehearsal: Adolescence
235(3)
Adulthood
238(2)
Late Adulthood
240(5)
9 PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
245(36)
American Background: DSM-IV
247(1)
Two Views on Culture and Psychopathology
248(3)
Culture-Bound Syndromes
251(5)
Anxiety Disorders
256(1)
Depressive Disorders
257(4)
Schizophrenia
261(1)
Culture and Suicide
262(2)
Personality Disorders
264(6)
Is Substance Abuse Culturally Bound?
270(2)
Psychodiagnostic Biases
272(2)
Psychotherapy
274(1)
Culture Match?
274(7)
10 SOCIAL PERCEPTION AND SOCIAL COGNITION 281(24)
The Nature of Attitude
283(1)
Values
284(2)
Western and Non-Western Values
286(1)
Striving for Consistency: The Cognitive Balance Theory
287(1)
Avoiding Inconsistency: Cognitive Dissonance
288(1)
Psychological Dogmatism
288(1)
Social Attribution
289(1)
Attribution as Locus of Control
290(2)
Attribution of Success and Failure
292(2)
Self-Perception
294(2)
Do Social Norms Affect the Way We See Our Own Body?
296(1)
Duty and Fairness in Individualist and Collectivist Cultures
297(2)
Stereotypes and the Power of Generalizations
299(6)
11 SOCIAL INTERACTION 305(24)
Universal Interaction
306(4)
Direct Contacts
310(1)
Conformity
311(2)
Is Conformity Universal across Cultures?
313(4)
Following Orders
317(2)
Social Influence
319(1)
Feeling Good about Some Views
320(1)
Is Social Loafing Universal?
321(1)
Cooperation and Competition
322(1)
Leaders: Born or Bred?
323(6)
12 APPLIED CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY: SOME HIGHLIGHTS 329(24)
Health
331(1)
Medical and Counseling Decisions
332(2)
Business Decisions
334(4)
Working with Immigrants
338(1)
Education
339(2)
Culture, Behavior, and the Law
341(2)
Human Rights
343(3)
Working and Serving Abroad
346(2)
Religion: A Campus Context
348(1)
Conclusion
349(4)
REFERENCES 353(26)
AUTHOR INDEX 379(6)
SUBJECT INDEX 385


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