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Crossroads and Cultures: A History of the World's Peoplesincorporates the best current cultural history into a fresh and original narrative that connects global patterns of development with life on the ground. As the title, "Crossroads," suggests, this new synthesis highlights the places and times where people exchanged goods and commodities, shared innovations and ideas, waged war and spread disease, and in doing so joined their lives to the broad sweep of global history. Students benefit from a strong pedagogical design, abundant maps and images, and special features that heighten the narrative's attention to the lives and voices of the world's peoples. Test drive a chapter today.Find out how.
Bonnie G. Smith (PhD, University of Rochester) is Board of Governors Professor of History at Rutgers University. She has written numerous works in European and global history, including Ladies of the Leisure Class; Changing Lives: Women in European History since 1700; and Imperialism. She is editor of Global Feminisms since 1945 and Women’s History in Global Perspective; coeditor of the New Oxford World History series; and general editor of The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History. Currently she is studying the globalization of European culture and society since the seventeenth century.
Marc Van De Mieroop (PhD, Yale University) is Professor of History at Columbia University. His research focuses on the ancient history of the Near East from a long-term perspective and extends across traditionally established disciplinary boundaries. Among his many works are The Ancient Mesopotamian City; Cuneiform Texts and the Writing of History; A History of the Ancient Near East; The Eastern Mediterranean in the Age of Ramesses II; and A History of Ancient Egypt.
Richard von Glahn (PhD, Yale University) is Professor of History at the University of California, Los Angeles. A specialist in Chinese economic history, Richard is the author of The Country of Streams and Grottoes: Expansion, Settlement, and the Civilizing of the Sichuan Frontier in Song Times; Fountain of Fortune: Money and Monetary Policy in China, 1000–1700; and The Sinister Way: The Divine and the Demonic in Chinese Religious Culture. He is also coeditor of The Song-Yuan-Ming Transition in Chinese History and Global Connections and Monetary History, 1470–1800. His current research focuses on monetary history on a global scale, from ancient times to the recent past.
Kris Lane (PhD, University of Minnesota) is the France V. Scholes Chair in Colonial Latin American History at Tulane University. Kris specializes in colonial Latin American history and the Atlantic world, and his great hope is to globalize the teaching and study of the early Americas. His publications include Pillaging the Empire: Piracy in the Americas, 1500–1750; Quito 1599: City and Colony in Transition; and Colour of Paradise: The Emerald in the Age of Gunpowder Empires. He also edited Bernardo de Vargas Machuca’s The Indian Militia and Description of the Indies and Defense and Discourse of the Western Conquest.
Table of Contents
Note: All chapters close with a Conclusion, Resources for Research, and a full-page Review section.
PART 1: The Ancient World, from Human Origins to 500 C.E.
1. Peopling the World, to 4000 B.C.E. Major GlobalDevelopment:The adaptation of early humans to their environment and their eventual domestication of plants and animals. Human Origins Paleolithic Food Gatherers, 2,000,000–9000 B.C.E. The First Neolithic Farmers, 9000–4000 B.C.E. COUNTERPOINT: Gatherer-Hunters By Choice: Aborigines of Australia READING THE PAST: Fossil Hunting SEEING THE PAST: Paleolithic Statuettes of Women SEEING THE PAST: Saharan Rock Art LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: The People of Çatal Höyük
2. Temples and Palaces: Birth of the City, 5000–1200 B.C.E. Major Global Development:The rise of urban society and the creation of states in Southwest Asia. Origins of Urban Society: Mesopotamia, 5000–3200 B.C.E. The First Cities, 3200–1600 B.C.E. City Life and Learning The First International Order, 1600–1200 B.C.E. COUNTERPOINT: Egypt’s Distinct Path to Statehood SEEING THE PAST: The Uruk Vase READING THE PAST: Royal Inscriptions from Early Mesopotamia SEEING THE PAST: The Palette of Narmer LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: The Pyramid Builders of the Pharaohs
3. Settlers and Migrants: The Creation of States in Asia, 5000–500 B.C.E. Major Global Development:The rise of large urban states in Asia and the interactions between nomadic and settled peoples that shaped them. Early Agricultural Societies of South and East Asia, 5000–1000 B.C.E. The Indus Valley Culture, 2600–1900 B.C.E. Indo-European Migrations, 3000–1000 B.C.E. India’s Vedic Age, 1500–500 B.C.E. The Early Chinese Dynasties, 2000–771 B.C.E. COUNTERPOINT: The Oxus People: A Short-Lived Culture in Central Asia, 2100–1700 B.C.E. SEEING THE PAST: Inscribed Seals from the Indus Valley READING THE PAST: The Upanishads LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Chinese Diviners READING THE PAST: The Chinese Book of Songs
4. Creation of Empire: North Africa and Southwest Asia, 1550–330 B.C.E. Major Global Development:The rise of empires and the variety and consequences of imperial rule. Imperial Egypt and Nubia, 1550 B.C.E.–330 C.E. Rise and Fall of the Assyrian Empire, 900–612 B.C.E. The Persian Empire, 550–330 B.C.E. COUNTERPOINT: Assimilation and Resistance: The Peoples of Israel and Judah READING THE PAST: Akhenaten Praises His God, Aten SEEING THE PAST: The Queen of Meroe in Battle LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Mesopotamian Astronomers READING THE PAST: The God Yahweh and the People of Israel Form a Covenant
5. The Greeks and the Wider World, 1200–30 B.C.E. Major Global Development:The cultural and political innovations of the ancient Greeks and the expansion of Greek ideals and institutions. The Development of Ancient Greek Culture, 1200–500 B.C.E. The Persian Wars, Classical Greece, and the Concept of Cultural Difference 500–338 B.C.E. Hellenism: The Expansion of Greek Ideals and Institutions, 323–30 B.C.E. COUNTERPOINT: The Celtic Peoples of the Atlantic Zone READING THE PAST: Pericles Praises the Democratic Ideal LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Philosophers of Athens’s Golden Age READING THE PAST: Semonides Catalogs the Evils of Women SEEING THE PAST: The Vix Crater: A Greek Vessel in Northern France
6. Peoples and World Empires: Classical India, the Kushan Empire, and China, 500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. Major Global Development:The revolutionary religious and cultural developments in India and China that took place between 500 B.C.E. and 500 C.E. and remained fundamental to the history of Asia. India: Thinkers, Traders, and Courtly Cultures, 500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. The Kushan Peoples of Central Asia, 100 B.C.E.–233 C.E. China’s First Empires: The Qin and Han Dynasties, 500 B.C.E.–200 C.E. COUNTERPOINT: Tamil Kingdoms of South India READING THE PAST: A Family of Chinese Historians Trace Early Kushan History SEEING THE PAST: Kushan Coins LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Papermakers READING THE PAST: Women in Han China
7. The Unification of Western Eurasia, 500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. Major Global Development: The unification of western Eurasia under the Roman Empire. Rome: A Republican Center of Power, 500–27 B.C.E. Rome: The Empire, 27 B.C.E.–212 C.E. Christianity: From Jewish Sect to Imperial Religion Transformation of the Roman Empire, 200–500 C.E. COUNTERPOINT: Rome’s Iranian Rivals in the Middle East LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Roman Engineers SEEING THE PAST: The Augustan Cameo Gem READING THE PAST: A Young Woman Laments Her Premature Death READING THE PAST: A Sasanid Account of the Wars with Rome
8. Reading the Unwritten Record: Peoples of Africa, the Americas, and the Pacific Islands, 3000 B.C.E.–500 C.E. Major Global Development: The evolution of ancient cultures without writing and their fundamental role in world history. Peoples of Sub-Saharan Africa Peoples of the Americas Peoples of the Pacific Islands COUNTERPOINT: The Voiced and Voiceless in Ancient Literate Societies LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Potters of Antiquity READING THE PAST: The La Mojarra Stele SEEING THE PAST: Early Maya Frescoes SEEING THE PAST: The Archaeological Site of Talepakemalai
PART 2: The Formation of Regional Societies, 500–1450 C.E.
9. The Worlds of Christianity and Islam, c. 400–100 Major Global Development: The spread of Christianity and Islam and the profound impact of these world religions on the societies of Western Eurasia and North Africa. Multiple Christianities, 400–850 Social and Political Renewal in the Post-Roman World, 400–850 The Rise and Spread of Islam, 610–750 From Unified Caliphate to Islamic Commonwealth, 750–1000 COUNTERPOINT: The Norse Vikings: The New Barbarians SEEING THE PAST: Mary as Mother of God LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Constantinople’s Silk Producers READING THE PAST: Women and Property in Islam READING THE PAST: The Pact of Umar
10. Religion and Cross-Cultural Exchange in Asia, 400–1000 Major Global Development: The cultural and commercial exchanges during the heyday of the Silk Road that transformed Asian peoples, cultures, and states. Steppe Peoples and Settled Societies of Central Asia The Shaping of East Asia Consolidation of Hindu Society in India The Diffusion of Indian Traditions to Southeast Asia COUNTERPOINT: Sogdian Traders in Central Asia and China LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Tea Drinkers in Tang China READING THE PAST: A Copper-Plate Land Grant Inscription SEEING THE PAST: Borobudur: The World’s Largest Buddhist Monument READING THE PAST: Letters from a Sogdian Castaway
11. Societies and Networks in the Americas and the Pacific, 300–1200
Major Global Development: The formation of distinctive regional cultures in the Americas and the Pacific Islands between 300 and 1200. The Classical Age of Mesoamerica and Its Aftermath City and State Building in the Andean Region Agrarian Societies in North America Habitat and Adaptation in the Pacific Islands COUNTERPOINT: Social Complexity in Bougainville READING THE PAST: The Maya Hero Twins Vanquish the Lords of the Underworld SEEING THE PAST: Images of Power in Tiwanaku Art LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: The North American Mound-Builders SEEING THE PAST: Symbols of Fertility in Cahokian Sculpture
12. The Rise of Commerce in Afro-Eurasia, 900–1300 Major Global Development: The sustained economic expansion that spread across Eurasia and Africa between the tenth and fourteenth centuries. Agricultural Innovation and Diffusion Industrial Growth and the Money Economy Merchants and Trade Networks in Eurasia and Africa COUNTERPOINT: Production, Tribute, and Trade in the Hawaiian Islands, 800–1650 SEEING THE PAST: Imitation and Innovation in Islamic Coinage READING THE PAST: The Commenda Partnership Among Venetian Merchants READING THE PAST: A Chinese Official’s Reflections on Managing Family Property LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS : The Mande Blacksmiths
13. Centers of Learning and the Transmission of Culture, 900–1300 Major Global Development: The expansion of learning and education across Eurasia in the period from 900 to 1300 and its relationship with the rise of regional and national identities. Church and Universities in Latin Christendom Students and Scholars in Islamic Societies The Cosmopolitan and Vernacular Realms in India and Southeast Asia Learning, Schools, and Print Culture in East Asia COUNTERPOINT: Writing and Political Power in Mesoamerica LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Medical Professionals of Latin Christendom READING THE PAST: Ibn Khaldun on Study and Learning SEEING THE PAST: A Revolution in Islamic Calligraphy READING THE PAST: Lady Murasaki on Her Peers Among Women Writers
14. Crusaders, Mongols, and Eurasian Integration, 1050–1350 Major Global Development: The Eurasian integration fostered by the clashes of culture known as the Crusades and the Mongol conquests. The Crusades and the Imperial Papacy, 1050–1350 The Making of Christian Europe, 1100–1350 The Mongol World-Empire, 1100–1368 The Mongol Khanates and the Islamic World, 1240–1350 COUNTERPOINT: The “New Knighthood” of the Christian Military Orders READING THE PAST: A Muslim Courtier’s Encounters with the Franks SEEING THE PAST: The Mappaemundi of Latin Christendom READING THE PAST: Bernard of Clairvaux’s Summons to the Wendish Crusade LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Mongol Women in the Household Economy and Public Life
15. Collapse and Revival in Afro-Eurasia, 1300–1450 Major Global Development: Crisis and recovery in fourteenth- and fifteenth-century Afro-Eurasia. Fourteenth-Century Crisis and Renewal in Eurasia Islam’s New Frontiers The Global Bazaar COUNTERPOINT: Age of the Samurai in Japan, 1185–1450 READING THE PAST: A French Theologian’s View of the Black Death READING THE PAST: A Spanish Ambassador’s Description of Samarqand LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Urban Weavers in India SEEING THE PAST: Leonardo da Vinci's Madonna of the Rocks
PART 3: The Early Modern World, 1450–1750
16. Empires and Alternatives in the Americas, 1430–1530 Major Global Development: The diversity of societies and states in the Americas prior to European invasion. Many Native Americas Tributes of Blood: The Aztec Empire, 1325–1521 Tributes of Sweat: The Inca Empire, 1430–1532 COUNTERPOINT: The Peoples of North America's Eastern Woodlands, 1450–1530 SEEING THE PAST: An Aztec Map of Tenochtitlán SEEING THE PAST: The Coyolxauhqui Stone LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: The Aztec Midwife READING THE PAST: An Andean Creation Story
17. The Fall of Native American Empires and the Rise of an Atlantic World, 1450–1600 Major Global Development: European expansion across the Atlantic and its profound consequences for societies and cultures worldwide. Guns, Sails, and Compasses: Europeans Venture Abroad New Crossroads, First Encounters: The European Voyages of Discovery, 1492–1521 Spanish Conquests in the Americas, 1519–1600 A New Empire in the Americas: New Spain and Peru, 1535–1600 Brazil by Accident: The Portuguese in the Americas, 1500–1600 COUNTERPOINT: The Mapuche of Chile: Native America’s Indomitable State READING THE PAST: Tlatelolcan Elders Recall the Conquest of Mexico SEEING THE PAST: Malintzin and the Meeting between Moctezuma and Cortés READING THE PAST: First Encounter in Brazil: Cabral’s Report to King Manoel of Portugal LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Atlantic Sugar Producers
18. Western Africa in the Era of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1450-1800 Major Global Development: The rise of the Atlantic slave trade and its impact on early modern African peoples and cultures. Many Western Africas Landlords and Strangers: Peoples and States in West Africa Land of the Blacksmith Kings: West Central Africa Strangers in Ships: Gold, Slavery, and the Portuguese Northern Europeans and the Expansion of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600–1800 COUNTERPOINT: The Pygmies of Central Africa LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: West Africa’s Gold Miners READING THE PAST: Al-Sa’di, “Jenne and Its History” SEEING THE PAST: Art of the Slave Trade: A Benin Bronze Plaque READING THE PAST: Alonso de Sandoval, “General Points Relating to Slavery”
19. Trade and Empire in the Indian Ocean and South Asia, 1450–1750 Major Global Development: The Indian Ocean trading network and the impact of European intrusion on maritime and mainland South Asia. Trading Cities and Inland Networks: East Africa Trade and Empire in South Asia European Interlopers COUNTERPOINT: Aceh: Fighting Back in Southeast Asia READING THE PAST: Portuguese Report of a Vijayanagara Festival SEEING THE PAST: Reflections of the Divine in a Mughal Emerald LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Cinnamon Harvesters in Ceylon READING THE PAST: Dutch Merchants Learn How to Act in Aceh
20. Consolidation and Conflict in Europe and the Greater Mediterranean, 1450–1750 Major Global Development: Early modern Europe’s increasing competition and division in the face of Ottoman expansion. The Power of the Ottoman Empire, 1453–1750 Europe Divided, 1500–1650 European Innovations in Science and Government, 1550–1750 COUNTERPOINT: The Barbary Pirates READING THE PAST: Weapons of Mass Destruction: Ottomans vs. Persians in Baghdad LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Ottoman Coffeehouse Owners and Patrons SEEING THE PAST: Gift Clocks for the Emperors of China READING THE PAST: An Exiled European Muslim Visits the Netherlands
21. Expansion and Isolation in Asia, 1450–1750 Major Global Development: The general trend toward political and cultural consolidation in early modern Asia. Straddling Eurasia: Rise of the Russian Empire, 1462–1725 China from Ming to Qing Rule, 1500–1800 Japan in Transition, 1540–1750 Korea, a Land in Between, 1392–1750 Consolidation in Mainland Southeast Asia, 1500–1750 COUNTERPOINT: “Spiritual Conquest” in the Philippines SEEING THE PAST: Blue-on-White: Ming Export Porcelain LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Silk Weavers in China READING THE PAST: Selections from the Hidden Christians’ Sacred Book READING THE PAST: Scenes from the Daily Life of a Korean Queen
22. Transforming New Worlds: The American Colonies Mature, 1600–1750 Major Global Development: The profound social, cultural, and environmental changes in the Americas under colonial rule. The World that Silver Made: Spanish America, 1570–1750 Gold, Diamonds, and the Transformation of Brazil, 1695–1800 Bitter Sugar, Part Two: Slavery and Colonialism in the Caribbean, 1625–1750 Growth and Change in British and French North America, 1607–1750 COUNTERPOINT: The Maroons of Suriname READING THE PAST: An Iraqi Traveler’s Impressions of Potosí SEEING THE PAST: The Gentlemen from Esmeraldas LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Caribbean Buccaneers READING THE PAST: A Swedish Traveler’s Description of Quebec
PART 4: The World from 1750 to the Present
23. Atlantic Revolutions and the World, 1750–1830
Major Global Development: The Atlantic revolutions and their short- and long-term significance. The Promise of Enlightenment Revolution in North America The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Empire Revolution Continued in the Western Hemisphere COUNTERPOINT: Religious Revival in a Secular Age SEEING THE PAST: Portrait of Catherine the Great LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Arrival of the Cowboy READING THE PAST: Simon Bolivar on Latin American Independence READING THE PAST: Phillis Wheatley, “On Being Brought from Africa to America”
24. Industry and Everyday Life, 1750–1900 Major Global Development: The Industrial Revolution and its impact on societies and cultures throughout the world. The Industrial Revolution Begins, 1750–1830 Industrialization After 1830 The Industrial Revolution and the World Industry and Society The Culture of Industry COUNTERPOINT: African Women and Slave Agriculture READING THE PAST: Industry Comes to the British Countryside LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Builders of the Trans-Siberian Railroad SEEING THE PAST: Japan’s Industrious Society READING THE PAST: Mexican Women on Strike
25. The Rise of Modern Nation-States, 1850–1900 Major Global Development: The causes and consequences of nation building in the nineteenth century. Modernizing Nations Emerging Powers: The United States and Japan The Culture of Nations COUNTERPOINT: Outsiders Inside the Nation-State READING THE PAST: The Russian People Under Serfdom SEEING THE PAST: The Korean Flag LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Historians of the Nation-State READING THE PAST: Good Wives, Wise Mothers Build Japan
26. Imperial Order and Disorder, 1850–1914 Major Global Development: The accelerated competition among nineteenth-century nation-states for empire. Building Empires Imperial Society Culture in an Imperial Age Imperial Contests at the Dawn of the Twentieth Century COUNTERPOINT: The West Copies from the World READING THE PAST: Rubber Workers in Congo SEEING THE PAST: Colonial Architecture in Saigon LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Indentured Laborers READING THE PAST: The United States Overthrows the Hawaiian Queen
27. Wars, Revolutions, and the Birth of Mass Society, 1910–1929 Major Global Development: The wars of the decade 1910 to 1920 and their role in the creation of mass culture and society. Revolutions, Local Wars, and World War Revolution in Russia and the End of World War I Postwar Global Politics An Age of the Masses COUNTERPOINT A Golden Age for Argentinians SEEING THE PAST: Wartime Propaganda READING THE PAST: Communism Spreads in China READING THE PAST: Léopold Sédar Senghor, “To the Senegalese Sharpshooters Dead for France” LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: The Film Industry
28. Global Catastrophe: The Great Depression and World War II 1929–1945
Major Global Development: The causes and outcomes of the Great Depression and World War II. 1929: The Great Depression Begins Militarizing the Masses in the 1930s Global War, 1937–1945 From Allied Victory to the Cold War, 1943–1945 COUNTERPOINT Nonviolence and Pacifism in an Age of War READING THE PAST: Promoting Business in the Great Depression READING THE PAST: “Comfort Women” in World War II LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Soldiers and Soldiering SEEING THE PAST: Technological Warfare: Civilization or Barbarism?
29. The Emergence of New Nations in a Cold War World, 1945–1970 Major Global Development: The political transformations of the postwar world and their social and cultural consequences. World Politics and the Cold War Decolonization and the Birth of Nations World Recovery in the 1950s and 1960s Cultural Dynamism Amid Cold War COUNTERPOINT The Bandung Conference, 1955 LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Cosmonauts and Astronauts READING THE PAST: Singing Against Imperialism SEEING THE PAST: African Liberation on Cloth READING THE PAST: The Great Leap Forward in China
30. Technological Transformation and the End of the Cold War, 1960–1992 Major Global Development. The technological revolution of the late twentieth century and its impact on societies and political developments around the world. Advances in Technology and Science Changes in the World Economy Politics and Protest in an Age of Cold War The End of the Cold War Order COUNTERPOINT: Agrarian Peoples in a Technological Age READING THE PAST: Japan Transforms Business Practices LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Global Tourism READING THE PAST: Terror and Resistance in El Salvador SEEING THE PAST: The Iranian Revolution as Visual News
31. A New Global Age, 1989 to the Present Major Global Development: The causes and consequences of intensified globalization. The Impact of Global Events on Regions and Nations Global Livelihoods and Institutions The Promises and Perils of Globalization Cultures without Borders COUNTERPOINT: Who Am I? Local Identity in a Globalizing World READING THE PAST: Testimony to South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission READING THE PAST: Assessing Livelihoods for Women in a Global Economy SEEING THE PAST: The Globalization of Urban Space LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Readers of the Qur’an