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Crossroads and Cultures: A History of the World's Peoplesincorporates the best current cultural history into a fresh and original narrative that connects global patterns of development with life on the ground. As the title, "Crossroads," suggests, this new synthesis highlights the places and times where people exchanged goods and commodities, shared innovations and ideas, waged war and spread disease, and in doing so joined their lives to the broad sweep of global history. Students benefit from a strong pedagogical design, abundant maps and images, and special features that heighten the narrative's attention to the lives and voices of the world's peoples. Test drive a chapter today.Find out how.
Bonnie G. Smith (PhD, University of Rochester) is Board of Governors Professor of History at Rutgers University. She has written numerous works in European and global history, including Ladies of the Leisure Class; Changing Lives: Women in European History since 1700; and Imperialism. She is editor of Global Feminisms since 1945 and Women’s History in Global Perspective; coeditor of the New Oxford World History series; and general editor of The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History. Currently she is studying the globalization of European culture and society since the seventeenth century.
Marc Van De Mieroop (PhD, Yale University) is Professor of History at Columbia University. His research focuses on the ancient history of the Near East from a long-term perspective and extends across traditionally established disciplinary boundaries. Among his many works are The Ancient Mesopotamian City; Cuneiform Texts and the Writing of History; A History of the Ancient Near East; The Eastern Mediterranean in the Age of Ramesses II; and A History of Ancient Egypt.
Richard von Glahn (PhD, Yale University) is Professor of History at the University of California, Los Angeles. A specialist in Chinese economic history, Richard is the author of The Country of Streams and Grottoes: Expansion, Settlement, and the Civilizing of the Sichuan Frontier in Song Times; Fountain of Fortune: Money and Monetary Policy in China, 1000–1700; and The Sinister Way: The Divine and the Demonic in Chinese Religious Culture. He is also coeditor of The Song-Yuan-Ming Transition in Chinese History and Global Connections and Monetary History, 1470–1800. His current research focuses on monetary history on a global scale, from ancient times to the recent past.
Kris Lane (PhD, University of Minnesota) is the France V. Scholes Chair in Colonial Latin American History at Tulane University. Kris specializes in colonial Latin American history and the Atlantic world, and his great hope is to globalize the teaching and study of the early Americas. His publications include Pillaging the Empire: Piracy in the Americas, 1500–1750; Quito 1599: City and Colony in Transition; and Colour of Paradise: The Emerald in the Age of Gunpowder Empires. He also edited Bernardo de Vargas Machuca’s The Indian Militia and Description of the Indies and Defense and Discourse of the Western Conquest.
Table of Contents
Note: All chapters close with a Conclusion, Resources for Research, and a full-page Review section.
15. Collapse and Revival in Afro-Eurasia, 1300–1450 Major Global Development: Crisis and recovery in fourteenth- and fifteenth-century Afro-Eurasia. Fourteenth-Century Crisis and Renewal in Eurasia Islam’s New Frontiers The Global Bazaar COUNTERPOINT: Age of the Samurai in Japan, 1185–1450 READING THE PAST: A French Theologian’s View of the Black Death READING THE PAST: A Spanish Ambassador’s Description of Samarqand LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Urban Weavers in India SEEING THE PAST: Leonardo da Vinci's Madonna of the Rocks
PART 3: The Early Modern World, 1450–1750
16. Empires and Alternatives in the Americas, 1430–1530 Major Global Development: The diversity of societies and states in the Americas prior to European invasion. Many Native Americas Tributes of Blood: The Aztec Empire, 1325–1521 Tributes of Sweat: The Inca Empire, 1430–1532 COUNTERPOINT: The Peoples of North America's Eastern Woodlands, 1450–1530 SEEING THE PAST: An Aztec Map of Tenochtitlán SEEING THE PAST: The Coyolxauhqui Stone LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: The Aztec Midwife READING THE PAST: An Andean Creation Story
17. The Fall of Native American Empires and the Rise of an Atlantic World, 1450–1600 Major Global Development: European expansion across the Atlantic and its profound consequences for societies and cultures worldwide. Guns, Sails, and Compasses: Europeans Venture Abroad New Crossroads, First Encounters: The European Voyages of Discovery, 1492–1521 Spanish Conquests in the Americas, 1519–1600 A New Empire in the Americas: New Spain and Peru, 1535–1600 Brazil by Accident: The Portuguese in the Americas, 1500–1600 COUNTERPOINT: The Mapuche of Chile: Native America’s Indomitable State READING THE PAST: Tlatelolcan Elders Recall the Conquest of Mexico SEEING THE PAST: Malintzin and the Meeting between Moctezuma and Cortés READING THE PAST: First Encounter in Brazil: Cabral’s Report to King Manoel of Portugal LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Atlantic Sugar Producers
18. Western Africa in the Era of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1450-1800 Major Global Development: The rise of the Atlantic slave trade and its impact on early modern African peoples and cultures. Many Western Africas Landlords and Strangers: Peoples and States in West Africa Land of the Blacksmith Kings: West Central Africa Strangers in Ships: Gold, Slavery, and the Portuguese Northern Europeans and the Expansion of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600–1800 COUNTERPOINT: The Pygmies of Central Africa LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: West Africa’s Gold Miners READING THE PAST: Al-Sa’di, “Jenne and Its History” SEEING THE PAST: Art of the Slave Trade: A Benin Bronze Plaque READING THE PAST: Alonso de Sandoval, “General Points Relating to Slavery”
19. Trade and Empire in the Indian Ocean and South Asia, 1450–1750 Major Global Development: The Indian Ocean trading network and the impact of European intrusion on maritime and mainland South Asia. Trading Cities and Inland Networks: East Africa Trade and Empire in South Asia European Interlopers COUNTERPOINT: Aceh: Fighting Back in Southeast Asia READING THE PAST: Portuguese Report of a Vijayanagara Festival SEEING THE PAST: Reflections of the Divine in a Mughal Emerald LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Cinnamon Harvesters in Ceylon READING THE PAST: Dutch Merchants Learn How to Act in Aceh
20. Consolidation and Conflict in Europe and the Greater Mediterranean, 1450–1750 Major Global Development: Early modern Europe’s increasing competition and division in the face of Ottoman expansion. The Power of the Ottoman Empire, 1453–1750 Europe Divided, 1500–1650 European Innovations in Science and Government, 1550–1750 COUNTERPOINT: The Barbary Pirates READING THE PAST: Weapons of Mass Destruction: Ottomans vs. Persians in Baghdad LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Ottoman Coffeehouse Owners and Patrons SEEING THE PAST: Gift Clocks for the Emperors of China READING THE PAST: An Exiled European Muslim Visits the Netherlands
21. Expansion and Isolation in Asia, 1450–1750 Major Global Development: The general trend toward political and cultural consolidation in early modern Asia. Straddling Eurasia: Rise of the Russian Empire, 1462–1725 China from Ming to Qing Rule, 1500–1800 Japan in Transition, 1540–1750 Korea, a Land in Between, 1392–1750 Consolidation in Mainland Southeast Asia, 1500–1750 COUNTERPOINT: “Spiritual Conquest” in the Philippines SEEING THE PAST: Blue-on-White: Ming Export Porcelain LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Silk Weavers in China READING THE PAST: Selections from the Hidden Christians’ Sacred Book READING THE PAST: Scenes from the Daily Life of a Korean Queen
22. Transforming New Worlds: The American Colonies Mature, 1600–1750 Major Global Development: The profound social, cultural, and environmental changes in the Americas under colonial rule. The World that Silver Made: Spanish America, 1570–1750 Gold, Diamonds, and the Transformation of Brazil, 1695–1800 Bitter Sugar, Part Two: Slavery and Colonialism in the Caribbean, 1625–1750 Growth and Change in British and French North America, 1607–1750 COUNTERPOINT: The Maroons of Suriname READING THE PAST: An Iraqi Traveler’s Impressions of Potosí SEEING THE PAST: The Gentlemen from Esmeraldas LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Caribbean Buccaneers READING THE PAST: A Swedish Traveler’s Description of Quebec
PART 4: The World from 1750 to the Present
23. Atlantic Revolutions and the World, 1750–1830
Major Global Development: The Atlantic revolutions and their short- and long-term significance. The Promise of Enlightenment Revolution in North America The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Empire Revolution Continued in the Western Hemisphere COUNTERPOINT: Religious Revival in a Secular Age SEEING THE PAST: Portrait of Catherine the Great LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Arrival of the Cowboy READING THE PAST: Simon Bolivar on Latin American Independence READING THE PAST: Phillis Wheatley, “On Being Brought from Africa to America”
24. Industry and Everyday Life, 1750–1900 Major Global Development: The Industrial Revolution and its impact on societies and cultures throughout the world. The Industrial Revolution Begins, 1750–1830 Industrialization After 1830 The Industrial Revolution and the World Industry and Society The Culture of Industry COUNTERPOINT: African Women and Slave Agriculture READING THE PAST: Industry Comes to the British Countryside LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Builders of the Trans-Siberian Railroad SEEING THE PAST: Japan’s Industrious Society READING THE PAST: Mexican Women on Strike
25. The Rise of Modern Nation-States, 1850–1900 Major Global Development: The causes and consequences of nation building in the nineteenth century. Modernizing Nations Emerging Powers: The United States and Japan The Culture of Nations COUNTERPOINT: Outsiders Inside the Nation-State READING THE PAST: The Russian People Under Serfdom SEEING THE PAST: The Korean Flag LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Historians of the Nation-State READING THE PAST: Good Wives, Wise Mothers Build Japan
26. Imperial Order and Disorder, 1850–1914 Major Global Development: The accelerated competition among nineteenth-century nation-states for empire. Building Empires Imperial Society Culture in an Imperial Age Imperial Contests at the Dawn of the Twentieth Century COUNTERPOINT: The West Copies from the World READING THE PAST: Rubber Workers in Congo SEEING THE PAST: Colonial Architecture in Saigon LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Indentured Laborers READING THE PAST: The United States Overthrows the Hawaiian Queen
27. Wars, Revolutions, and the Birth of Mass Society, 1910–1929 Major Global Development: The wars of the decade 1910 to 1920 and their role in the creation of mass culture and society. Revolutions, Local Wars, and World War Revolution in Russia and the End of World War I Postwar Global Politics An Age of the Masses COUNTERPOINT A Golden Age for Argentinians SEEING THE PAST: Wartime Propaganda READING THE PAST: Communism Spreads in China READING THE PAST: Léopold Sédar Senghor, “To the Senegalese Sharpshooters Dead for France” LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: The Film Industry
28. Global Catastrophe: The Great Depression and World War II 1929–1945
Major Global Development: The causes and outcomes of the Great Depression and World War II. 1929: The Great Depression Begins Militarizing the Masses in the 1930s Global War, 1937–1945 From Allied Victory to the Cold War, 1943–1945 COUNTERPOINT Nonviolence and Pacifism in an Age of War READING THE PAST: Promoting Business in the Great Depression READING THE PAST: “Comfort Women” in World War II LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Soldiers and Soldiering SEEING THE PAST: Technological Warfare: Civilization or Barbarism?
29. The Emergence of New Nations in a Cold War World, 1945–1970 Major Global Development: The political transformations of the postwar world and their social and cultural consequences. World Politics and the Cold War Decolonization and the Birth of Nations World Recovery in the 1950s and 1960s Cultural Dynamism Amid Cold War COUNTERPOINT The Bandung Conference, 1955 LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Cosmonauts and Astronauts READING THE PAST: Singing Against Imperialism SEEING THE PAST: African Liberation on Cloth READING THE PAST: The Great Leap Forward in China
30. Technological Transformation and the End of the Cold War, 1960–1992 Major Global Development. The technological revolution of the late twentieth century and its impact on societies and political developments around the world. Advances in Technology and Science Changes in the World Economy Politics and Protest in an Age of Cold War The End of the Cold War Order COUNTERPOINT: Agrarian Peoples in a Technological Age READING THE PAST: Japan Transforms Business Practices LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Global Tourism READING THE PAST: Terror and Resistance in El Salvador SEEING THE PAST: The Iranian Revolution as Visual News
31. A New Global Age, 1989 to the Present Major Global Development: The causes and consequences of intensified globalization. The Impact of Global Events on Regions and Nations Global Livelihoods and Institutions The Promises and Perils of Globalization Cultures without Borders COUNTERPOINT: Who Am I? Local Identity in a Globalizing World READING THE PAST: Testimony to South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission READING THE PAST: Assessing Livelihoods for Women in a Global Economy SEEING THE PAST: The Globalization of Urban Space LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Readers of the Qur’an