Eric Shiraev is a professor, researcher, and author. He took his academic degrees at St. Petersburg University in Russia and completed a post-doctoral program in the United States at UCLA. He served at various positions at St. Petersburg University, NVCC, Oregon State University, George Washington University, and George Mason University. His research interests are diverse. He is an author, co-author, and co-editor of twelve books and numerous publications in the fields of global studies, history of science, cross-cultural studies, and political psychology. In his publications, he develops a distinct multi-disciplinary approach to analyze human behavior. Besides teaching and scholarly work, Eric Shiraev writes opinion essays for the media around the world. He resides near Washington DC. Visit his site: www.ericshiraev.com
Dr. David A. Levy has extensive experience as a teacher, therapist, writer, and researcher. He is Professor of Psychology at Pepperdine University's Graduate School of Education and Psychology, where he has been teaching graduate courses since 1986. He received his B.A. degree in theater arts from UCLA, a M.A. degree in psychology from Pepperdine University, a second M.A. degree in psychology from UCLA, and his Ph.D. in psychology from UCLA, where he specialized in social psychology, with minors in psychological assessment and personality psychology. He served as Visiting Professor of Psychology in the Soviet Union, where he delivered lectures and workshops in psychology and psychotherapy at Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) State University, the Leningrad Academy of Science, and the Bekhterev Psychoneurological Institute. He was honored as a Harriet and Charles Luckman Distinguished Teaching Fellow at Pepperdine, and was a recipient of the Shepard Ivory Franz Distinguished Teaching Award and Charles F. Scott Fellowship at UCLA. Dr. Levy holds professional licenses both in psychology and in marriage and family therapy. He has worked in a wide range of private practice and inpatient psychiatric settings, he has supervised clinical interns, and he has utilized his expertise in psychological testing (particularly the MMPI) in forensic cases.
His numerous theoretical and empirical research studies have been published in scientific journals and presented at professional conferences. His book, "Tools of Critical Thinking: Metathoughts for Psychology," garnered widespread acclaim in both academic and clinical settings for its innovative approaches to improving thinking skills. Levy co-authored (with Eric Shiraev) "Cross-Cultural Psychology: Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications," which became an internationally best-selling textbook. Levy is the author of "Family Therapy: History, Theory, and Practice," which was the first textbook on the topic available to Russian readers. His Levy Optimism-Pessimism Scale (LOPS) has been utilized internationally in a variety of research contexts, and he is a member of the Board of Editors for the Journal of Humanistic Psychology.
Levy is also the author of numerous satirical articles, including "The Emperor's Postmodern Clothes: A Brief Guide to Deconstructing Academically Fashionable Phrases for the Uninitiated," "How to Be a Good Psychotherapy Patient," "Psychometric Infallibility Realized: The One-Size-Fits-All Psychological Profile," "Stinks and Instincts: An Empirical Investigation of Freud's Excreta Theory," and "A Proposed Category for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM): Pervasive Labeling Disorder."
As a media consultant, Levy has appeared on dozens television and radio broadcasts (including CNN, CBS, NBC, PBS, A&E, and E!), providing psychological perspectives on current events, and examining issues and trends in the mental health fields. He has also worked as a professional director, producer, writer and actor in motion pictures, television and stage. He received an Emmy nomination for Outstanding Performance in a Network Television Series, and he was a guest star on the television series "Cheers," where he portrayed the leader of Frasier's low self-esteem group.
Found in this Section:
1. Brief Table of Contents
2. Full Table of Contents
1. BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1 Understanding Cross-Cultural Psychology
Chapter 2 Methodology of Cross-Cultural Research
Chapter 3 Critical Thinking in Cross-Cultural Psychology
Chapter 4 Cognition: Sensation, Perception, and States of Consciousness
Chapter 5 Intelligence
Chapter 6 Emotion
Chapter 7 Motivation and Behavior
Chapter 8 Human Development and Socialization
Chapter 9 Psychological Disorders
Chapter 10 Social Perception and Social Cognition
Chapter 11 Social Interaction
Chapter 12 Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology: Some Highlights
2. FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1: Understanding Cross-Cultural Psychology
What Is Cross-Cultural Psychology?
Empirical Examination of Culture
Collectivism and Individualism: Further Research
The Cultural Mixtures Approach
The Integrative Approach: A Summary
A Brief History of the Field
Chapter 2: Methodology of Cross-Cultural Research
Goals of Cross-Cultural Research
Quantitative Research in Cross-Cultural Psychology
Quantitative Approach: Measurement Scales
Quantitative Approach: Looking for Links and Differences
Qualitative Approach in Cross-Cultural Psychology
Major Steps for Preparation of a Cross-Cultural Study
Observation in Cross-Cultural Psychology
Meta-Analysis: Research of Research
A Hidden Obstacle of Cross-Cultural Studies: Test Translation
Comparing Two Phenomena: Some Important Principles
On Similarities and Differences: Some Critical Thinking Applications
Avoiding Bias of Generalizations
Know More about Cultures You Examine
Chapter 3: Critical Thinking in Cross-Cultural Psychology
The Evaluative Bias of Language: To Describe Is to Prescribe
Differentiating Dichotomous Variables and Continuous Variables: Black and White, or Shades of Gray?
The Similarity–Uniqueness Paradox: All Phenomena Are Both Similar and Different
The Barnum Effect: "One-Size-Fits-All" Descriptions
The Assimilation Bias: Viewing the World through Schema-Colored Glasses
The Representativeness Bias: Fits and Misfits of Categorization
The Availability Bias: The Persuasive Power of Vivid Events
The Fundamental Attribution Error: Underestimating the Impact of External Influences
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: When Expectations Create Reality
Correlation Does Not Prove Causation: Confusing "What" with "Why"
Bidirectional Causation and Multiple Causation: Causal Loops and Compound Pathways
The Naturalistic Fallacy: Blurring the Line between "Is" and "Should"
The Belief Perseverance Effect: "Don’t Confuse Me with the Facts!"
Conclusions: "To Metathink or Not to Metathink?"
Chapter 4: Cognition: Sensation, Perception, and States of Consciousness
Sensation and Perception: Basic Principles
How Culture Influences What We Perceive 106
How People Perceive Pictures
Perception of Depth
Are People Equally Misled by Visual Illusions?
Some Cultural Patterns of Drawing
Perception of Color
Perception of Time
Perception of the Beautiful
Perception of Music
Consciousness and Culture
Sleep and Cultural Significance of Dreams
Beyond Altered States of Consciousness
Chapter 5: Intelligence
Ethnic Differences in IQ Scores
Explaining Group Differences in Test Scores: Intelligence and Intelligent Behavior
Do Biological Factors Contribute to Intelligence?
Incompatibility of Tests: Cultural Biases
A Word about "Cultural Literacy"
Environment and Intelligence
The Family Factor
"Natural Selection" and IQ Scores
Cultural Values of Cognition
General Cognition: What Is "Underneath" Intelligence?
Cognitive Skills, School Grades, and Educational Systems
Culture, Tests, and Motivation
IQ, Culture, and Social Justice
And in the End, Moral Values
Chapter 6: Emotion
When We Laugh We Are Happy: Similarities of Emotional Experience
You Cannot Explain Pain if You Have Never Been Hurt: Differences in Emotional Experience
Emotions: Different or Universal?
The Meaning of Preceding Events
Emotion as an Evaluation
We Are Expected to Feel in a Particular Way
How People Assess Emotional Experience 1
When Emotions Signal a Challenge: Cross-Cultural Research on Stress and Anxiety
Expression of Emotion
When Emotion Hurts: Cross-Cultural Studies of Anger
Emotion and Inclination to Act
Emotion and Judgment
Chapter 7: Motivation and Behavior
A Glance into Evolution
Social Science: See the Society First
Drive and Arousal: Two Universal Mechanisms of Motivation
The Power of the Unconscious: Psychoanalysis
Learning and Motivation
A Carrot and a Beef Tongue: Hunger and Food Preference
When Hunger Causes Distress: Eating Disorders
Victory and Harmony: Achievement Motivation
Aggressive Motivation and Violence
Culture and Sexuality
Sex and Sexuality: Some Cross-Cultural Similarities
Chapter 8: Human Development and Socialization
Development and Socialization
Quality of Life and the Child’s Development
Norms, Customs, and Child Care
Parental Values and Expectations
Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
Stages of Moral Development According to Kohlberg
Life before Birth: Prenatal Period
First Steps: Infancy
Discovering the World: Childhood
Major Rehearsal: Adolescence
Chapter 9: Psychological Disorders
American Background: DSM-IV
Two Views on Culture and Psychopathology
Culture and Suicide
Is Substance Abuse Culturally Bound?
Chapter 10: Social Perception and Social Cognition
Western and Non-Western Values
Striving for Consistency: The Cognitive Balance Theory
Avoiding Inconsistency: Cognitive Dissonance
Attribution as Locus of Control
Attribution of Success and Failure
Do Social Norms Affect the Way We See Our Own Body?
Duty and Fairness in Individualist and Collectivist Cultures
Stereotypes and the Power of Generalizations
On "National Character"
Chapter 11: Social Interaction
Direct Contacts and Body Language
Is Conformity Universal across Cultures?
Feeling Good about Some Views
Is Social Loafing Universal?
Cooperation and Competition
Chapter 12: Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology: Some Highlights
Spirituality, Science, and Health
Working with Immigrants
Culture, Behavior, and the Law
Working and Serving Abroad
Religion: A Campus Context